Spearmint

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Spearmint
Minze.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Mentha
Species:
M. spicata
Binomial name
Mentha spicata
Synonyms

Mentha viridis

Spearmint (binomial Mentha spicata, synonym Mentha viridis), also known as garden mint, common mint, lamb mint and mackerel mint,[2][3] is a species of mint native to the Balkan Peninsula and Turkey.[4] It is naturalized in much of Europe and Asia (Middle East, Himalayas, China etc.), parts of northern and western Africa, North America, and South America, as well as various oceanic islands.[5][6][7][8]

Subspecies[5]
  1. Mentha spicata subsp. condensata (Briq.) Greuter & Burdet—Mediterranean region; naturalized in New Zealand
  2. Mentha spicata subsp. spicata—most of species range

Description[edit]

Spearmint in Bangladesh

Spearmint is a herbaceous, rhizomatous, perennial plant growing 30–100 cm tall, with variably hairless to hairy stems and foliage, and a wide-spreading fleshy underground rhizome. The leaves are 5–9 cm long and 1.5–3 cm broad, with a serrated margin. The stem is square-shaped, a trademark of the mint family of herbs. Spearmint produces flowers in slender spikes, each flower pink or white, 2.5–3 mm long, and broad.[6][9] The plant flowers from the months of July to September.[10] The spearmint plant has relatively larger pollen grains and seeds, which measure 37-42 mm and 0.62-0.90 mm respectively.[10]

Hybrids involving spearmint include Mentha × piperita (peppermint; hybrid with Mentha aquatica), Mentha × gracilis (ginger mint, syn. M. cardiaca; hybrid with Mentha arvensis), and Mentha × villosa (large apple mint, hybrid with Mentha suaveolens).

The name 'spear' mint derives from the pointed leaf tips.[11]

Genetics[edit]

The plant is a triploid species (2n=48), which could be a consequence of hybridization and chromosome doubling. Mentha longifolia and Mentha suaveolens (2n=24) are suspected to be the contributing diploid species. [10]

History and Domestication[edit]

John Gerard's Herbal (1597) states that: "It is good against watering eyes and all manner of break outs on the head and sores. It is applied with salt to the biting of mad dogs," and that "They lay it on the stinging of wasps and bees with good success." He also mentions that "the smell rejoice the heart of man", for which cause they used to strew it in chambers and places of recreation, pleasure and repose, where feasts and banquets are made."[12]

Mention of spearmint dates back to at least the first century AD, with references from naturalist Pliny and later mention in the bible [13][14]. Further records show descriptions of mint in ancient mythology[14]. Findings of early versions of toothpaste using mint in the 14th century suggest widespread domestication by this point[14]. It was introduced into England through the Romans by the 15th century, and the “Father of British Botany”, of the surname Turner, mentions mint as being good for ‘ye stomack’[14]. Spearmint is document as being an important cash crop in Connecticut during the period of the American Revolution, at which time mint teas were noted as being a popular drink due to them not being taxed[13].

Research suggests that Spearmint is an allopolyploid derivation of M. longifolia and  M. suaveolens[15], with varied leaf blade dimensions, prominence of leaf veins, and pubescence[16]. While spearmint is known to be native to Europe and Asia, its true natural range is unknown due to early domestication[17].

Ecology[edit]

Spearmint can readily adapt to grow in various types of soil. Spearmint tends to thrive with plenty of organic material in full sun to part shade. The plant is also known to be found in moist habitats such as swamps or creeks, where the soil is sand or clay. [18]

Spearmint ideally thrives in soils that are moist, rich in nutrients and organic matter, have a crumbly texture, and planted deeply. pH range should be between 6.0 —7.5. [19]

Diseases and Pests[edit]

Fungal diseases[edit]

Fungal diseases are common diseases in spearmint. Two main diseases are rust and leaf spot. Puccinia menthae is a fungus that causes the disease called “rust”. Rust affects the leaves of spearmint by producing pustules inducing the leaves to fall off. Leaf spot is a fungal disease that occurs when Alternaria alernatais present on the spearmint leaves. The infection looks like circular dark spot on the top side of the leaf. Other fungi that cause disease in spearmint are Rhizoctonia solani, Verticillium dahliae, Phoma stasseri, and Erysiphe cischoracearum. [20]

Nematode Diseases[edit]

Some nematode diseases in spearmint include root knot and root lesions. Nematode species that cause root knots in this plant are various Meloidogyne species. The other nematode species are Pratylenchus which cause root lesions. [20]

Viral and Phytoplasmal Diseases[edit]

Spearmint can be infected by tobacco ring spot virus. This virus can lead to stunted plant growth and deformation of the leaves in this plant. In China, spearmint have been seen with mosaic symptoms and deformed leaves. This is an indication that the plant can also be infected by the viruses, cucumber mosaic and tomato aspermy. [20]

Cultivation[edit]

Spearmint grows well in nearly all temperate climates. Gardeners often grow it in pots or planters due to its invasive, spreading rhizomes.

Spearmint leaves can be used fresh, dried, or frozen. They can also be preserved in salt, sugar, sugar syrup, alcohol, or oil. The leaves lose their aromatic appeal after the plant flowers. It can be dried by cutting just before, or right (at peak) as the flowers open, about one-half to three-quarters the way down the stalk (leaving smaller shoots room to grow). Some dispute exists as to what drying method works best; some prefer different materials (such as plastic or cloth) and different lighting conditions (such as darkness or sunlight).

Oil uses[edit]

Spearmint is used for its aromatic oil, referred to as oil of spearmint. The most abundant compound in spearmint oil is R-(–)-carvone, which gives spearmint its distinctive smell. Spearmint oil also contains significant amounts of limonene, dihydrocarvone, and 1,8-cineol.[21] Unlike oil of peppermint, oil of spearmint contains minimal amounts of menthol and menthone. It is used as a flavoring for toothpaste and confectionery, and is sometimes added to shampoos and soaps.

Research and Health Effects of Spearmint Oil[edit]

Spearmint has been used traditionally as medicines for minor ailments such as fevers, and digestive disorders.[18] There is research on spearmint extracts in the treatment of gout and as an antiemetic. [18][22] There is research on the possible cytotoxic effects of spearmint on leukemia cells. [23]

Spearmint Oil used as Insecticide and Pesticide[edit]

Spearmint essential oil has had success as a larvicide against mosquitos. Using spearmint as a larvicide would be a greener alternative to synthetic insecticides due to their toxicity and negative affect to the environment. [24]

Used as a fumigant, spearmint essential oil is an effective insecticide against adult moths.[25]

Medical Research[edit]

Antitumor[edit]

The main chemical component of spearmint is the terpenoid carvone[26][27], which has been shown to aid in the inhibition of tumors[28]. Perillyl alcohol, an additional terpenoid found in lower concentrations in spearmint, positively effects the regulation of various cell substances involved in cell growth and differentiation[29][28].

Antioxidant[edit]

Studies on spearmint have shown varying results on the antioxidant effects of the plant and its extracts[27][30][31]. Results have ranged from spearmint essential oil displaying considerable free radical scavenging activity[27] to no antioxidant activity in spearmint essential oil, but strong activity in spearmint methanolic extract[30]. Antioxidant activity has been shown to be significantly higher in spearmint that is dried at lower temperatures rather than high [31][32]. It is suggested this is due to the degradation of phenolics at high temperatures[31]. In experiments demonstrating antioxidant properties in spearmint oil, the major component, carvone, alone showed lower antioxidant activity.

Antimicrobial[edit]

Spearmint has been historically used for its antimicrobial activity, which is likely due to the high concentration of carvone[27][30]. Its antibacterial activity has been compared to, and is even said to surpass, that of amoxicillin, penicillin, and streptomycin[27][33]. Spearmint oil is found to have higher activity against Gram-positive bacteria compared to Gram-negative bacteria[27], which may be due to differing sensitivities to oils[34][35]. The degree of antimicrobial activity varies with the type of microorganism tested[27].

Additional Properties[edit]

Studies have found significant anti-androgen effects in spearmint, specifically following routine spearmint herbal tea ingestion[36][37]. Antispasmodic effects have been displayed in spearmint oil and carvone, the main chemical component of spearmint[38]. Spearmint is also associated with improvements in oral and gastrointestinal health[39].

Beverages[edit]

Spearmint leaves are infused in water to make spearmint tea. Spearmint is an ingredient of Maghrebi mint tea. Grown in the mountainous regions of Morocco, this variety of mint possesses a clear, pungent, but mild aroma.[40] Spearmint is an ingredient in several mixed drinks, such as the mojito and mint julep. Sweet tea, iced and flavored with spearmint, is a summer tradition in the Southern United States.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mentha L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2004-09-10. Archived from the original on 2009-05-06. Retrieved 2010-01-30.
  2. ^ Seidemann, Johannes (2005). World Spice Plants: Economic Usage, Botany, Taxonomy. New York: Springer. p. 229. ISBN 978-3-540-22279-8.
  3. ^ "Mentha spicata, spearmint". RHS Gardening. Royal Horticultural Society.
  4. ^ Nawrocki, Timm (2010-12-08). "Spearmint Mentha spicata L." (PDF).
  5. ^ a b "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew". kew.org.
  6. ^ a b "Flora of China Vol. 17 Page 238 留兰香 liu lan xiang ''Mentha spicata'' Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 576. 1753". Efloras.org. Retrieved 2018-08-16.
  7. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, Menta romana, Mentha spicata L. includes photos + distribution maps for Europe + North America
  8. ^ "Biota of North America Program, 2013 county distribution map". Retrieved 2018-08-16.
  9. ^ Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.[page needed]
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  11. ^ Turner, W. (1568). Herbal. Cited in the Oxford English Dictionary.
  12. ^ Grieve, Maud (1971). A Modern Herbal: The Medicinal, Culinary, Cosmetic and Economic Properties, Cultivation and Folk-lore of Herbs, Grasses, Fungi, Shrubs, & Trees with All Their Modern Scientific Uses, Volume 2.
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  14. ^ a b c d "Mint". Our Herb Garden. 2013-03-02. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  15. ^ Harley, R.M. (1972). "Mentha". Flora Europaea. 3.
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  22. ^ Tayarani-Najaran, Z.; Talasaz-Firoozi, E.; Nasiri, R.; Jalali, N.; Hassanzadeh, M. K. (2013-01-31). "Antiemetic activity of volatile oil from Mentha spicata and Mentha × piperita in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting". ecancer.org. doi:10.3332/ecancer.2013.290. PMC 3562057. PMID 23390455. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
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  25. ^ Eliopoulos PA, Hassiotis CN, Andreadis SS, Porichi AE (2015). "Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from basil and spearmint against two major Pyralid pests of stored products". J Econ Entomol. 108 (2): 805–10. doi:10.1093/jee/tov029. PMID 26470193.
  26. ^ Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Cantrell, Charles L.; Astatkie, Tess; Ebelhar, M. Wayne (2010). "Productivity, Oil Content, and Composition of Two Spearmint Species in Mississippi". Agronomy Journal. 102 (1): 129. doi:10.2134/agronj2009.0258. ISSN 1435-0645.
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  33. ^ Griensven, Leo J. L. D. van; Soković, Marina (2006-11-01). "Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their components against the three major pathogens of the cultivated button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus". European Journal of Plant Pathology. 116 (3): 211–224. doi:10.1007/s10658-006-9053-0. ISSN 1573-8469.
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  35. ^ Sivropoulou, Afroditi; Kokkini, Stella; Lanaras, Thomas; Arsenakis, Minas (1995-09-01). "Antimicrobial activity of mint essential oils". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 43 (9): 2384–2388. doi:10.1021/jf00057a013. ISSN 0021-8561.
  36. ^ Grant, Paul (February 2010). "Spearmint herbal tea has significant anti-androgen effects in polycystic ovarian syndrome. A randomized controlled trial". Phytotherapy research: PTR. 24 (2): 186–188. doi:10.1002/ptr.2900. ISSN 1099-1573. PMID 19585478.
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  39. ^ "Spearmint: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning". www.webmd.com. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  40. ^ Richardson, Lisa Boalt (2014). Modern Tea: A Fresh Look at an Ancient Beverage. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-4521-3021-7.

External links[edit]