Speaker of the Riksdag
|Speaker of the Riksdag
The three crowns, as used by the Riksdag
Swedish: Herr talman
|Residence||no official residence|
|Nominator||The Prime Minister|
|Appointer||The Alderman (longest serving member),|
following a vote in the Riksdag
|Term length||Four years (de facto)|
a vote is always held after a general election
|Inaugural holder||Henry Allard (unicameral riksdag)|
|Deputy||Three deputy speakers|
|Salary||annual: 2,112,000 SEK|
The Riksdag underwent profound changes in 1867, when the medieval Riksdag of the Estates was abolished. The new form of the Riksdag included two elected chambers, each with its own speaker. Since the de facto introduction of parliamentarism in 1917, the Riksdag has properly functioned as the institution to which the Prime Minister and the Government are held accountable. In 1971 the institution was transformed into a unicameral legislature with 350 members, reduced to 349 in 1976 to avoid parliamentary deadlocks. Since 1975, in accordance with the Instrument of Government of 1974, it is the speaker and no longer the Monarch who appoints and dismisses the Prime Minister.
Duties of the speaker
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politics and government of
The speaker is the head and presiding officer of the Riksdag, and is elected by the chamber as the first order of business when the Riksdag re-convenes following a general election. As such the speaker coordinates the work that takes place in the Riksdag. The office is mandated in the Swedish constitution and the duties of the office are set out on the Instrument of Government (1974) and the Riksdag Act.
The speaker does not take part in the debates, nor does the speaker participate in the parliamentary committees. While the Speaker is one of the elected representatives of the Riksdag, the speaker is expected to remain unbiased and objective with regards to the political issues that are debated. The speaker has no vote in the Riksdag, but the incumbent could use their vote as a member of the Riksdag if a tie appears.
The position of speaker is the second highest ranked public position in Sweden. In terms of protocol, the Monarch outranks the speaker since the Monarch is the head of state. However, since that position is hereditary a person cannot be elected to become the monarch. In turn, the Speaker nominally outranks the Prime Minister of Sweden, who since the 1974-75 reforms is the country's de jure and de facto chief executive.
Appointment and Dismissal of Prime Minister
One of the more important aspects of the work of the speaker is to head negotiations concerning the forming of a new government in case there is a shift of power after an election. The speaker can then dismiss a prime minister who is voted out of office, which happened for the first time on 25 September 2018. After the negotiations, the speaker proposes the new prime ministerial candidate to the chamber, and following a positive vote, the speaker signs the commission (Swedish: förordnande) on behalf of the Riksdag. The Prime Minister appoints and dismisses their own cabinet ministers, forming the Government (Swedish: Regeringen), without the involvement of the Speaker.
In case of either a voluntary resignation or a vote of no confidence, the letter of resignation of a prime minister is handed to the speaker.
In most other parliamentary systems, including other constitutional monarchies, these duties are instead handled by the head of state. Relieving the Swedish Monarch from exercise of political powers, although not the key objective from the outset, became nevertheless an important part on the constitutional reform in the 1970s.
The speaker is assisted by three deputy speakers who are also elected by the chamber. Traditionally, the second, third and fourth largest parties gets to name of one of their members for these offices. There is some disagreement whether the largest party or the leading party of the largest party bloc should hold the speakership (and thus also the position of First deputy speaker). Unlike the speaker (and cabinet ministers), the deputy speakers are not replaced by an alternate and remain members of the Riksdag with voting rights.
Regent ad interim
In case all adult members of the Swedish Royal Family who are in the line of succession to the Throne, as prescribed in the Act of Succession, are out of the country, the Speaker assumes the role of Regent ad interim (Swedish: Riksföreståndare). This would also be the case if they were all to decease.
The Speaker chairs the Riksdag Board (Swedish: Riksdagsstyrelsen), which deliberates on the organisation of the work of the Riksdag, directs the work of the Riksdag Administration (Swedish: Riksdagsförvaltningen) and decides upon matters of major significance concerning the international contacts programme.
List of Speakers
Speakers of the bicameral Riksdag (1867–1970)
Speakers of the First Chamber (upper house)
- Gustaf Lagerbjelke (1867–1876)
- Henning Hamilton (1877)
- Anton Niklas Sundberg (1878–1880)
- Gustaf Lagerbjelke (1881–1891)
- Pehr von Ehrenheim (1891–1895)
- Gustaf Sparre (1896–1908)
- Christian Lundeberg (1909–1911)
- Ivar Afzelius (1912–1915)
- Hugo Hamilton (1916–1928)
- Axel Vennersten (1928–1936)
- Johan Nilsson (1937–1955)
- John Bergvall, Liberal (1956–1959)
- Gustaf Sundelin, Liberal (1959–1964)
- Erik Boheman, Liberal (1965–1970)
Speakers of the Second Chamber (lower house)
- Anton Niklas Sundberg (1867–1872)
- Ferdinand Asker (1873–1875)
- Arvid Posse (1876–1880)
- Olof Wijk (1880–1890)
- Gustaf Ryding (1891)
- Carl Herslow (1892–1893)
- Robert De la Gardie (1894–1902)
- Axel Swartling (1903–1912)
- Carl Bonde (1913)
- Johan Widén (1914–1917)
- Daniel Persson (1918)
- Herman Lindqvist, Social Democrat (1918–1921)
- Viktor Larsson, Social Democrat (1922–1923)
- Herman Lindqvist, Social Democrat (1924–1927)
- Viktor Larsson, Social Democrat (1927)
- Bernhard Eriksson, Social Democrat (1928–1932)
- August Sävström, Social Democrat (1933–1952)
- Gustaf Nilsson, Social Democrat (1953–1957)
- Sven Patrik Svensson (1958–1960)
- Fridolf Thapper, Social Democrat (1960–1968)
- Henry Allard, Social Democrat (1969–1970)
Speakers of the unicameral Riksdag (1971–present)
|Took office||Left office||Duration|
|15 January 1971||1 October 1979||8 years, 259 days||Social Democratic||1970|
|1 October 1979||3 October 1988||9 years, 2 days||Social Democratic||1979|
|Thage G. Peterson|
|3 October 1988||30 September 1991||2 years, 362 days||Social Democratic||1988||Stockholm County|
|30 September 1991||3 October 1994||3 years, 3 days||Moderate||1991||Uppsala County|
|3 October 1994||30 September 2002||7 years, 362 days||Social Democratic||1994|
|Björn von Sydow|
|30 September 2002||2 October 2006||4 years, 2 days||Social Democratic||2002||Stockholm County|
|2 October 2006||29 September 2014||7 years, 362 days||Moderate||2006|
|29 September 2014||24 September 2018||3 years, 360 days||Social Democratic||2014||Västra Götaland County|
|24 September 2018||Incumbent||1 year, 275 days||Moderate||2018||Östergötland County|
- Lantmarskalk, the presiding officer of the Estate of the Nobility in the Riksdag of the Estates before 1866.
- The Instrument of Government, in English (as of 2012) (PDF), The Riksdag (2012). Retrieved on 2012-11-13.
- "Frågor & svar samt statistik över ledamöternas arvoden" (in Swedish). Riksdag. Retrieved 2019-07-15.
- "Andreas Norlén Elected Speaker of the Riksdag". Publicnow. 24 September 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
- Article in Dagens Nyheter 2018-09-25
- The Speaker - At the Riksdag