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Factoryprices247
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722
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90451
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Amazon.com
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Amazon.com
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Factoryprices247 Cgx8253 ClueBot NG 62.150.207.24 Josve05a Citation bot Widr 75.72.148.14 Jim1138 59.95.170.140
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{{Use mdy dates|date=November 2012}} {{Infobox dot-com company |company_name = Amazon.com, Inc. |company_logo = [[File:Amazon.com-Logo.svg|225px]] |company_type = [[Public company|Public]] |traded_as = {{NASDAQ|AMZN}}<br />[[NASDAQ-100]] Component<br />[[S&P 500]] Component |foundation = {{Start date|1994}} |founder = [[Jeff Bezos]] |location = [[Seattle]], [[Washington (state)|Washington]], [[United States]]<ref>{{Cite journal|url=http://goo.gl/maps/6Brkd|title=Maps|publisher=Google|postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.archdaily.com/271754/amazons-seattle-headquarters-nbbj|title=Arch daily|contribution=Amazon’s Seattle headquarters|postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/10/05/us-amazon-offices-idUSBRE8941EU20121005|title=Amazon pays top dollar to buy Seattle HQ|newspaper=Reuters|date=2012-10-05|postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}</ref> |area_served = Worldwide |key_people = [[Jeff Bezos]]<br />(Chairman, President and CEO) |industry = [[Internet]], [[online retailing]] |products = [[Amazon Appstore|Appstore]], [[LoveFilm]], [[The Book Depository]], [[Amazon Game Studios|Game Studios]], [[Amazon Instant Video|Instant Video]], [[Amazon Instant Video UK|Instant Video UK]], [[Amazon Instant Video German|Instant Video German]], [[Amazon Kindle|Kindle]], [[Amazon Lab126|Lab126]], [[Amazon Studios|Studios]], [[Woot]]<br>MyHabit.com<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.myhabit.com|title=My habit|postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}</ref><br>Askville<ref>{{Cite journal|title=Askville|url=http://askville.amazon.com|publisher=Amazon|postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}</ref> |revenue = {{Increase}} US$ 74.45&nbsp;[[1,000,000,000|billion]] (2013)<ref name="Amazon.com-Jan-2014-8-K">{{cite web|url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-SECText&TEXT=aHR0cDovL2FwaS50ZW5rd2l6YXJkLmNvbS9maWxpbmcueG1sP2lwYWdlPTkzNTA2ODQmRFNFUT0wJlNFUT0wJlNRREVTQz1TRUNUSU9OX0VOVElSRSZzdWJzaWQ9NTc%3d|title=Amazon.com, Form 8-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Jan 30, 2014|publisher=Amazon.com Investor Relations|accessdate=Jan 31, 2014}}</ref> |operating_income={{Increase}} US$ 745&nbsp;million (2013)<ref name="Amazon.com-Jan-2014-8-K" /> |net_income = {{Increase}} US$ 274&nbsp;million (2013)<ref name="Amazon.com-Jan-2014-8-K" /> |assets = {{Increase}} US$ 40.159&nbsp;billion (2013)<ref name="Amazon.com-Jan-2014-8-K" /> |equity = {{Increase}} US$ 9.746&nbsp;billion (2013)<ref name="Amazon.com-Jan-2014-8-K" /> |num_employees = 117,300 (January 2014)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://thenextweb.com/insider/2013/10/24/amazon-hits-109800-employees-passing-microsofts-employee-count-first-time/|title=Amazon Hits 109,800 Employees, Passes Microsoft's Headcount|accessdate=October 24, 2013}}</ref> |subsid = a2z, [[A9.com]], [[Amazon Web Services]], [[Alexa Internet]], [[Audible.com]], [[Digital Photography Review]], [[Goodreads]], [[Internet Movie Database]], [[Junglee.com]], [[Zappos]] |url = {{URL|amazon.com}} (original US site)<br />[[#Website|various national sites]] |programming_language = [[C++]], [[Perl]] and [[Java (programming language)|Java]] |website_type = [[E-commerce]] |language = English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Japanese, Chinese, Brazilian Portuguese |advertising = [[Web banner]]s, [[video]]s |launch_date = 1995 |alexa = {{Steady}} 10 ({{as of|2014|3|1|alt=March 2014}})<ref name="alexa">{{cite web|url= http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/Amazon.com |title= Amazon.com Site Info | publisher= [[Alexa Internet]] |accessdate= 2014-03-01 }}</ref><!--Updated monthly by OKBot.--> }} '''Amazon.com, Inc.''' {{IPAc-en|ˈ|æ|m|ə|z|ɒ|n}} is an [[United States|American]] international [[e-commerce|electronic commerce]] company with headquarters in [[Seattle]], [[Washington (state)|Washington]], United States. It is the [[List of largest Internet companies|world's largest]] [[online retailer]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.forbes.com/sites/walterloeb/2013/07/24/alibaba-a-threat-to-amazon-ebay-walmart-and-everyone-else/ |title=Alibaba Is A Threat To Amazon, eBay, Walmart And Everyone Else |publisher=Forbes.com |date= |accessdate=2013-12-16}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.forbes.com/sites/clareoconnor/2013/04/23/wal-mart-vs-amazon-worlds-biggest-e-commerce-battle-could-boil-down-to-vegetables/ |title=Wal-Mart Vs. Amazon: World's Biggest E-Commerce Battle Could Boil Down To Vegetables |publisher=Forbes.com |date=2013-04-23 |accessdate=2013-12-16}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Jopson|first=Barney|url=http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/61828252-ac1d-11e0-b85c-00144feabdc0.html#axzz1RxkefD8m|title=Amazon urges California referendum on online tax|work=Financial Times|date=July 12, 2011|accessdate=August 4, 2011|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110715045643/http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/61828252-ac1d-11e0-b85c-00144feabdc0.html|archivedate=July 15, 2011 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> Amazon.com started as an online [[bookstore]], but soon diversified, selling [[DVD]]s, [[VHS]]s, [[compact Disc|CDs]], [[Amazon Instant Video|video]] and [[MP3]] downloads/streaming, [[software]], [[video game]]s, [[consumer electronics|electronics]], apparel, furniture, food, toys, and jewelry. The company also produces [[consumer electronics]]—notably the [[Amazon Kindle]] [[e-book reader]] and the [[Kindle Fire]] [[tablet computer]]—and is a major provider of [[cloud computing]] services. Amazon is considered the fourth most successful [[startup company]] of all time by market capitalization, revenue, growth and cultural impact.<ref name="Top 20 Startups">{{cite web|last=Hunckler|first=Matt|title=Top 20 Startups of All Time|url=http://vergestartups.com/top-20-startups-of-all-time/|publisher=Verge Startups|accessdate=2 February 2014}}</ref> [[Jeff Bezos]] incorporated the company (as Cadabra) in July 1994 and the site went online as Amazon.com in 1995.<ref name=byers/> The company was renamed after the [[Amazon River]], one of the largest rivers in the world,<ref name=byers>{{citation|first=Ann|last=Byers|year=2006|title=Jeff Bezos: the founder of Amazon.com|publisher=The Rosen Publishing Group|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Nz43wixr2IcC&pg=PA47|pages=46–47}}</ref> which in turn was named after the [[Amazons]], the legendary nation of female warriors in [[Greek mythology]]. Amazon has separate retail websites for [[United States]], [[United Kingdom]], [[France]], [[Canada]], [[Germany]], [[Italy]], [[Spain]], [[Australia]], [[Brazil]], [[Japan]], [[China]], [[India]] and [[Mexico]], with international shipping to certain other countries for some of its products.<ref name="Amazon.com-Jan-2013-10-K">{{cite web|url=http://pdf.secdatabase.com/1562/0001193125-13-028520.pdf|title=Amazon.com, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Jan 30, 2013|publisher=SEC database|accessdate=Feb 26, 2013}}</ref> In 2011, it had professed an intention to launch its websites in Poland,<ref name="wp-polska">{{cite web|url=http://tech.wp.pl/kat,1009785,title,Amazon-wkrotce-w-Polsce,wid,13924137,wiadomosc.html?ticaid=1db8d|location=[[Poland|PL]]|title=Amazon wkrótce w Polsce|language=Polish|publisher=Wirtualna Polska|date=October 24, 2011|accessdate=January 11, 2012}}</ref> Netherlands, and Sweden, as well.<ref>[http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/09/14/amazon-spain-idUSS1E78D1XR20110914 "Amazon Spain launch may presage new overseas push"], Reuters, September 14, 2011.</ref> An [[Austria]]n website operates as part of the German website. ==History== [[File:Jeff Bezos' iconic laugh.jpg|thumb|upright|Amazon founder [[Jeff Bezos]]]] The company was founded in 1994, spurred by what Bezos called his "regret minimization framework", which described his efforts to fend off any regrets for not participating sooner in the Internet business boom during that time.<ref>{{cite news|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20000408032804/http://www.time.com/time/poy/bezos5.html|url=http://www.time.com/time/poy/bezos5.html|archivedate=April 8, 2000|work=Time|title=Person of the Year&nbsp;– Jeffrey P. Bezos|accessdate=January 5, 2008|date=December 27, 1999}}</ref> In 1994, Bezos left his employment as vice-president of [[D. E. Shaw & Co.]], a Wall Street firm, and moved to Seattle. He began to work on a business plan for what would eventually become Amazon.com. After reading a report about the future of the Internet which projected annual Web commerce growth at 2,300%, Bezos created a list of 20 products which could be marketed online. He narrowed the list to what he felt were the five most promising products which included: compact discs, computer hardware, computer software, videos, and books. Bezos finally decided that his new business would sell books online, due to the large world-wide demand for literature, the low price points for books, along with the huge number of titles available in print.<ref>{{cite web|title=Amazon Company History|url=http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/amazon-com-inc-history|accessdate=May 6, 2013}}</ref> Amazon<ref>{{cite book|last=Brandt|first=Richard L.|title=One Click: Jeff Bezos and the Rise of Amazon.com|year=2011|publisher=Penguin Publishing|isbn=0670920665|page=228}}</ref> was originally founded in Bezos' garage in Bellevue, Washington.<ref>{{cite web|last=Spiro|first=Josh|title=The Great Leaders Series: Jeff Bezos, Founder of Amazon.com|url=http://www.inc.com/30years/articles/jeff-bezos.html|publisher=Inc.com|accessdate=7 February 2013}}</ref> The company began as an online [[bookstore]], an idea spurred off with discussion with [[John R. Ingram (businessman)|John Ingram]] of Ingram Book (now called [[Ingram Content Group]]), along with Keyur Patel who still holds a stake in Amazon.<ref name="nyt10years">{{cite news|last=Rivlin|first=Gary|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/10/business/yourmoney/10amazon.html?ei=5090&en=c805d53acf76f2b3&ex=1278648000&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss&pagewanted=all|title=A Retail Revolution Turns 10|newspaper=[[The New York Times]]|date=July 10, 2005|accessdate=August 4, 2011}}</ref> In the first two months of business, Amazon sold to all 50 states and over 45 countries. Within two months, Amazon's sales were up to $20,000/week.<ref>{{cite web|last=Spiro|first=Josh|title=The Great Leaders Series: Jeff Bezos, Founder of Amazon.com|url=http://www.inc.com/30years/articles/jeff-bezos.html}}</ref> While the largest [[brick and mortar]] bookstores and [[mail order]] catalogs might offer 200,000 titles, an online bookstore could "carry" several times more, since they had an almost unlimited virtual (not actual) warehouse: those of the actual product makers/suppliers. Bezos wanted a name for his company that began with "A" so that it would appear early in alphabetic order. He began looking through the dictionary and settled on "Amazon" because it was a place that was "exotic and different" just as he planned for his store to be, and he believed it was the biggest river in the world, and he planned to make his store the biggest in the world.<ref name="byers" /> Bezos placed a premium on his head start in building a brand, telling a reporter, "There's nothing about our model that can't be copied over time. But you know, [[McDonald's]] got copied. And it still built a huge, multibillion-dollar company. A lot of it comes down to the brand name. Brand names are more important online than they are in the physical world."<ref>{{cite web|last=Murphy Jr.|first=Bill|title='Follow the Money' and Other Lessons From Jeff Bezos|url=http://www.inc.com/bill-murphy-jr/follow-the-money-lessons-from-jeff-bezos.html}}</ref> Since 2000, Amazon's logotype has featured a curved arrow leading from A to Z, representing that they carry every product from A to Z, with the arrow shaped like a smile.<ref name="a-to-z">{{cite web|url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=70550&highlight=|title=Amazon.com Introduces New Logo; New Design Communicates Customer Satisfaction and A-to-Z Selection|publisher=Corporate IR.net|date=January 5, 2000}}</ref> Amazon was incorporated in 1994, in the state of [[Washington (state)|Washington]]. In July 1995, the company began service and sold its first book on Amazon.com: [[Douglas Hofstadter]]'s ''[[Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies|Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought]]''.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=176060&p=irol-corporateTimeline|title=Amazon company timeline|publisher=Corporate IR}}</ref> In October 1995, the company announced itself to the public.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://www.urlwire.com/news/100495.html|title=World's Largest Bookseller Opens on the Web|publisher=URLwire}}</ref> In 1996, it was reincorporated in [[Delaware]]. Amazon issued its [[initial public offering]] of [[stock]] on May 15, 1997, trading under the [[NASDAQ]] stock exchange symbol '''AMZN''', at a price of [[United States dollar|US$]]18.00 per share ($1.50 after three [[stock split]]s in the late 1990s). Amazon's initial [[business plan]] was unusual; it did not expect to make a profit for four to five years. This "slow" growth caused stockholders to complain about the company not reaching profitability fast enough to justify investing in, or to even survive in the long-term. When the [[dot-com bubble]] burst at the start of the 21st Century, destroying many e-companies in the process, Amazon survived, and grew on past the bubble burst to become a huge player in online sales. It finally turned its first profit in the fourth quarter of 2001: $5 million (i.e., 1¢ per share), on revenues of more than $1 billion. This profit margin, though extremely modest, proved to skeptics that Bezos' unconventional [[business model]] could succeed.<ref>{{cite book|author=Robert Spector|title=Amazon.com: Get Big Fast|year=2002}}</ref> In 1999, ''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]'' magazine named Bezos the [[Time Person of the Year|Person of the Year]], recognizing the company's success in popularizing [[online shopping]]. [[Barnes & Noble]] sued Amazon on May 12, 1997, alleging that Amazon's claim to be "the world's largest bookstore" was false. Barnes and Noble asserted, "[It] isn't a bookstore at all. It's a book broker." The suit was later settled out of court, and Amazon continued to make the same claim."<ref name="referenceforbusiness.com">[http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/businesses/A-F/Amazon-com.html "Forming a Plan, The Company Is Launched, One Million Titles"]. Reference for Business: Encyclopedia of Business, 2nd ed. Retrieved September 1, 2012.</ref> [[Walmart]] sued Amazon on October 16, 1998, alleging that Amazon had stolen their trade secrets by hiring former Walmart executives. Although this suit was also settled out of court, it caused Amazon to implement internal restrictions and the re-assignment of the former Walmart executives.<ref name="referenceforbusiness.com"/> ===Acquisitions and investments=== {{expand list|date=February 2014}} Source:<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.seobythesea.com/2006/10/amazon-acquisitions-and-investments/ |title=Amazon Acquisitions and Investments |work=seobythesea.com |author=Bill Slawski |date=July 28, 2009 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> * 1998: [[PlanetAll]], a reminder service based in [[Cambridge, Massachusetts]]; Junglee, an [[XML]]-based [[data mining]] startup based in Sunnyvale;<ref>{{cite web |url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=233831&highlight= |title=Amazon.com Acquires Two Leading Internet Companies |publisher=Amazon.com |author= |date=August 4, 1998 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Amazon to buy two companies|publisher=CNET News|date=August 4, 1998|url=http://news.cnet.com/Amazon-to-buy-two-companies/2100-1001_3-214057.html|accessdate=February 18, 2012|location=USA|first=Sandeep|last=Junnarkar}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Beckett|first=Jamie|title=Amazon To Purchase 2 'Net Firms|publisher=San Francisco Gate|date=August 5, 1998|url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article/article?f=/c/a/1998/08/05/BU23774.DTL|accessdate=January 1, 2010}}</ref> Bookpages.co.uk,<ref name=1998-acquisitions/><ref>{{cite news|title=Leading Internet Bookseller Amazon.com Acquires UK-Based Internet Bookstore Bookpages Ltd|location=UK|agency=PR Newswire|url=http://www.prnewswire.co.uk/cgi/news/release?id=22936|accessdate=August 23, 2010}}</ref> a UK online book retailer, which became Amazon UK on October 15, 1998;<ref>{{cite news|title=Online giant Amazon.co.uk celebrates its 10th anniversary as shoppers use retailer website to buy goods|work=The Sun|date=October 15, 2008|url=http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/article1809903.ece|accessdate=August 23, 2010|location=London|first=Derek|last=Brown}}</ref> Telebook (www.telebuch.de) was Germany's leading online bookstore, it became Amazon's German online store;<ref name=1998-acquisitions>{{cite web |url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=233853&highlight= |title=Amazon.com Acquires Three Leading Internet Companies |publisher=Amazon.com |author= |date=April 27, 1998 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> [[Internet Movie Database]] (IMDb).<ref name=1998-acquisitions/><ref>{{cite news|last=Siklos|first=Richard|title=Amazon considering downloads|newspaper=The New York Times|date=March 10, 2006|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/10/technology/10iht-web.0310skilos.html|accessdate=January 1, 2010}}</ref> * 1999: [[Alexa Internet]] a database company;<ref>{{cite web |url=http://news.cnet.com/2100-1017-224975.html |title=Amazon makes Net triple play |work=CNet |author=Paul Festa |date=April 26, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> Accept.com a financial services company;<ref>{{cite news|title=Amazon's shopping spree|publisher=BBC News|date=April 27, 1999|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/329339.stm|accessdate=January 1, 2010}}</ref> [[Drugstore.com]] 40% investment in 1999,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://articles.latimes.com/1999/feb/25/business/fi-11466 |title=Amazon.com Buys 40% Stake in Drugstore.com |work=Los Angeles Times |author=Joseph Menn |date=February 25, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> increased stake in 2000,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://news.cnet.com/Amazon.com-inks-Drugstore.com-deal,-gets-upgrade/2100-12_3-264450.html |title=Amazon.com inks Drugstore.com deal, gets upgrade |work=cnet.com |author=Tiffany Kary |date=January 24, 2000 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> sold stake to Wallgreens in 2011 for a 90% loss;<ref>{{cite web |url=http://cnnmoneytech.tumblr.com/post/4065463038/walgreens-buys-amazon-backed-drugstore-com |title=Walgreens buys Amazon-backed Drugstore.com |work=CNN Moneytech |author=Julianne Pepitone (Staff Writer) |date=March 24, 2011 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> GeoWorks, a wireless communications company, acquisition of a minority interest;<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/amazoncom-purchases-minority-stake-in-geoworks-74944172.html |title=Amazon.com Purchases Minority Stake in Geoworks |work=PR Newswire |author= |date=February 16, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> [[Pets.com]], purchased a 54 percent stake;<ref>{{cite web |url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=232871&highlight= |title=Amazon.com Announces Investment in Pets.com |publisher=Amazon.com |author= |date=March 29, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> LiveBid.com, which produced Internet-based auction software;<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/2952.html# |title=Amazon Agrees To Purchase LiveBid.com |work=ecommercetimes.com |author= |date=April 12, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> e-Niche Incorporated comprising Exchange.com, Bibliofind.com (hard-to-find book titles), and Musicfile.com (hard to find music titles);<ref>{{cite web |url=http://corporate.findlaw.com/contracts/planning/agreement-and-plan-of-merger-amazon-com-inc-and-e-niche-inc.html |title=Agreement and Plan of Merger - Amazon.com Inc. and E-Niche Inc. |work=FindLaw |author= |date= |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-newsArticle_Print&ID=232864&highlight= |title=Amazon.com Acquires Exchange.com, Adding More than 12 Million Book and Music Items for Sale and Auction |work= |publisher=Amazon.com |date=April 26, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> HomeGrocer.com, a 35 percent stake in the online grocer;<ref>{{cite web |url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=232847&highlight= |title=Amazon.com Announces Minority Investment in HomeGrocer.com |publisher=Amazon.com |author= |date=May 18, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> Gear.com, 49 percent stake<ref>{{cite web |url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-newsArticle_Print&ID=232630&highlight= |title=Amazon.com Announces Strategic Alliance With and Minority Investment In Gear.com |publisher=Amazon.com |author= |date=July 14, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> (the company was purchased by [[Overstock.com]] in 2000); Tool Crib of the North, acquired the online and catalog sales division of the company in October 1999, selling a very wide variety of tools and home improvement items;<ref>{{cite web |url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-newsArticle_Print&ID=231835&highlight= |title=Amazon.com Launches Toolcrib.Amazon.com, a Tools and Equipment Store for Professional Tool Users and Woodworkers; Store's Wide Selection Includes Latest Tool Innovations and Tool Tests from Tools of the Trade |publisher=Amazon.com |author= |date=February 9, 2000 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> Convergence Corporation, software to connect wireless devices to the Internet;<ref>{{cite web |url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=232161&highlight= |title=Amazon.com launches 'Amazon.com Anywhere,' providing shopping from wireless devices, such as the Palm VII organizer |publisher=Amazon.com |author= |date=October 4, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> MindCorps Incorporated, applications for web sites including online chats to web based databases;<ref>{{cite web |url=//web.archive.org/web/20070711090247/http://www.mercent.com/NewsArticles/2004-09-20%20-%20eCommerceIQ%20-%20Champions%20of%20e-Commerce.htm |title=Champions of e-Commerce |work=e-Commerce IQ |author=Nettie Hartsock |date=July 11, 2007 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> Della.com, gift registry, expert advice, and personalized gift suggestions, Amazon purchased a 20% stake<ref>{{cite web |url=http://partners.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/11/cyber/commerce/15commerce.html |title=Letters to Santa Are No Longer Necessary |work=New York Times |author=Bob Tedeschi |date=November 15, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> (in April, 2000, the company merged with WeddingChannel.com<ref>{{cite web |url=//web.archive.org/web/20120714041842/http://wedding.weddingchannel.com:80/press_release/weddellPress.asp |title=WeddingChannel.com and Della.com Merge to Create World's Definitive Marketplace for Weddings |work=WeddingChannel.com |author= |date=April 27, 2000 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref>); Back to Basics Toys, catalog toy store<ref>{{cite web |url=http://money.cnn.com/1999/12/01/deals/amazon/ |title=Online merchant in $10M marketing pact with luxury-products Web retailer |work=CNN |author= |date=December 1, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> (sold to Scholastic in 2003<ref>{{cite web |url=http://multichannelmerchant.com/printchannel-lists/scholastic-buys-back-to-basics-toys-from-amazon-com-24092003/ |title=Scholastic Buys Back to Basics Toys from Amazon.com |work=multichannelmerchant.com |author=Paul Miller |date=September 24, 2003 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref>); Ashford.com, retailer of luxury products, Amazon acquired a 16.6 percent ownership;{{citation needed|date=February 2014}} Leep Technology Inc., developer of on-line database query tools;{{citation needed|date=February 2014}} * 2003: Online music retailer [[CDNow]].<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/dp/0966103262 The Cdnow Story: Rags to Riches on the Internet], by [[Jason Olim]] (Author), [[Matthew Olim]] (Author), [[Peter Kent]] (Author)</ref> By 2011, the website cdnow.com was defunct and in use by a different company. * 2004: [[Joyo.com]], a Chinese e-commerce website.<ref>{{cite news|title=Amazon ups investment in China online shopping site|agency=Reuters|location=UK|date=June 5, 2007|url=http://uk.reuters.com/article/idUKPEK15159920070605|accessdate=January 1, 2010}}</ref> * 2005: BookSurge,<ref>{{cite news|title=Amazon Expands Into Book Printing|newspaper=The New York Times|date=April 11, 2005|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/11/technology/11ecom.html?ei=5088&en=5ed37782694b0920&ex=1270872000&partner=rssnyt&pagewanted=all&position=|accessdate=January 1, 2010|first=Bob|last=Tedeschi}}</ref> a [[print on demand]] company, and [[Mobipocket.com]], an [[e-Book]] software company.<ref>{{cite web|title=About|publisher=Mobipocket.com|url=http://www.mobipocket.com/en/Corporate/AboutMobipocket.asp?Language=EN}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Franklin interest in company, retires shares|work=Philadelphia Business Journal|date=March 31, 2005|url=http://philadelphia.bizjournals.com/philadelphia/stories/2005/03/28/daily32.html|accessdate=June 14, 2010}}</ref> CreateSpace.com (formerly CustomFlix), a distributor of on-demand DVDs, based in [[Scotts Valley, California]].<ref>{{cite journal|publisher=Com|journal=News|url=http://news.com.com/Amazon+buys+DVD-on-demand+site/2100-1025_3-5783824.html|title=Amazon buys DVD-on-demand site|accessdate=August 3, 2007|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070822225954/http://news.com.com/Amazon+buys+DVD-on-demand+site/2100-1025_3-5783824.html|archivedate=August 22, 2007 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> CreateSpace has since expanded to include print on-demand books (POD), CDs, and video. * 2006: Shopbop, a retailer of designer clothing and accessories for women, based in [[Madison, Wisconsin]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://wistechnology.com/article.php?id=2730|title=Wisconsin Technology Network: "Amazon acquires Madison-based Shopbop"|publisher=Wistechnology.com|date=February 27, 2006|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> * 2007: [[dpreview.com]], a digital photography review website based in London; Brilliance Audio, the largest independent publisher of [[audiobook]]s in the United States.<ref name=brilliance-taume>{{cite news|url=http://news.taume.com/World-Business/Business-Finance/Amazon_com-Acquires-Brilliance-Audio-1358|title=amazon.com Acquires Brilliance Audio|work=Taume News|date=May 27, 2007|accessdate=May 28, 2007|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070704192411/http://news.taume.com/World-Business/Business-Finance/Amazon_com-Acquires-Brilliance-Audio-1358|archivedate=July 4, 2007 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> * 2008: [[Audible.com]]; Fabric.com;<ref>{{cite web|author=Bill Briggs|url=http://www.internetretailer.com/dailyNews.asp?id=26889|title=Amazon weaves Fabric.com into its e-commerce quilt|publisher=Internet Retailer|date=June 25, 2008|accessdate=August 29, 2010|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100721122324/http://www.internetretailer.com/dailyNews.asp?id=26889|archivedate=July 21, 2010 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> [[Box Office Mojo]];<ref name="Amazon">{{cite news|url=http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117997423.html?categoryid=18&cs=1|title=IMDb links up with Box Office|work=Variety|first=Ben|last=Fritz|date=December 15, 2008}}{{dead link|date=March 2013}}</ref> [[AbeBooks]];<ref>{{cite web|last=Vancouver|first=The|url=http://www.canada.com/vancouversun/news/business/story.html?id=450f0c09-4733-4488-96d5-d6ba05f06876|title=Amazon looks to fill niche with AbeBooks purchase|publisher=Canada.com|date=August 2, 2008|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> [[Shelfari]];<ref>{{cite web|last=Gonsalves|first=Antone|url=http://www.informationweek.com/news/internet/retail/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=210200911|title=Amazon Buys Social Network For Book Lovers|publisher=Informationweek.com|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> (including a 40% stake in [[LibraryThing]] and whole ownership of [[BookFinder.com]], Gojaba.com, and [[FillZ]]); [[Reflexive Entertainment]],<ref>{{cite web|last=Kawamoto|first=Dawn|url=http://news.cnet.com/8301-10797_3-10072600-235.html|title=Amazon.com snaps up Reflexive Entertainment|publisher=news.cnet.com|date=October 22, 2008|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> a casual video game development company. * 2009: [[Zappos.com|Zappos]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-07/23/content_11756468.htm|title=Xinhuanet.com|publisher=News.xinhuanet.com|date=July 23, 2009|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> an online shoe and apparel retailer<ref name="tc-billion">{{cite news|url=http://www.techcrunch.com/2009/11/02/amazon-closes-zappos-deal-ends-up-paying-1-2-billion|title=Amazon Closes Zappos Deal, Ends Up Paying $1.2 Billion|last=Wauters|first=Robin|date=November 2, 2009|publisher=TechCrunch|accessdate=January 28, 2010|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100123070014/http://www.techcrunch.com/2009/11/02/amazon-closes-zappos-deal-ends-up-paying-1-2-billion|archivedate=January 23, 2010 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> [[Lexcycle]],<ref>{{cite news|first=Brad|last=Stone|url=http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/04/27/amazon-acquires-stanza-an-e-book-application-for-the-iphone|title=Amazon Acquires Stanza, an E-Book Application for the iPhone|newspaper=The New York Times|date=April 27, 2009|accessdate=April 27, 2009|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090429111042/http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/04/27/amazon-acquires-stanza-an-e-book-application-for-the-iphone|archivedate=April 29, 2009 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> SnapTell, an image matching startup,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://techcrunch.com/2009/06/16/image-recognition-startup-snaptell-acquired-by-amazon-subsidiary-a9com|title=Image Recognition Startup SnapTell Acquired by Amazon Subsidiary A9.com|publisher=TechCrunch|date=June 16, 2009|accessdate=March 19, 2012}}</ref> Stanza, a rival e-book reader to Amazon's Kindle.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://gigaom.com/2009/04/28/leading-iphone-ebook-reader-stanza-acquired-by-amazon|title=Leading iPhone eBook Reader Stanza Acquired by Amazon|work=Gigaom|last=Etherington|first=Darrell|date=April 28, 2009|accessdate=September 10, 2013}}</ref> * 2010: Touchco.,<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/04/technology/04amazon.html?scp=2&sq=amazon&st=cse|newspaper=The New York Times|title=Amazon Said to Buy Touch Start-Up|first1=Nick|last1=Bilton|first2=Brad|last2=Stone|date=February 4, 2010|accessdate=March 27, 2010}}</ref> [[Woot]],<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.woot.com/Blog/ViewEntry.aspx?Id=13390|title=Woot|date=June 30, 2010|publisher=woot.com|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> [[Diapers.com|Quidsi]], BuyVIP, [[Amie Street]]. * 2010: Toby Press<ref>http://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by-topic/industry-news/publisher-news/article/45230-amazon-acquires-toby-press-titles.html</ref> * 2011: [[LoveFilm]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/Business/Amazon-Is-To-Take-Full-Control-Of-DVD-And-Game-Rental-By-Post-Firm-Lovefilm/Article/201101315901025?f=rss|title=Amazon Is To Take Full Control Of DVD And Game Rental-By-Post Firm Lovefilm|work=News|publisher=Sky|date=2011-01-31|accessdate=August 4, 2011}}</ref> [[The Book Depository]],<ref>{{cite news|last=Chirgwin|first=Richard|url=http://www.theregister.co.uk/2011/07/04/amazon_buys_book_depository|work=The Register|date=2011-07-04|title=Amazon buys book depository|accessdate=2012-09-06}}</ref> [[Pushbutton]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pushbutton.tv/press/amazon-acquires-pushbutton|title=Amazon Acquires Pushbutton|publisher=pushbutton.tv|date=July 28|accessdate=September 6, 2012|archiveurl=http://archive.is/fVXx|archivedate=2012-09-07}}{{dead link|date=February 2013}}</ref> Yap,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://cltblog.com/23836|title=Charlotte voice-to-text startup Yap quietly acquired by Amazon|work=News|publisher=CLTBlog|date=2011-11-09|accessdate=November 9, 2011}}</ref> * 2012: [[Kiva Systems]],<ref>{{cite news|last=Rusli|first=Evelyn|title=Amazon.com Buys Kiva Systems for $775 Million|url=http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2012/03/19/amazon-com-buys-kiva-systems-for-775-million|newspaper=The New York Times|accessdate=March 19, 2012|date=March 19, 2012}}</ref> [[Teachstreet]]<ref>Cook, John (2 February 2012). [http://www.geekwire.com/2012/exclusive-amazoncom-buys-teachstreet/ "Exclusive: Amazon.com buys TeachStreet"]. geekwire.com</ref> [[Evi (software)|Evi]]<ref>{{cite news|url=http://techcrunch.com/2013/04/17/sources-say-amazon-acquired-siri-like-evi-app-for-26m-is-a-smartphone-coming|title=Sources Say Amazon Acquired Siri Like Evi App for 26M is a Smartphone Coming?|work=TechCrunch|date=April 18, 2013|accessdate=April 18, 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.engadget.com/2013/04/17/amazon-may-have-quietly-acquired-evi-for-voice-guided-search|title=Amazon has reportedly acquired Evi for voice-guided search ?|work=Engadget|date=April 17, 2013|accessdate=April 18, 2013}}</ref> * 2013: [[IVONA|IVONA Software]],<ref>{{cite news|url=http://techcrunch.com/2013/01/24/amazon-gets-into-voice-recognition-buys-ivona-software-to-compete-against-apples-siri|title=Amazon Gets Into Voice Recognition, Buys Ivona Software To Compete Against Apple’s Siri|work=TechCrunch|accessdate=January 24, 2013}}</ref> [[GoodReads]]<ref>{{cite news|url=http://techcrunch.com/2013/03/28/amazon-acquires-social-reading-site-goodreads|title=Amazon Acquires Social Reading Site Goodreads, Which Gives The Company A Social Advantage Over Apple|work=TechCrunch|date=March 28, 2013|accessdate=March 29, 2013}}</ref> [[Liquavista]] <ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/05/13/us-amazon-acquisition-idUSBRE94C0XE20130513|title=Amazon buys Liquavista from Samsung,launches Digital Currency|work=Reuters|date=May 13, 2013|accessdate=September 3, 2013}}</ref> * 2014: [[Double Helix Games]]<ref>{{cite news | url=http://techcrunch.com/2014/02/05/amazon-acquires-video-gaming-studio-double-helix-games/ | title=Amazon Acquires Video Gaming Studio Double Helix Games | work=TechCruch | accessdate=February 5, 2014}}</ref> ===Investment=== *2008: [[Engine Yard]], a Ruby-on-Rails [[platform as a service]] (PaaS) company.<ref>{{cite web|last=Olsen|first=Stefanie|url=http://news.cnet.com/8301-1001_3-9990466-92.html|title=Amazon invests in Engine Yard's cloud computing|publisher=News.cnet.com|date=July 14, 2008|accessdate=August 4, 2011}}</ref> *2010: [[LivingSocial]], a local deal site.<ref>{{cite news|last=Isaac|first=Mike|date=December 2, 2010|url=http://www.forbes.com/sites/mikeisaac/2010/12/02/livingsocial-receives-175-million-investment-from-amazon|title=LivingSocial Receives $175 Million Investment From Amazon|work=Forbes|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> ===Subsidiaries=== *2004: [[A9.com]], a company focused on researching and building innovative [[technology]].<ref>McCracken, Harry, [https://web.archive.org/web/20110716052029/http://blogs.pcworld.com/techlog/archives/002876.html "Amazon's A9 Search as We Knew It: Dead!"], ''[[PC World]]''. September 29, 2006. Retrieved September 6, 2012.</ref> *2004: [[Lab126]], developers of integrated consumer electronics such as the Kindle. *2007: Endless.com, an e-commerce brand focusing on shoes.<ref>Jonathan Birchall, New York, [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/c9bc90b4-17e7-11de-8c9d-0000779fd2ac.html Amazon launches accessories brand in Japan], ''[[Financial Times]]''. March 23, 2009. Retrieved September 6, 2012 {{subscription required|date=September 2012}}</ref> *2007: Brilliance Audio, the largest independent audiobook producer in the US.<ref>{{cite news|last=Kawamoto|first=Dawn|url=http://news.cnet.com/Amazon-acquires-Brilliance-Audio/2110-1030_3-6185975.html|title=Amazon acquires Brilliance Audio|date=May 23, 2007|publisher=news.cnet.com|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> ==Merchant partnerships== Until June 30, 2006, typing [[Toys R Us|ToysRUs.com]] into a browser would bring up Amazon.com's "Toys & Games" tab; however, this relationship was terminated due to a lawsuit.<ref name="ect">E-Commerce Times: [http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/49188.html Toys 'R' Us wins right to end Amazon partnership.], March 3, 2006</ref> Amazon also hosted and managed the website for [[Borders Group|Borders bookstores]] but this ceased in 2008.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/20080527/borders-amazon-barnes-noble-web-online-store-retailer.htm|title=Borders Returns to Online Sales, Drops Amazon|work=International Business Times|author=Diane Oswald|date=May 27, 2008}}</ref> From 2001 until August 2011, Amazon hosted the retail website for [[Target Corporation|Target]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Target Launches Redesigned E-Commerce Website|url=http://pressroom.target.com/pr/news/target-launches-redesigned-e-commerce-aug2011.aspx|date=August 23, 2011|publisher=Target Corporation|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> [[Benefit Cosmetics]], another merchant partner of Amazon, has also launched a major E-Commerce platform of their own based on [[Hybris (company)|Hybris]] and [http://us.arvatosystems.com/ arvato systems NA], in the US, EU and China.<ref>{{cite web|title=Benefit Cosmetics launches new ecommerce website in the US powered by hybris|url=http://www.hybris.com/news-events/press-releases/benefits-cosmetics-2011|date=November 8, 2011|publisher=Benefit Cosmetics|accessdate=September 10, 2011}}</ref> Amazon.com operates retail websites for [[Sears Canada]], [[bebe Stores]], [[Marks & Spencer]], [[Mothercare]], and [[Lacoste]]. For a growing number of [[Business|enterprise]] clients, currently including the UK merchants Marks & Spencer, Benefit Cosmetics' UK entity, edeals.com, and Mothercare, Amazon provides a unified multichannel platform where a customer can interact with some people they call the retail website, standalone in-store terminals, or phone-based customer service agents. [[Amazon Web Services]] also powers [[AOL]]'s Shop@AOL. On October 18, 2011, Amazon.com announced a partnership with DC Comics for the exclusive digital rights to many popular comics, including Superman, Batman, Green Lantern, The Sandman, and Watchmen. The partnership has caused well-known bookstores like Barnes & Noble to remove these titles from their shelves.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/19/technology/bookstores-drop-comics-after-amazon-deal-with-dc.html?_r=1&ref=technology|newspaper=The New York Times|first=David|last=Streitfeld|title=Bookstores Drop Comics After Amazon Deal With DC|date=October 18, 2011}}</ref> In November 2013, Amazon.com announced a partnership with the [[United States Postal Service]] to begin delivering orders on Sundays. The service, included with Amazon’s standard shipping rates, initiated in metropolitan areas of Los Angeles and New York, with plans to expand into Dallas, Houston, New Orleans, and Phoenix by 2014.<ref>{{cite web|last=Barr|first=Alistair|title=Amazon starts Sunday delivery with US Postal Service|url=http://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2013/11/11/amazon-sunday-delivery-usps/3479055/|publisher=USA Today|accessdate=25 November 2013}}</ref> ==Locations== Amazon has offices, [[fulfillment center]]s, warehouses, customer service centers and software development centers across North America, Latin America, Europe, Africa, and Asia.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com/Locations-Careers/b?ie=UTF8&node=239366011|title=Global locations|publisher=Amazon.com|accessdate=August 2013}}</ref> ===Headquarters=== [[File:Seattle-PacMed-2571.JPG|thumb|right|Amazon.com's former headquarters in the [[Pacific Medical Center]] building in [[Beacon Hill, Seattle]].]] The company's global headquarters are in 14 buildings in Seattle's [[South Lake Union, Seattle|South Lake Union]] neighborhood. The European headquarters are in Luxembourg's capital, [[Luxembourg (city)|Luxembourg City]]. In Seattle, as of 2013, a 3-tower headquarters near Amazon's existing buildings with a capacity of 12,000 employees was under construction.<ref name=NYT82513>{{cite news|title=As Amazon Stretches, Seattle’s Downtown Is Reshaped|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/26/us/as-amazon-stretches-seattles-downtown-is-reshaped.html|accessdate=August 26, 2013|newspaper=The New York Times|date=August 25, 2013|author=Kirk Johnson|author2=Nick Wingfield}}</ref> ===Software development centers=== While much of Amazon's software development occurs in Seattle, the company employs software developers in centers across the globe. Some of these sites are run by an Amazon subsidiary called A2Z Development.<ref name=WSJ>{{cite news|last=Woo|first=Stu|title=California Online Tax Law Pressures Amazon|url=http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702304450604576416191562187986.html?mod=googlewsj|accessdate=February 25, 2012|newspaper=The Wall Street Journal|date=July 1, 2011}}</ref> *North America **USA: [[Cambridge, Massachusetts|Cambridge, MA]];<ref>{{cite news|last=Kirsner|first=Scott|title=Amazon plans Cambridge office|url=http://www.bostonglobe.com/business/2011/12/22/amazon-plans-cambridge-office/ySyuSjQUdlyJSe15xSPqGJ/story.html?camp=pm|accessdate=February 22, 2012|newspaper=Boston Globe|date=December 23, 2011}}</ref> [[Irvine, CA]];<ref>{{cite news|last=Kirsner|first=Scott|title=Amazon plans Irvine development center|url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/jobs/ref=j_sq_btn?jobSearchKeywords=&category=*&location=US%2C+CA%2C+Irvine&x=20&y=9}}</ref>[[Charleston, South Carolina|Charleston, SC]];<ref>{{cite web|title=Charleston|url=http://www.a2z.com/all-locations/charleston|publisher=a2z.com|accessdate=February 25, 2012|archiveurl=http://archive.is/iq69|archivedate=2012-07-20}}</ref> [[Cupertino, California|Cupertino, CA]];<ref name=WSJ/> [[Orange County, California|Orange County, CA]]; [[San Francisco, CA]]; [[San Luis Obispo, California|San Luis Obispo, CA]];<ref>{{cite web|title=San Luis Obispo|url=http://www.a2z.com/all-locations/san-luis-obispo|publisher=a2z.com|accessdate=February 25, 2012|archiveurl=http://archive.is/Fx96|archivedate=2012-07-18}}</ref> [[Seattle|Seattle, WA]]; [[New York|New York, NY]] and [[Tempe, Arizona|Tempe, AZ]] **Canada: [[Vancouver]], British Columbia, Toronto downtown and [[Mississauga]], Ontario *Europe **Ireland: [[Dublin]] **Germany: [[Berlin]] and [[Dresden]]<ref>{{cite news|title=Amazon taps germany for engineers|url=http://gigaom.com/2013/05/03/amazon-taps-germany-for-cloud-and-machine-learning-engineers/}}</ref> **Netherlands: [[Rijswijk]] **Romania: [[Iași]] **UK: [[Slough]] (England), [[London]] (England) [[Dunfermline]] (Scotland) and [[Edinburgh]] (Scotland) *Asia **India: [[Hyderabad, India|Hyderabad]], [[Bangalore]] and [[Chennai]] **Japan: [[Meguro, Tokyo|Meguro]] ([[Tokyo]]) **China: [[Beijing]] *Africa **South Africa: [[Cape Town]] ===Customer Service Centers=== *United States: [[Kennewick, Washington|Kennewick, WA]]; [[Huntington, West Virginia|Huntington, WV]]; [[Grand Forks, North Dakota|Grand Forks, ND]]; [[Winchester, Kentucky|Winchester, KY]] *India: Hyderabad, Chennai, Bangalore *South Africa: [[Cape Town]]<ref>[http://www.1stream.co.za/2012/02/amazon-chooses-1streams-hosted-contact-centre-solution/ "Amazon chooses 1stream call center solutions for South Africa"], Retrieved, February 1, 2012.</ref> *Philippines: Convergys Cebu, Convergys Bacolod *China: Chengdu *Germany: Berlin *Ireland: Cork *Morocco: Sala al Jadida *UK: Edinburgh, Scotland *Japan: Sapporo *Costa Rica: Heredia and San Jose *Uruguay: Montevideo *Italy: Cagliari *Jamaica: Kingston ===Fulfillment and warehousing=== Fulfillment centers are located in the following cities, often near airports. These centers also provide warehousing and order-fulfillment for third-party sellers:<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/ Fulfillment by Amazon] from the company's website</ref> Warehouses are large and each has hundreds of employees. Employees are responsible for four basic tasks: unpacking and inspecting incoming goods; placing goods in storage and recording their location; picking goods from their computer recorded locations to make up an individual shipment; and shipping. A central computer which records the location of goods and maps out routes for pickers plays a central role; employees carry hand-held computers which communicate with the central computer and monitor their rate of progress. A picker with their cart may walk 10 or more miles a day. In the United Kingdom initial staffing was provided by [[Randstad Holding]] and other temporary employment agencies. Some workers are accepted as Amazon employees and granted pension and shares of stock; others are dismissed. "When we have permanent positions available, we look to the top performing temporary associates to fill them."<ref name=FT02813 /> Development of a high level of [[automation]] is anticipated in the future following Amazon's 2012 acquisition of [[Kiva Systems]], a warehouse automation company. [[File:Amazon.com Customer Service Center (Huntington, West Virginia) 003.jpg|thumb|Customer Service Center in Huntington, West Virginia]] *North America **USA ***[[Goodyear, Arizona|Goodyear, AZ]] ***[[Phoenix, Arizona|Phoenix, AZ]] ***[[Patterson, California|Patterson, CA]] ***[[San Bernardino, California|San Bernardino, CA]] ***[[Tracy, California|Tracy, CA]] (''opening 2014'') ***[[Windsor Locks, Connecticut|Windsor Locks, CT]] ***[[Middletown, Delaware|Middletown, DE]]<ref>{{cite web|last=Manahan|first=Kim|url=http://www.middletowntranscript.com/topstories/x123111779/Construction-on-Amazon-warehouse-to-start-by-next-month|title=Construction on Amazon warehouse to start by next month - Middletown, DE|publisher=Middletown Transcript|accessdate=March 19, 2012}}</ref> ***[[New Castle, Delaware|New Castle, DE]] ***[[Jeffersonville, Indiana|Jeffersonville, IN]] ***[[Plainfield, Indiana|Plainfield, IN]] ***[[Whitestown, Indiana|Whitestown, IN]] ***[[Coffeyville, Kansas|Coffeyville, KS]] ***[[Campbellsville, Kentucky|Campbellsville, KY]] ***[[Hebron, Kentucky|Hebron, KY]] (''near [[Cincinnati|Cincinnati, OH]]'') ***[[Lexington, Kentucky|Lexington, KY]] ***[[Louisville, Kentucky|Louisville, KY]] ***[[Baltimore|Baltimore, MD]] (''opening Fall 2014'')<ref>{{cite web|url=http://baltimore.cbslocal.com/2013/10/22/amazon-com-to-open-baltimore-fulfillment-center/ |title=Amazon.com To Open Baltimore Distribution Center, Giving Area 1,000+ Jobs |publisher=Baltimore.cbslocal.com |date=2013-10-22 |accessdate=2013-12-16}}</ref> ***[[Robbinsville, New Jersey|Robbinsville, NJ]] (''opening early 2014'')<ref>{{cite web|author=Martin Griff / The Times of Trenton|url=http://www.nj.com/mercer/index.ssf/2013/01/amazon_will_open_robbinsville.html|title=Amazon's prime location: Business experts say distribution hub in Mercer is ideal|publisher=NJ.com|date=|accessdate=2013-01-31}}</ref> ***[[Fernley, Nevada|Fernley, NV]] ***[[North Las Vegas, Nevada|North Las Vegas, NV]] ***[[Nashua, New Hampshire|Nashua, NH]] ***[[Breinigsville, Pennsylvania|Breinigsville, PA]] ***[[Carlisle, Pennsylvania|Carlisle, PA]] ***[[Hazleton, Pennsylvania|Hazleton, PA]] ***[[Lewisberry, Pennsylvania|Lewisberry, PA]] ***[[Lexington, South Carolina|Lexington, SC]]<ref>{{cite news|author=Seanna Adcox (Associated Press)|url=http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9NNRRO80.htm|title=Amazon posts jobs for SC as deal becomes law|work=[[Bloomberg Businessweek]]|date=June 8, 2011|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=176060&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1571752&highlight=|title=Amazon Fulfillment Center in Lexington County, South Carolina Hiring for Hundreds of Full-time Jobs with Great Benefits|publisher=Amazon.com|accessdate=June 8, 2011}}</ref> ***[[Spartanburg, South Carolina|Spartanburg, SC]]; ***[[Chattanooga, Tennessee|Chattanooga, TN]] ***[[Lebanon, Tennessee|Lebanon, TN]] ***[[Murfreesboro, Tennessee|Murfreesboro, TN]] ***[[Irving, Texas|Irving, TX]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.dallasnews.com/business/headlines/20110412-amazon-hasnt-delivered-on-threat-to-close-irving-distribution-center-over-sales-tax-dispute.ece|title=Amazon hasn’t closed its Irving distribution center, as it threatened|work=The Dallas Morning News|date=April 12, 2011|accessdate=July 12, 2011}}</ref> (''between [[Dallas]] and [[Fort Worth, Texas|Fort Worth]]'') ***[[Schertz, Texas|Schertz, TX]] (''near San Antonio'') ***[[Chester, Virginia|Chester, VA]] ***[[Dinwiddie, Virginia|Dinwiddie, VA]] (''near [[Richmond, Virginia|Richmond, VA]]'') ***[[Sterling, Virginia|Sterling, VA]] ***[[Bellevue, Washington|Bellevue, WA]] ***[[DuPont, Washington|DuPont, WA]] (''opening Fall 2013'') ***[[Sumner, Washington|Sumner, WA]].<ref>{{cite news|url=http://blog.seattlepi.com/amazon/2008/08/19/a-peek-at-the-quietly-expanding-amazonfresh|title=A peek at the quietly expanding AmazonFresh|work=Seattle Post-Intelligencer|date=August 19, 2008|accessdate=August 19, 2008|first=Andrea|last=James}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.thenewstribune.com/2011/05/04/1652278/amazoncom-to-open-sumner-warehouse.html#storylink=omni_popular|title=Amazon to open Sumner warehouse, hire several hundred|publisher=The News Tribune|date=May 5, 2011|accessdate=February 23, 2012|first=John|last=Gillie}}{{dead link|date=February 2013}}</ref> ***[[Huntington, West Virginia]] **Canada ***[[Mississauga, Ontario]] ***[[Annacis Island]] a part of [[Delta, British Columbia]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.delta-optimist.com/Amazon+locate+centre+Delta+Annacis+Island/7256260/story.html|title=Amazon to locate centre on Delta's Annacis Island|publisher=delta-optimist.com|accessdate=December 12, 2012}}</ref> [[File:Amazon warehouse Glenrothes.jpg|thumb|Amazon.co.uk warehouse in [[Glenrothes]], Scotland, UK]] *Europe **United Kingdom, as of 2013, 7 in operation with 3 more planned.<ref name=FT02813 /> ***England ****Marston Gate (''near [[Brogborough]]'') ****[[Rugeley]],<ref name=FT02813>{{cite news|title=Amazon unpacked: The online giant is creating thousands of UK jobs, so why are some employees less than happy?|url=http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/2/ed6a985c-70bd-11e2-85d0-00144feab49a.html|accessdate=February 8, 2013|newspaper=Financial Times|date=February 8, 2013|author=Sarah O’Connor}}</ref> [[Staffordshire]] ****[[Peterborough]] ****[[Doncaster]] ****[[Hemel Hempstead]] ***Scotland ****[[Gourock]] ([[Inverclyde]]) ****[[Dunfermline]] ([[Fife]]) ***Wales ****[[Crymlyn Burrows]] ****[[Swansea]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/help/seller/at-a-glance.html?seller=A2OAJ7377F756P&marketplaceSeller=1|title=Warehouse Deals address|publisher=Amazon.co.uk|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/south-wales-news/neath/2007/05/24/call-for-jobs-to-go-to-locals-91466-19192844|title=Call for jobs to go to locals|publisher=Wales Online|date=May 24, 2007|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> (''near [[Jersey Marine]]'')<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/7349546.stm|publisher=BBC News|title=Jobs boost as web warehouse opens|date=April 16, 2008|accessdate=April 23, 2010}}</ref> **France ***[[Boigny-sur-Bionne]] (''2000'') ***[[Saran, Loiret|Saran]] (''2007'') ***[[Montélimar]] (''2010'') ***[[Sevrey]] (''Autumn 2012'') ***[[Lauwin-Planque]] (''October 2013'') **Germany ***[[Bad Hersfeld]] (''1996'' and ''2010'') (Hessen) ***[[Leipzig]] (''2006'') (Saxony) ***[[Werne]] (''2010'') (North Rhine-Westphalia) ***[[Rheinberg]] (''2011'') (North Rhine-Westphalia) ***[[Graben, Bavaria|Graben]] (''2011'') (Bavaria) ***[[Koblenz]] (''2012'') (Rhineland-Palatinate) ***[[Pforzheim]] (''2012'') (Baden-Württemberg) **Netherlands ***[[Amsterdam]] **Italy ***[[Castel San Giovanni]] (''2011'' and ''2013'') ([[Emilia-Romagna]])<ref>{{cite web|author=Giacomo Dotta|url=http://www.webnews.it/2011/10/27/amazon-mette-radici-in-italia/?ref=post|title=Amazon mette radici in Italia|publisher=Webnews.it|date=October 27, 2011|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> **Slovakia: [[Bratislava]] (2011)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cas.sk/clanok/200234/amazon-otvara-v-bratislave-centrum-podpory-predaja-hlada-200-ludi.html|title=Amazon otvára v Bratislave centrum podpory predaja, hľadá 200 ľudí|publisher=profimedia.sk|date=June 14, 2011|accessdate=August 4, 2011}}</ref> **Spain ***[[San Fernando de Henares, Madrid|San Fernando de Henares]] ([[Comunidad de Madrid|Madrid]]) *Asia **Japan ***[[Ichikawa, Chiba|Ichikawa]] ***[[Yachiyo, Chiba|Yachiyo]] ***[[Chiba Prefecture|Chiba]] ***[[Sakai, Osaka|Sakai]] ***[[Daito, Osaka|Daito]] ***[[Osaka Prefecture|Osaka]] ***[[Kawagoe, Saitama|Kawagoe]] ***[[Saitama Prefecture|Saitama]] **China ***[[Guangzhou]] ***[[Suzhou]] ***[[Beijing]] ***[[Chengdu]] **India ***[[Mumbai]] ***[[Bangalore]] (Feb 2014) ===Other=== *[[Audible.com]] (subsidiary) Headquarters at [[1 Washington Park]] in [[Newark, NJ]]. *[[Zappos.com]] Headquarters in [[Las Vegas, Nevada]]. *Woot Headquarters in [[Carrollton, Texas]]. ===Closed fulfillment, warehousing and customer service locations=== These US distribution centers have been closed: SDC Seattle Distribution Center, located in Georgetown, just south of downtown Seattle; Red Rock, Nevada; [[Chambersburg, Pennsylvania]]; [[Munster, Indiana]]; and [[McDonough, Georgia]].<ref>{{cite web|last=Flach|first=Tim|url=http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2011/04/28/113086/amazon-packing-after-south-carolina.html|title=McClatchy, Thursday, April 28, 2011|publisher=Mcclatchydc.com|date=April 28, 2011|accessdate=August 4, 2011}}</ref><ref>[http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9130686 amazon.com shuttering 3 US distribution centers], a March 2009 ''[[Computer World]]'' article</ref><ref>[http://www.seattlepi.com/venture/layoff.asp?id=101 Recent Layoffs at Area Technology Companies]{{dead link|date=October 2011}}, a January 2001 SeattlePI article</ref> From 2000<ref>{{cite news|last=Wolverton|first=Troy|url=http://news.cnet.com/2100-1017-235621.html|title=Amazon adds East Coast customer service center|date=January 13, 2000|publisher=[[CNET]]|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> until February 2001, there was an Amazon customer service based in [[The Hague, Netherlands]].<ref>{{cite web|publisher=thefreelibrary.com|url=http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Amazon.com+Releases+2001+Second+Quarter+Results.-a076708124|title=Amazon.com Releases 2001 Second Quarter Results.|date=July 23, 2001|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|title=Amazon.com: Get Big Fast|last=Spector|first=Robert|year=2002|publisher=[[HarperCollins]]|isbn=0066620422|page=243|accessdate=September 6, 2012|url=http://books.google.com/?id=J-NkSGoY-cIC&pg=PA243&lpg=PA243&dq=Amazon.com+2000+The+Hague#v=onepage&q=Amazon.com%202000%20The%20Hague&f=false}}</ref> ==Products and services== [[File:Amazon Kindle 3.JPG|thumb|upright|Third-generation [[Amazon Kindle]]]] ===Retail goods=== Amazon product lines include media - [[book]]s, DVDs, music CDs, software, [[VHS|videotapes]], and software - apparel, baby products, [[consumer electronics]], [[cosmetics|beauty products]], gourmet food, groceries, health and personal-care items, industrial & scientific supplies, kitchen items, [[jewelry]] and watches, lawn and garden items, musical instruments, [[sports equipment|sporting goods]], tools, and toys & games. The company launched amazon.com Auctions, a web auctions service, in March 1999. However, it failed to chip away at the large market share of the industry pioneer, [[eBay]]. Later, the company launched a fixed-price [[marketplace]] business, zShops, in September 1999, and the now defunct partnership with [[Sotheby's]], called ''Sothebys.amazon.com'', in November. Auctions and zShops evolved into [[Amazon Marketplace]], a service launched in November 2000 that let customers sell used books, CDs, DVDs, and other products alongside new items. Today, Amazon Marketplace's main rival is eBay's [[Half.com]] service.{{citation needed|date=November 2013}} In August 2007, Amazon announced [[AmazonFresh]], a grocery service offering [[perishable food|perishable]] and [[nonperishable food]]s. Customers can have orders delivered to their homes at dawn or during a specified daytime window. Delivery was initially restricted to residents of [[Mercer Island, Washington]], and was later expanded to several [[ZIP code]]s in Seattle proper.<ref name="fresh">Arrington, Michael (August 1, 2007). [http://www.techcrunch.com/2007/08/01/remember-webvan-so-does-amazon/ "Remember Webvan? So Does Amazon"]. [[TechCrunch]].</ref> AmazonFresh also operated pick-up locations in the suburbs of [[Bellevue, Washington|Bellevue]] and [[Kirkland, Washington|Kirkland]] from summer 2007 through early 2008. In 2012, Amazon announced the launch of Vine.com for buying green products, including groceries, household items, and apparel.<ref name=miller2012>{{cite web|url=http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/26/amazon-starts-a-shopping-site-for-the-environmental-crowd/?smid=tw-nytimesbits&seid=auto|title=Amazon Starts a Shopping Site for the Environmental Crowd|work=[[The New York Times]]|author=CLAIRE CAIN MILLER|date=September 26, 2012|accessdate=October 9, 2012}}</ref> It is part of [[Quidsi]], the company that Amazon bought in 2010 that also runs the sites [[Diapers.com]] (baby), [[Wag.com]] (pets), and [[YoYo.com]] (toys).<ref name=miller2012/> Amazon also owns other e-commerce sites like [[Shopbop.com]], [[Woot.com]], and [[Zappos.com]].<ref name=miller2012/> Amazon's Subscribe & Save program offers a discounted price on an item (usually sold in bulk), free shipping on every Subscribe & Save shipment, and automatic shipment of the item every one, two, three, or six months.<ref>{{cite web|title=Amazon.com Subscribe & Save|url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/subscribe-and-save/details/index.html|publisher=Amazon|accessdate=July 21, 2011}}</ref> In 2013, Amazon launched its site in India, amazon.in. It has started with electronic goods and plans to expand into fashion apparel, beauty, home essentials, and healthcare categories by the end of 2013.{{citation needed|date=September 2013}} ===Consumer electronics=== In November 2007, Amazon launched [[Amazon Kindle]], an [[e-book]] reader which downloads content over "[[Whispernet]]", via [[Sprint Corporation|Sprint's]] [[EV-DO]] wireless network. The screen uses [[E Ink]] technology to reduce [[battery (electricity)|battery]] consumption and to provide a more legible display. As of March 2011, the stated library numbers over 850,000 titles.{{citation needed|date=November 2013}} In September 2011, Amazon announced its entry into the [[tablet computer]] market by introducing the [[Kindle Fire]], which runs a customized version of the operating system [[Android (operating system)|Android]]. The exceedingly low pricing of Fire ($199 USD{{when|date=November 2013}}{{citation needed|date=November 2013}}) was widely perceived as a strategy backed by Amazon's revenue from its content sales, to be stimulated by sales of the Fire. In September 2012, Amazon unveiled the second generation tablet, called the [[Kindle Fire HD]]. On September 25, 2013, Amazon.com unveiled its third generation tablet, called [[Kindle Fire HDX]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Kindle Fire HDX Tablets, Impressive Device At An Insanely Low Price By Amazon.com|url=http://ceoworld.biz/2013/09/25/kindle-fire-hdx-tablets-impressive-device-at-an-insanely-low-price-by-amazon-com-198016|date=September 25, 2013|publisher=CEOWORLD Magazine|accessdate=September 25, 2013}}</ref> In October 2013, the sixth generation [[Amazon Kindle#Sixth generation|Kindle]] was released. ===Digital content=== [[File:Amazon Kindle Fire HD 8.9" Tablet Japanese Edition.JPG|thumb|right|Amazon Kindle Fire HD 8.9" Tablet]] Amazon's Honor System was launched in 2001 to allow customers to make donations or buy digital content, with Amazon collecting a percentage of the payment plus a fee; however, the service was discontinued in 2008<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com|title=Amazon.com|publisher=Amazon.com|date=September 9, 2009|accessdate=August 29, 2010|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100828044958/http://www.amazon.com|archivedate=August 28, 2010 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> and replaced by [[Amazon Payments]]. [[Amazon MP3]], its own online music store, launched in the US on September 25, 2007, selling downloads exclusively in MP3 format without [[digital rights management]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=176060&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1055053&highlight=|title=amazon.com-News Release|publisher=Phx.corporate-ir.net|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> (In addition to copyright law, Amazon's [[terms of service|terms of use]] agreements restrict use of the MP3s, but Amazon does not use [[Digital rights management|digital rights management (DRM)]] to enforce those terms.)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com|title=Amazon MP3 Frequently Asked Questions|publisher=Amazon.com|date=September 9, 2009|accessdate=August 29, 2010|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100828044958/http://www.amazon.com|archivedate=August 28, 2010 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> In addition to independent music labels, Amazon MP3 primarily sells music from the "[[music industry|Big 4]]" record labels: [[EMI]], [[Universal Music Group|Universal]], [[Warner Bros. Records]], and [[Sony Music]]. Prior to the launch of this service, Amazon made an investment in [[Amie Street]], a music store with a variable pricing model based on [[demand]].<ref>{{cite news|url=http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20070806-amazon-invests-in-social-music-site-amie-street.html|title=Amazon invests in social music site Amie Street|last=Cheng|first=Jacqui|accessdate=September 26, 2007|publisher=Ars Technica|date=August 6, 2007|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071014015314/http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20070806-amazon-invests-in-social-music-site-amie-street.html|archivedate=October 14, 2007 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> Amazon MP3 was the first online offering of DRM-free music from all four major record companies.<ref name="launch-pr">{{cite web|url=http://home.businesswire.com/portal/site/google/index.jsp?ndmViewId=news_view&newsId=20070925005710&newsLang=en|title=amazon.com Launches Public Beta of Amazon MP3|publisher=Home.businesswire.com|date=September 25, 2007|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref><ref name="warner">{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/28/technology/28music.html|title=Amazon to Sell Warner Music Minus Copy Protection|newspaper=The New York Times|date=December 28, 2007|accessdate=January 12, 2009|last=Leeds|first=Jeff|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20081211172006/http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/28/technology/28music.html|archivedate=December 11, 2008 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref name="sony1">{{cite news|url=http://www.informationweek.com/news/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=205602334&subSection=All+Stories|title=Amazon Adds Fourth Major Record Label To DRM-Free Music Store|work=[[InformationWeek]]|accessdate=January 12, 2009|date=January 10, 2008}}{{dead link|date=February 2013}}</ref><ref name="sony2">{{cite news|url=http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/01/10/sony-drives-another-nail-in-the-drm-coffin/?ref=technology|title=Sony Drives Another Nail in the D.R.M. Coffin|newspaper=The New York Times|date=January 10, 2008|accessdate=January 12, 2009|first=Saul|last=Hansell}}</ref> In January 2008, Amazon began distributing its MP3 service to subsidiary websites worldwide<ref name='AmazonMP3 Coming to UK'>{{cite web|url=http://uk.gizmodo.com/2008/01/28/amazon_mp3_coming_to_the_uk_an.html|title=Amazon MP3 Music Coming to UK'|accessdate=February 1, 2008|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080629001350/http://uk.gizmodo.com/2008/01/28/amazon_mp3_coming_to_the_uk_an.html|archivedate=June 29, 2008}}</ref> and, in December 2008, Amazon MP3 was made available in the UK. At the launch of Amazon MP3 in the UK, over 3 million Digital Rights Management (DRM)-free songs were made available to consumers, with prices that started at 59p, compared to Apple's 79p starting price.<ref>{{cite web|title=iTunes-killer Amazon MP3 launches in the UK|url=http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/news/audio/107924/itunes-killer-amazon-mp3-launches-in-the-uk/|work=PC Advisor|publisher=IDG|accessdate=7 February 2014|author=Carrie-Ann Skinner|date=3 December 2008}}</ref> In July 2010, Amazon announced that [[e-book]] sales for its Kindle reader outnumbered sales of [[hardcover]] books for the first time ever during the second [[Fiscal year|quarter]] of 2010. Amazon claims that, during that period, 143 e-books were sold for every 100 hardcover books, including hardcovers for which there is no digital edition; and during late June and early July, sales rose to 180 digital books for every 100 hardcovers.<ref name=NYT071910>{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/20/technology/20kindle.html|title=E-Books Top Hardcovers at Amazon|newspaper=The New York Times|date=July 19, 2010|accessdate=July 19, 2010|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100721171929/http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/20/technology/20kindle.html|archivedate=July 21, 2010 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> On March 22, 2011, Amazon launched the [[Amazon Appstore]] for [[Android (operating system)|Android]] devices and the service was made available in over 200 countries.<ref>{{cite web|author=Amazon.com |url=https://developer.amazon.com/post/Tx3IJP9TKDQOXS5/Developers-Can-Now-Distribute-Apps-in-Nearly-200-Countries-Worldwide-on-Amazon.html |title=Developers Can Now Distribute Apps in Nearly 200 Countries Worldwide on Amazon - Amazon Mobile App Distribution Blog |publisher=Developer.amazon.com |date=2013-05-23 |accessdate=2013-11-27}}</ref> Also in 2011, Amazon announced that it was releasing a Mac download store to offer dozens of games and hundreds of pieces of software for Apple computers.<ref>Kyle Orland, Gamasutra. "[http://gamasutra.com/view/news/34868/Amazon_Launches_Mac_Download_Store_To_Compete_With_Apple.php Amazon Launches Mac Download Store To Compete With Apple]." May 26, 2011. Retrieved May 31, 2011.</ref> In January 2013, Amazon launched AutoRip, a digital music service. The service allows customers to receive a free MP3 copy of select CDs purchased through Amazon.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.msn.com/science-technology/amazon-launches-its-own-digital-music-service|title=Amazon launches its own digital music service|work=MSN News|date=January 10, 2013|accessdate=January 11, 2013}}</ref> Amazon announced in September 2013 that they would launch Kindle MatchBook in October 2013, a similar service for books allowing customers who buy books from Amazon to acquire an e-book copy for free, or at a discounted price of US$3 or less.<ref>{{cite web|author=Ian Paul @ianpaul |url=http://www.techhive.com/article/2048048/amazons-kindle-matchbook-turns-past-print-purchases-into-low-cost-e-books.html |title=Amazon's Kindle MatchBook turns past print purchases into low-cost ebooks |publisher=Techhive.com |date= |accessdate=2013-12-16}}</ref> MatchBook was launched on the company's site on October 29, 2013.<ref>{{cite web|author=[%= data.comment.created_on %] |url=http://www.theverge.com/2013/10/29/5042058/amazon-launches-matchbook-offering-cheap-digital-copies-of-print-books |title='&#39;The Verge: Amazon launches Kindle MatchBook, offering cheap digital copies of your physical books'&#39; |publisher=Theverge.com |date=2013-10-29 |accessdate=2013-12-16}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com/kindlematchbook |title=Kindle MatchBook'&#39; |publisher=Amazon.com |date= |accessdate=2013-12-16}}</ref> ====Amazon Games==== In August 2012, Amazon announced it would be adding a gaming department to its company titled Amazon Game Studios. Amazon stated that they will introduce "innovative, fun and well-crafted games" to consumers.<ref>{{cite web|last=Li|first=Anita|title=Amazon Launches Game Studio, Gives Zynga Competition|url=http://mashable.com/2012/08/07/amazon-game-studios|publisher=Mashable}}</ref> According to the Amazon Game Studios website, the last game that was launched by the department was Amazon's first ever mobile game ''Air Patriots'', released on November 1, 2012.<ref>{{cite web|title=Amazon launches its first mobile game, 'Air Patriots,' for iOS and Android|url=http://www.theverge.com/2012/11/1/3585244/amazon-first-mobile-game-air-patriots-iphone-android-kindle-fire|work=The Verge|publisher=Vox Media, Inc|accessdate=7 February 2014|author=Andrew Webster|date=1 November 2012}}</ref> On February 6, 2014, Amazon confirmed the acquisition of the gaming company Double Helix Games without any indication of the financial terms. The 75 Double Helix employees will become Amazon employees and their [[Orange County, California]] headquarters remain their operating base. Amazon informed the ''TechCrunch'' media company that it "acquired Double Helix as part of our [Amazon's] ongoing commitment to build innovative games for customers" and confirmed that Double Helix's current game roster and other future developments will receive support following the acquisition.<ref>{{cite web|title=Amazon Acquires Video Gaming Studio Double Helix Games|url=http://techcrunch.com/2014/02/05/amazon-acquires-video-gaming-studio-double-helix-games/?ncid=tcdaily|work=TechCrunch|publisher=AOL, Inc|accessdate=7 February 2014|author=Sarah Perez|date=6 February 2014}}</ref> ===Amazon Art=== In August 2013 Amazon launched Amazon Art as an online marketplace selling original and limited edition fine art from selected galleries.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-23599640|title=Amazon to sell Warhol and Dali in online venture|work=BBC News|date=August 7, 2013|accessdate=August 8, 2013}}</ref> The initial 40000 items listed for sale included [[Norman Rockwell|Norman Rockwell's]] painting [[Willie Gillis#Willie Gillis Series|“Willie Gillis: Package from Home”]] priced at $4.85 million, "[[L'Enfant a la tasse]]" by [[Claude Monet]] for $1.45 million and [[Andy Warhol|Andy Warhol's "Sachiko"]] for $45 000.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/arts/culture/la-et-cm-amazon-art-andy-warhol-20130806,0,2223415.story|title=Amazon Art launches with masterpieces by Andy Warhol, Monet|work=Los Angeles Times|date=August 6, 2013|accessdate=August 8, 2013}}</ref> ===Amazon Instant Video=== {{main|Amazon Instant Video|Amazon Instant Video UK|Amazon Instant Video German}} ===Amazon Prime=== Amazon Prime is a service of free two-day shipping on all eligible purchases, for a flat annual fee, as well as discounted one-day shipping rates.<ref>{{cite web|title=Amazon Prime|url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/prime|publisher=amazon.com|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> Amazon launched the program in the contiguous United States in 2005, in Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany in 2007, in France (as "Amazon Premium") in 2008, in Italy in 2011 and in Canada in 2013. Amazon Prime membership in the United States, United Kingdom and Germany also provides [[Amazon Instant Video]], the instant streaming of selected movies and TV shows at no additional cost.<ref>{{cite web|title=Amazon Adds Instant Videos to Amazon Prime|url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=176060&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1531234|date=February 22, 2011|publisher=phx.corporate.ir.net|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> In November 2011, it was announced that Prime members have access to the Kindle Owners’ Lending Library, which allows users to borrow certain popular titles for free reading on Kindle hardware, up to one book a month, with no due date.<ref>[http://www.mediabistro.com/galleycat/kindle-owners-lending-library-opens_b41463 "Kindle Owners’ Lending Library Unveiled"], GalleyCat, Jason Boog, November 3, 2011.</ref> ===Private labels and exclusive marketing arrangements=== In August 2005,<ref name="tmregis">US [[Trademark]] registrations numbered 3216667 and 3266840/3266847, issued March 6, 2007 and July 17, 2007</ref> Amazon began selling products under its own [[private label]], "Pinzon"; the [[trademark]] applications indicated that the label would be used for textiles, kitchen utensils, and other household goods.<ref name="tmregis" /> In March 2007, the company applied to expand the trademark to cover a more diverse list of goods and to register a new design consisting of the "word PINZON in stylized letters with a notched letter "O" which appears at the "one o'clock" position".<ref name="tmsearch">[http://tess2.uspto.gov/bin/gate.exe?f=login&p_lang=english&p_d=trmk Trademark Electronic Search System] from the [[United States Patent and Trademark Office|USPTO]], supplying "PINZON" as the search term</ref> Coverage by the trademark grew to include items such as paints, carpets, wallpaper, hair accessories, clothing, footwear, headgear, cleaning products, and jewelry.<ref name="tmsearch" /> In September 2008, Amazon filed to have the name registered. [[United States Patent and Trademark Office|USPTO]] has finished its review of the application, but Amazon has yet to receive an official registration for the name. AmazonBasics is a private-label consumer electronics product line. It sells AV cables, blank DVD media and other electronics products under the AmazonBasics product label.<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/b?node=1267157011 AmazonBasics], official website.</ref> The line was launched in 2009.<ref>{{cite web|author=Darren Murph|url=http://www.engadget.com/2009/09/20/amazonbasics-bezos-and-co-starts-private-label-consumer-electr|title=AmazonBasics: Bezos and Co. starts private-label consumer electronics line|date=September 20, 2009|publisher=engadget.com|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> An Amazon.com exclusive is a product, usually a DVD, that is available exclusively on Amazon.com. Some DVDs are produced by the owner of the film/product, while others are produced by Amazon.com itself. The DVDs produced by Amazon are made using their "CreateSpace" program, in which DVDs are created, upon ordering, using DVD-R technology. The DVDs are then shipped about two days later. Some DVDs (such as the [[Jersey Shore]] Season 1 or [[The Unusuals]] Season 1) first release their DVD on Amazon as an Amazon.com Exclusive for a limited time before being released elsewhere. On May 23, 2011, Amazon.com allowed customers to download Lady Gaga's Born This Way album for $0.99, resulting in some downloads being delayed, due to an extremely high volume of downloads.<ref name=post>{{cite news|title=Lady Gaga’s $0.99 Album Download Overwhelms Amazon|work=Mashable|date=May 23, 2011|url=http://mashable.com/2011/05/23/lady-gaga-amazon-2/}}</ref> Amazon self publishing services through one of its companies, CreateSpace, a member of the Amazon group of companies.<ref name=amazonself>{{cite web|last=Amazon.com|title=Self-Publish with Us|url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/seller-account/mm-summary-page.html?topic=200260520|publisher=Amazon.com|accessdate=14 May 2013}}</ref> ===Computing services=== [[File:AWSSummit2013NYC2.JPG|thumb|right|AWS Summit 2013 event in NYC.]] Amazon launched [[Amazon Web Services]] (AWS) in 2002, which provides programmatic access to latent features on its website. Amazon Web Services (AWS) was first launched as a public beta of [[Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud]] running Microsoft Windows Server and Microsoft SQL Server.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=176060&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1216597&highlight=|title=Corporate-ir.net|publisher=Phx.corporate-ir.net|date=December 31, 2007|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> This was later expanded to several operating systems, including various flavors of Linux and OpenSolaris. In November 2005, amazon.com began testing [[Amazon Mechanical Turk]], an [[application programming interface]] (API) allowing programs to dispatch tasks to human processors. In March 2006, Amazon launched an online storage service called [[Amazon S3|Amazon Simple Storage Service]] (Amazon S3). An unlimited number of data objects, from 1&nbsp;[[byte]] to 5&nbsp;[[terabyte]]s in size, can be stored in S3 and distributed via [[Hypertext Transfer Protocol|HTTP]] or [[BitTorrent]]. The service charges monthly fees for data stored and transferred. In 2006, Amazon introduced [[Amazon Simple Queue Service]] (Amazon SQS), a distributed queue messaging service, and product [[wiki]]s (later folded into [[#2007|Amapedia]]) and [[Internet forum|discussion forums]] for certain products using guidelines that follow standard [[Internet forum|message board]] conventions. Also in 2006, Amazon introduced Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2), a virtual site farm, allowing users to use the Amazon infrastructure to run applications ranging from running simulations to web hosting. In 2008, Amazon improved the service by adding Elastic Block Store (EBS), offering persistent storage for Amazon EC2 instances and [[Elastic IP address]]es, and offering static IP addresses designed for dynamic [[cloud computing]]. Amazon introduced [[Amazon SimpleDB|SimpleDB]], a database system, allowing users of its other infrastructure to utilize a high-reliability, high-performance database system. Amazon continues to refine and add services to AWS, adding such services as Scalable DNS service (Amazon Route 53), payment handling, and AWS specific APIs for their [[Amazon Mechanical Turk|Mechanical Turk]] service. In August 2012, Amazon announced [[Amazon Glacier]], a low-cost [[online file storage]] [[web service]] that provides reliable data archiving, storage, and backup.<ref>{{cite news|first=Stephanie|last=Mlot|title=Amazon Launches Glacier Cloud Storage Service|date=August 21, 2012|publisher=PCMag.com}}</ref> In November 2012 at AWS' web developer conference in Las Vegas it announced it was targeting large companies as cloud storage clients. It will further cut its S3 prices to customers with long-term contracts in its "Redshift" storage service launching in 2013. In March 2013 Amazon announced its Mobile Ads API for developers. The new Ads API can be used on apps distributed on any Android platform as long as the app is also available on Amazon’s Appstore.<ref>Panzarino, Matthew. (2013-03-04) [http://thenextweb.com/mobile/2013/03/04/amazon-introduces-mobile-ads-api-offering-in-app-advertising-to-u-s-viewers-of-any-android-app/?fromcat=all Amazon Launches Mobile Ads API]. Thenextweb.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.</ref> ===Content production=== [[Amazon Publishing]] is Amazon's publishing unit.<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?docId=1000664761 Amazon Publishing], official website.</ref> It is composed of AmazonEncore,<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?docId=1000373401 AmazonEncore], official website</ref> AmazonCrossing,<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?docId=1000507571 AmazonCrossing], official website.</ref> Montlake Romance,<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?docId=1000677371 Montlake Romance], official website.</ref> Thomas & Mercer,<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?docId=1000664921 Thomas & Mercer], official website.</ref> 47 North,<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?docId=1000715991 47 North], official website.</ref> and Powered by Amazon. Additional imprints are planned. Launched in 2005, Amazon Shorts offered exclusive short stories and non-fiction pieces from best-selling authors for immediate download. By June 2007, the program had over 1,700 pieces and was adding about 50 new pieces per week. The program was discontinued on June 1, 2010.<ref name=Shorts>{{cite web|title=SHORTS CUT OFF: AMAZON CLOSING STORY PROGRAM|url=http://ereads.com/2010/05/shorts-cut-offamazon-closing-story-program-but-you-can-transfer-to-kindle.html|date=May 5, 2010|work=Huffington Post|accessdate=April 26, 2012}}{{dead link|date=February 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Amazon Shorts cancellation notice|url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?ie=UTF8&docId=570212|accessdate=April 26, 2012}}</ref> In 2008, Amazon expanded into [[filmmaking|film production]], producing the film ''The Stolen Child'' with [[20th Century Fox]].<ref>{{cite news|last=Graser|first=Marc|url=http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117981288.html?categoryid=13&cs=1|title=Amazon, Fox nursing 'Stolen Child'|date=February 21, 2008|work=Variety|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}{{dead link|date=March 2013}}</ref> ===Donations=== Amazon also created "channels" to benefit certain causes. In 2004, Amazon allowed customers to donate $5 to $200 to the campaigns of [[United States presidential election, 2004|2004 US presidential hopefuls]], providing links that raised $300,000 for the candidates.<ref>{{cite news|last=Justice|first=Glen|title=Kerry Kept Money Coming With the Internet as His ATM|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/06/politics/campaign/06internet.html?pagewanted=print&position=&_r=0|accessdate=2 February 2013|newspaper=The New York Times|date=6 November 2004}}</ref> Amazon has periodically reactivated a [[Red Cross]] donation channel after crises such as [[Hurricane Sandy]], [[Hurricane Katrina]], and the 2004 [[2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami|earthquake and tsunami in the Indian Ocean]]. By January 2005, nearly 200,000 people had donated over $15.7 million in the US.<ref>''[https://americanredcross.com/pressrelease/0,1077,0_489_4152,00.html More than $43 Million Raised by Consumer Programs for Red Cross Tsunami Relief]'', [[American Red Cross]] press release, January 21, 2005.</ref> ===Amazon Local=== Amazon Local is a [[Deal of the day|daily deal]] service launched in June 2011 in [[Boise, Idaho]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://local.amazon.com/mediaroom#amazonlocal-birthday|title=Amazon Local: Media Room|publisher=Local.amazon.com|date=|accessdate=2013-12-05}}</ref> As of 2013, Amazon Local offers daily deals to over 100 regions in 36 [[U.S. state]]s. Amazon Local also acts as a deal aggregator; some of the deals are actually offered through [[LivingSocial]], a firm in which Amazon has heavily invested.<ref>{{cite web|author=Pascal-Emmanuel Gobry|url=http://www.businessinsider.com/amazon-local-daily-deals-livingsocial-groupon-2011-6|title=Amazon.com: Amazon Local Is Its Foray Into The Daily Deal Space|publisher=Business Insider|date=2011-06-02|accessdate=2013-01-31}}</ref> ===AmazonWireless=== In July 2009, Amazon.com launched their AmazonWireless website,<ref name="Fast Company">{{cite web|url=http://www.fastcompany.com/blog/clay-dillow/culture-buffet/amazonwireless-offers-phones-and-plans-minus-cellular-store|title=AmazonWireless Offers Phones and Plans, Minus the Cellular Store|last=Dillow|first=Clay|date=9 July 2009|publisher=[[Fast Company (magazine)]]|accessdate=2009-09-07}}</ref> which offers cellular devices and service plans for [[Verizon Wireless]], [[AT&T Mobility|AT&T]], [[Sprint Nextel]] and [[T-Mobile USA|T-Mobile]] in the US.<ref name="phandroid">{{cite web|url=http://phandroid.com/2009/07/09/amazon-launches-amazonwirelesscom|title=Amazon launches AmazonWireless.com|last=Jackson|first=Rob|date=9 July 2009|publisher=Phandroid.com|accessdate=2009-09-07}}</ref> ===AmazonFresh=== {{main|AmazonFresh}} ===Amazon Prime Air=== ''[[60 Minutes]]'' announced on December 1, 2013 that Amazon Prime Air is a possible future [[Package delivery|delivery]] service expected to be many more years in development. In concept, the process would use [[unmanned aerial vehicle|drones]] to deliver small packages (less than five pounds) within 30 minutes by flying short distances (10–20&nbsp;km) from local Amazon Fulfillment Centers.<ref name=Mash>{{cite web|last=Strange|first=Adario|title=Amazon Unveils Flying Delivery Drones on '60 Minutes'|url=http://mashable.com/2013/12/01/amazon-unveils-flying-robot-delivery-drones/|work=Mashable|accessdate=2013-12-01}}</ref><ref name=AirF>{{cite web|last=Hickey|first=Matt|title=Meet Amazon Prime Air, A Delivery-By-Aerial-Drone Project|url=http://www.forbes.com/sites/matthickey/2013/12/01/meet-amazon-prime-air-amazons-delivery-by-aerial-drone-project/|work=Forbes|accessdate=2013-12-01}}</ref> The project will require the [[FAA]] (Federal Aviation Administration) to approve commercial use of unmanned drones.<ref name=TV>{{cite web|last=Pierce|first=David|title=Delivery drones are coming: Jeff Bezos promises half-hour shipping with Amazon Prime Air|url=http://www.theverge.com/2013/12/1/5164340/delivery-drones-are-coming-jeff-bezos-previews-half-hour-shipping|work=The Verge|publisher=Vox Media|accessdate=2013-12-01}}</ref> Although such approval could be in place as early as 2015, the project is still expected to be a few years off.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://gma.yahoo.com/amazon-prime-air-delivery-drones-could-arrive-early-104334220--abc-news-tech.html |title=Amazon Prime Air: Delivery by Drones Could Arrive As Early as 2015 - Yahoo |publisher=Gma.yahoo.com |date=2013-12-02 |accessdate=2013-12-16}}</ref> ===Other services=== In 2007, Amazon launched [[Amapedia]], a now-defunct [[wiki]] for user-generated content to replace ProductWiki, and the [[video on demand]] service [[Amazon Unbox]]. Also in 2007, Amazon launched [[Amazon Vine]], which allows reviewers free access to pre-release products from vendors in return for posting a review, as well as a payment service specifically targeted at developers, [[Amazon Flexible Payments Service|Amazon FPS]].{{citation needed|date=January 2009}} [[Internet Movie Database|IMDb]] and Amazon launched a website called SoundUnwound for browsing music metadata with wiki-like user contribution in September 2007; this data was also used for Amazon's Artist Pages.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.soundunwoundblog.com/2008/09/and-the-light-1.html|title=And the Lights Go Up on SoundUnwound!|publisher=Soundunwoundblog.com|date=September 1, 2008|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> Soundunwound ceased existence on June 18, 2012, and the site redirected to Amazon. Amazon Connect enables authors to post remarks on their book pages to customers. Amazon Webstore allows businesses to create custom e-commerce websites using Amazon technology. Sellers pay a commission of 1-2%, plus credit-card processing fees and fraud protection, and a subscription fee which ranges from $0 to $39.99 per month depending on the bundle option for an unlimited number of listings.<ref>[http://webstore.amazon.com/amazon-webstore-pricing/b/6368778011 Amazon Webstore Pricing - Find the Plan That Fits Your Business]. Webstore.amazon.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.</ref> Amazon has chosen very few companies to become their implementation solution provider, and they are [[4C Media]], [[Absolute Webstores]], [[atmosol]], [[eCatalog]], [[Explore Consulting]], [[GoWebBaby]], [[Kaushalam]], [[KLoc Technologies]], [[Luxor Design]], [[SynapseIndia]], and [[V Group]]. These companies ecourages traders to have their own webstore with easy guidance and solutions.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://webstore.amazon.com/Implementation-Solution-Providers-Solution-Providers-Resources/b/6368775011 |title=Amazon Webstore Implementation Solution Providers |publisher=Webstore.amazon.com |date= |accessdate=2013-12-16}}</ref> ==Companies== Companies owned by Amazon that operate under their own brand. ===Brilliance Audio{{anchor|brilliance}}=== Brilliance Audio is an [[audiobook]] publisher founded in 1984 by Michael Snodgrass in [[Grand Haven, Michigan]].<ref name=brilliance>{{cite web |url=http://www.brillianceaudio.com/company_overview |title=Company Overview |publisher=Brilliance Audio |author= |date= |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> The company produced its first 8 audio titles in 1985.<ref name=brilliance/> The company was purchased by Amazon in 2007 for an undisclosed amount.<ref name=brilliance-taume/><ref name=gigaom>{{cite web |url=http://gigaom.com/2007/05/23/419-amazon-acquires-audiobook-indie-brilliance-audio/ |title=Amazon Acquires Audiobook Indie Brilliance Audio |work=Gigaom |author=Staci D. Kramer |date=May 23, 2007 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> At the time of the acquisition Brilliance was producing 12-15 new titles a month.<ref name=gigaom/> It operates as an independent company within Amazon. In 1984, [[Brilliance Audio]] invented a technique for recording twice as much on the same cassette.<ref name=blake>{{cite book |title=Information Literacies for the Twenty-First Century |chapter=Something New Has Been Added: Aural Literacy and Libraries |publisher=G. K. Hall & Co. |author=Virgil L. P. Blake |year=1990 |pages=203–218}}</ref> The technique involved recording on each of the two channels of each stereo track.<ref name=blake/> It has been credited with revolutionizing the burgeoning audiobook market in the mid-1980s since it made unabridged books affordable.<ref name=blake/> ==Website== The domain ''amazon.com'' attracted at least 615 million visitors annually by 2008, twice the number of ''[[Walmart]]''.<ref>[http://siteanalytics.compete.com/amazon.com/?metric=uv SnapShot of amazon.com, walmart.com]. Retrieved April 12, 2008.</ref> Amazon attracts approximately 65 million customers to its US website per month.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://siteanalytics.compete.com/amazon.com|title=SnapShot of amazon.com (rank #11) - Compete|publisher=Siteanalytics.compete.com|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> The company has also invested heavily on a massive amount of server capacity for its website, especially to handle the excessive traffic during the December [[Christmas holiday season]].<ref name="Amazon takedown">{{cite news|title=Why attackers can't take down Amazon.com|url=http://money.cnn.com/2010/12/09/technology/amazon_wikileaks_attack|publisher=CNN|date=December 9, 2010|accessdate=December 14, 2010|quote=Amazon has famously massive server capacity in order to handle the December e-commerce rush. That short holiday shopping window is so critical, and so intense, that even a few minutes of downtime could cost Amazon millions.|first=Julianne|last=Pepitone}}</ref> In addition to amazon.com, there are different versions of Amazon for several different countries, each varying in assortment and prices. As of December 2013, in alphabetical order by region, these are: * [[Asia]]: amazon[[.cn]] or z[[.cn]] ([[China]]), amazon[[.in]] ([[India]]), amazon.co[[.jp]] ([[Japan]]). * [[Europe]]: amazon[[.de]] ([[Germany]]), amazon[[.es]] ([[Spain]]), amazon[[.fr]] ([[France]]), amazon[[.it]] ([[Italy]]), amazon.co[[.uk]] ([[United Kingdom|UK]]). * [[North America]]: amazon[[.ca]] ([[Canada]]), amazon.com[[.mx]] ([[Mexico]]). * [[Oceania]]: amazon.com[[.au]] ([[Australia]]). * [[South America]]: amazon.com[[.br]] ([[Brazil]]). ===Reviews=== {{see also|Amazon.com controversies#Amazon reviews}} Amazon allows users to submit reviews to the web page of each product. Reviewers must rate the product on a [[rating scale]] from one to five stars. Amazon provides a badging option for reviewers which indicate the real name of the reviewer (based on confirmation of a credit card account) or which indicate that the reviewer is one of the top reviewers by popularity. Customers may comment or vote on the reviews, indicating whether or not they found it helpful to them. If a review is given enough "helpful" hits, it appears on the front page of the product. In 2010, Amazon was reported as being the largest single source of Internet consumer reviews.<ref>{{cite web|author=Business Wire|url=http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20100503005110/en/2010-Social-Shopping-Study-Reveals-Consumers%E2%80%99-Online|title=2010 Social Shopping Study Reveals Changes in Consumers' Online Shopping Habits and Usage of Customer Reviews|publisher=Business Wire|date=2010-05-03|accessdate=2013-01-31}}</ref> When publishers asked Bezos why Amazon would publish negative reviews, he defended the practice by claiming that amazon.com was "taking a different approach...we want to make every book available&nbsp;– the good, the bad, and the ugly...to let truth loose".<ref>{{cite book|title=amazon.com|author=Spector, Robert|year=2002|page=132}}</ref> Although reviews are attributed to the credit-card name of the reviewer, there have been cases of positive reviews being written and posted by a public relations company on behalf of its clients,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cincinnatibeacon.com/index.php?/contents/comments/amazon.com_rave_book_reviews_too_good_to_be_true|title=BEACON SPOTLIGHT: Amazon.com rave book reviews - too good to be true? - Cincinnati blog, Cincinnati news, Cincinnati politics|publisher=The Cincinnati Beacon|date=|accessdate=2013-01-31}}</ref> and writers employing pseudonyms to leave negative reviews of their rivals' work.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1333885/Amazons-amateur-book-reviewing-vicious-free-readers-victims.html|location=London|work=Daily Mail|first=Nick|last=Fagge|title=Women writers at war over fake book reviews on Amazon|date=November 29, 2010}}</ref> Following listing for sale of ''Untouchable: The Strange Life and Tragic Death of Michael Jackson'' a disparaging biography of [[Michael Jackson]] by Randall Sullivan his fans, organized via [[social media]] as "Michael Jackson’s Rapid Response Team to Media Attacks" bombarded Amazon with negative reviews and negative ratings of positive reviews.<ref name=NYT012013>{{cite news|title=Swarming a Book Online|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/21/business/a-casualty-on-the-battlefield-of-amazons-partisan-book-reviews.html|accessdate=January 21, 2013|newspaper=The New York Times|date=January 20, 2013|author=David Streitfeld}}</ref> ===Content search=== "Search Inside the Book" is a feature which allows customers to search for keywords in the full text of many books in the catalog.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com|title=Amazon's online reader '&#39;Search Inside'&#39; reference|publisher=Amazon.com|date=September 9, 2009|accessdate=August 29, 2010|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100828044958/http://www.amazon.com|archivedate=August 28, 2010 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com|title='&#39;Search Inside'&#39; reference|publisher=Amazon.com|date=September 9, 2009|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> The feature started with 120,000 titles (or 33 million pages of text) on October 23, 2003.<ref>{{cite web|author=Eric Ward|url=http://www.urlwire.com/news/102203.html|title=Amazon.com Launches "Search Inside the Book" Feature|publisher=Urlwire.com|date=October 23, 2003|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> There are currently about 300,000 books in the program. Amazon has cooperated with around 130 [[publisher]]s to allow users to perform these searches. To avoid copyright violations, amazon.com does not return the computer-readable text of the book. Instead, it returns a picture of the matching page, instructs the web browser to disable printing, and puts limits on the number of pages in a book a single user can access. Additionally, customers can purchase online access to some of the same books via the "Amazon Upgrade" program. ===Third-party sellers=== Amazon derives about 40% of its sales from affiliate marketing called "Amazon Associates" and third-party sellers who sell products on Amazon.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.stanford.edu/class/ee204/Publications/Amazon-EE353-2008-1.pdf|format=PDF|title=AMAZON ENTERS THE CLOUD COMPUTING BUSINESS|deadurl=no|accessdate=May 29, 2013}}</ref> Associates receive a commission for referring customers to Amazon by placing links on their websites to Amazon, if the referral results in a sale. Worldwide, Amazon has "over 900,000 members" in its affiliate programs.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://affiliate-program.amazon.co.uk/gp/associates/join|title=Amazon.co.uk Associates: The web's most popular and successful Affiliate Program|publisher=Affiliate-program.amazon.co.uk|date=July 9, 2010|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}{{dead link|date=February 2013}}</ref> Amazon reported over 1.3 million sellers sold products through Amazon's websites in 2007. Unlike eBay, Amazon sellers do not have to maintain separate payment accounts; all payments are handled by Amazon. Associates can access the Amazon catalog directly on their websites by using the Amazon Web Services (AWS) [[XML]] service. A new affiliate product, aStore, allows Associates to embed a subset of Amazon products within another website, or linked to another website. In June 2010, Amazon Seller Product Suggestions was launched (rumored to be internally called "Project Genesis") to provide more transparency to sellers by recommending specific products to third-party sellers to sell on Amazon. Products suggested are based on customers' browsing history.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amazonservices.com/content/product_alerts.htm?ld=AOguerillaPGJG|title=Amazon Seller Product Suggestions|publisher=Amazonservices.com|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> A January 2010 survey of third-party sellers by Auctionbytes.com<ref name="survey">{{cite web|url=http://www.auctionbytes.com/cab/abu/y210/m01/abu0255/s02|title=Seller's Choice: Merchants Rate Ecommerce Marketplaces|accessdate=June 9, 2010|author=Ina Steiner|date=January 24, 2010|publisher=Auctionbytes.com|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100629034631/http://www.auctionbytes.com/cab/abu/y210/m01/abu0255/s02|archivedate=June 29, 2010 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> found that Amazon was 4th overall.<ref name="auctionbytes13">{{cite web|url=http://www.auctionbytes.com/cab/abu/y210/m01/abu0255/s03|title=Seller's Choice Marketplace Ratings: Amazon|accessdate=June 29, 2010|author=Ina Steiner|date=January 24, 2010|publisher=Auctionbytes.com}}</ref> Amazon.com placed second in "Profitability". Its lowest rating, but still above average, was in "Ease of Use". Sellers felt it had clearly defined rules, provided a steady stream of traffic to their listings, and put less emphasis on a community component. Amazon came in second in the Recommended Selling Venue category. ==Amazon sales rank== The Amazon sales rank (ASR) provides an indication of the popularity of a product sold on any Amazon locale. It is a relative indicator of popularity that is updated hourly. Effectively, it is a "best sellers list" for the millions of products stocked by Amazon.<ref name="amazon">{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=14101911|title=Amazon FAQ|accessdate=September 5, 2011}}</ref> While the ASR has no direct effect on the sales of a product, it is used by Amazon to determine which products to include in their best sellers lists.<ref name="amazon" /> Products that appear in these lists enjoy additional exposure on the Amazon website, and this may lead to an increase in sales. In particular, products that experience large jumps (up or down) in their sales ranks may be included within Amazon's lists of "movers and shakers," and this also provides additional exposure that may lead to an increase in sales.<ref name="movers">{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/movers-and-shakers|title=Amazon.com Movers and shakers|accessdate=September 5, 2011}}</ref> For competitive reasons, Amazon does not release actual sales figures to the public. However, Amazon has now begun to release [[point of sale]] data via the [http://en-us.nielsen.com/ Nielsen BookScan] service to verified authors.<ref name="pos">{{cite web|url=https://authorcentral.amazon.com/gp/help?topicID=200580390|title=Amazon.com Author Central|accessdate=September 5, 2011}}</ref> While the ASR has been the source of much speculation by publishers, manufacturers and marketers, Amazon itself does not release the details of its sales rank calculation algorithm. In addition, it states: {{quote|text=Please keep in mind that our sales rank figures are simply meant to be a guide of general interest for the customer and not definitive sales information for publishers - we assume you have this information regularly from your distribution sources|sign=Amazon.com Help|source=<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=14101911|title=Frequently Asked Questions about Amazon.com|publisher=Amazon.com|accessdate=2012-09-06}}</ref>}} ==Amazon technology== Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Information Management (IM) support Amazon’s business strategy. The core technology that keeps Amazon running is Linux-based. As of 2005, Amazon had the world’s three largest Linux databases, with capacities of 7.8 TB, 18.5 TB, and 24.7 TB. The central data warehouse of Amazon is made of 28 Hewlett Packard servers with four CPUs per node running Oracle database software. Amazon’s technology architecture handles millions of back-end operations every day, as well as queries from more than half a million third-party sellers. With hundreds of thousands of people sending their credit card numbers to Amazon’s servers everyday, security becomes a major concern. Amazon employs Netscape Secure Commerce Server using the Secure Socket Layer protocol which stores all credit card details in a separate database. The company also records data on customer buyer behavior which enables them to offer or recommend to an individual specific item, or bundles of items based upon preferences demonstrated through purchases or items visited.<ref name="technology">{{cite web|url=http://money.howstuffworks.com/amazon1.htm|title=How Amazon Works|accessdate=November 25, 2011}}</ref> On January 31, 2013 Amazon experienced an outage that lasted approximately 49 minutes, leaving its site inaccessible to some customers.<ref>{{cite news|last=Letzing|first=John|title=Amazon Suffers Outage for Nearly an Hour|url=http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324156204578276320631771436.html|accessdate=31 January 2013|newspaper=The Wall Street Journal|date=31 January 2013}}</ref> ==Multi-level sales strategy== Amazon employs a multi-level e-commerce strategy. Amazon started off by focusing on Business-to-Consumer relationships between itself and its customers, and Business-to-Business relationships between itself and its suppliers but it then moved to incorporate Customer-to-Business transactions as it realized the value of customer reviews as part of the product descriptions. It now also facilitates customer to customer with the provision of the Amazon marketplace which act as an intermediary to facilitate consumer to consumer transactions. The company lets almost anyone sell almost anything using its platform. In addition to affiliate program that lets anybody post Amazon links and earn a commission on click through sales, there is now a program which let those affiliates build entire websites based on Amazon’s platform.<ref name="relationships">{{cite web|url=http://money.howstuffworks.com/amazon2.htm|title=How Amazon Works|accessdate=December 15, 2011}}</ref> Some other large e-commerce sellers use Amazon to sell their products in addition to selling them through their own websites. The sales are processed through Amazon.com and end up at individual sellers for processing and order fulfillment and Amazon leases space for these retailers. Small sellers of used and new goods go to Amazon Marketplace to offer goods at a fixed price.<ref name="value">{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?ie=UTF8&nodeId=743056|title=Help|accessdate=December 16, 2011}}</ref> Amazon also employs the use of [[drop shipping|drop shippers]] or meta sellers. These are members or entities that advertise goods on Amazon who order these goods direct from other competing websites but usually from other Amazon members. These meta sellers may have millions of products listed, have large transaction numbers and are grouped alongside other less prolific members giving them credibility as just someone who has been in business for a long time. Markup is anywhere from 50% to 100% and sometimes more, these sellers maintain that items are in stock when the opposite is true. As Amazon increases their dominance in the marketplace these drop shippers have become more and more commonplace in recent years. The resulting damage to a supply and demand marketplace remains to be seen but advertising contracts with large search engines eliminating smaller websites from overall exposure these practices should have a negative effect on the industry on the whole. ==Revenue== Over the last decade,{{when|date=April 2012}} Amazon has developed a customer base of around 30 million people. Amazon.com is primarily a retail site with a sales revenue model. Amazon makes its money by taking a small percentage of the sale price of each item that is sold through its website. Amazon also allows companies to advertise their products by paying to be listed as featured products.<ref name="revenue">{{cite web|url=http://marketingteacher.com/swot/amazon-swot.html|title=SWOT Analysis Amazon|accessdate=December 17, 2011}}</ref> ==Controversies== {{main|Amazon.com controversies}} Since its founding, the company has attracted criticism and controversy from multiple sources over its actions. These include: luring customers away from the site's brick and mortar competitors,<ref name="Business Week">{{cite news|title=Amazon Lure's Shoppers Away from Stores|author=Nick Leiber|url=http://www.businessweek.com/smallbiz/running_small_business/archives/2011/12/amazon_turns_shops_into_showrooms_with_new_app.html|newspaper=Bloomberg BusinessWeek|date=December 7, 2011|accessdate=December 7, 2011}}</ref> poor warehouse conditions for workers; anti-[[unionization]] efforts; Amazon Kindle remote content removal; taking public subsidies; its "[[1-Click]] patent" claims; anti-competitive actions; [[price discrimination]]; various decisions over whether to censor or publish content such as the [[WikiLeaks]] website; [[LGBT]] book sales rank;,<ref>{{cite web|last=Slatterly|first=Brennon|title=Amazon 'Glitch' Yanks Sales Rank of Hundreds of LGBT Books|url=http://www.pcworld.com/article/162996/amazon_glitch_yanks_sales_rank_of_hundreds_of_lgbt_books.html|work=PC World|accessdate=July 28, 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Armstrong|first=Paul|title=Amazon: 'Glitch' caused gay censorship error|url=http://articles.cnn.com/2009-04-14/tech/amazon.gay.lesbian.ranking_1_online-retailer-amazon-amazon-spokeswoman-patty-smith-glitch?_s=PM:TECH|publisher=CNN|accessdate=July 28, 2012|date=November 28, 2000}}</ref> and works containing [[Defamation|libel]], facilitating [[Dog fighting|dogfight]], [[cockfight]], or [[pedophilia|pedophile]] activities. In December 2011, Amazon faced backlash from small businesses for running a one-day deal to promote its new Price Check app. Shoppers who used the app to check prices in a brick-and-mortar store were offered a 5% discount to purchase the same item from Amazon.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2011/12/20/groupon-launches-anti-amazon-promotion-of-sorts/?mod=google_news_blog|work=The Wall Street Journal|first=Shayndi|last=Raice|title=Groupon Launches Anti-Amazon Promotion of Sorts|date=December 20, 2011}}</ref> Companies like Groupon, eBay, and Taap.it countered Amazon's promotion by offering $10 off from their products.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.internetretailer.com/commentary/2011/12/22/while-some-still-cry-others-fight-back|title=Focus on Mobile Commerce - While some still cry, others fight back|publisher=Internet Retailer|accessdate=February 1, 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mobilecommercedaily.com/2011/12/20/what-can-retailers-learn-from-amazon-groupon-and-ebay|title=What can retailers learn from Amazon, Groupon and eBay? - Mobile Commerce Daily - Multichannel retail support|publisher=Mobile Commerce Daily|date=December 20, 2011|accessdate=February 1, 2012|archiveurl=http://archive.is/ePzw|archivedate=2012-09-05}}{{dead link|date=February 2013}}</ref> <!--Please integrate new controversies into [[Amazon.com controversies]] except for the biggest and most well known -- tax avoidance and working conditions -- summarized on the main page here.--> ===Sales and use taxes=== {{main|Amazon tax}} ===Poor working conditions=== Amazon has attracted widespread criticism by both current and former employees,<ref>[http://www.recruiter.co.uk/news/2013/08/amazon-under-fire-for-staffing-practices-in-randstad-contract/ Amazon under fire for staffing practices in Randstad contract|Business intelligence for recruitment and resourcing professionals]. Recruiter.co.uk (2013-08-02). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.businessinsider.com/brutal-conditions-in-amazons-warehouses-2013-8|title=Brutal Conditions In Amazon's Warehouses Threaten To Ruin The Company's Image|publisher=[[Business Insider]]|accessdate=2014-02-24}}</ref> as well as the media and politicians for poor working conditions. In fall 2011 it was publicized that at the Breinigsville, Pennsylvania warehouse, workers had to carry out work in {{convert|100|°F|°C}} heat, resulting in employees becoming extremely uncomfortable and suffering from dehydration and collapse. Loading-bay doors were not opened to allow in fresh air as "managers were worried about theft". Amazon's initial response was to pay for an ambulance to sit outside on call to cart away overheated employees. Some workers, "pickers", who travel the building with a trolley and a handheld scanner "picking" customer orders can walk up to 15 miles a day back and forward, and if they fall behind on their targets, they can be reprimanded. The handheld scanners feed back to the employee real time information on how fast or slowly they are going, and also serve to allow Team Leads and Area Managers to track the specific locations of employees and how much "idle time" they gain when not working.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.businessinsider.com/amazon-warehouse-rules-2011-9|last1=Yarrow|first1=Jay|last2=Kovach|first2=Steve|title=10 Crazy Rules That Could Get You Fired From Amazon Warehouses|accessdate=2013-04-21|date=2011-09-20|publisher=Business Insider}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/ed6a985c-70bd-11e2-85d0-00144feab49a.html#slide0|title=Amazon unpacked|last1=O'Connor|first1=Sarah|accessdate=2013-04-21|date=2013-02-08|publisher=Financial Times}}</ref> In a German television report broadcast in February 2013, journalists Diana Löbl and Peter Onneken conducted a covert investigation at the distribution center of Amazon in the town of [[Bad Hersfeld]] in the German state of [[Hesse]]. The report highlights the behavior of some of the security guards who apparently either had a [[Neo-Nazism|Neo-nazi]] background or deliberately dressed in Neo-Nazi apparel, and who were intimidating foreign and temporary female workers at its distribution centres.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.tagesschau.de/inland/amazon136.html|title=Kritik an Arbeitsbedingungen bei Amazon|publisher=tagesschau.de|date=|accessdate=2013-02-20}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.daserste.de/information/reportage-dokumentation/dokus/sendung/hr/13022013-ausgeliefert-leiharbeiter-bei-amazon-100.html|title=Ausgeliefert! Leiharbeiter ... - Ausgeliefert! Leiharbeiter bei Amazon - Reportage & Dokumentation - ARD &#124; Das Erste|publisher=Daserste.de|date=2013-02-13|accessdate=2013-02-20}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|author=Tony Paterson|url=http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/amazon-used-neonazi-guards-to-keep-immigrant-workforce-under-control-in-germany-8495843.html|title=Amazon 'used neo-Nazi guards to keep immigrant workforce under control' in Germany - Europe - World|publisher=The Independent|date=2013-02-14|accessdate=2013-02-20}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/762083.shtml|title=Germany to probe claims of staff abuse|publisher=Globaltimes.cn|date=|accessdate=2013-02-20}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|author=Associated Press|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/technology/amazon-to-investigate-reports-temporary-staff-in-germany-were-mistreated/2013/02/14/a8074368-76bd-11e2-b102-948929030e64_story.html|title=Amazon to investigate reports temporary staff in Germany were mistreated|publisher=Washingtonpost.com|date=2013-02-14|accessdate=2013-02-20}}{{dead link|date=March 2013}}</ref> ==Lobbying== Amazon.com lobbies the United States federal government and state governments on issues such as the enforcement of sales taxes on online sales, transportation safety, privacy and data protection, and intellectual property. According to regulatory filings, Amazon.com focuses its lobbying on the US Congress, the Federal Communications Commission, and the Federal Reserve. Amazon.com spent $500,000 on lobbying in the second quarter of 2010, $630,000 in the first quarter of 2011, and $450,000 in the second quarter of that year.<ref>{{cite news|title=Amazon spends $450K on lobbying government in 2Q|agency=Associated Press|url=http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9P5E2880.htm|newspaper=Bloomberg BusinessWeek|date=August 16, 2011|accessdate=August 18, 2011}}</ref> Amazon.com was a corporate member of the [[American Legislative Exchange Council]] (ALEC) until it dropped membership following protests at its shareholders' meeting May 24, 2012.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.bizjournals.com/seattle/news/2012/05/24/amazon-shareholders-met-by-protesters.html|first=Emily|last=Parkhurst|title=Amazon shareholders met by protesters, company cuts ties with ALEC|date=May 24, 2012}}</ref> The initiative [[Choice in eCommerce]] was founded on May 8, 2013 by several online retailers in [[Berlin]], [[Germany]].<ref>[http://tamebay.com/2013/07/petition-for-choice-in-ecommerce.html Petition for Choice in Ecommerce]</ref><ref>[http://newrooms.wordpress.com/2013/07/23/choice-in-ecommerce/ Choice in eCommerce]</ref><ref>http://www.trustedshops.co.uk/news/online-retailers-prepare-to-fight-the-sales-ban/</ref><ref>http://www.toyworldmag.co.uk/news/2013/07/ebay-asks-retailers-to-back-choice-in-ecommerce-campaign</ref><ref>http://www.webretailer.com/news/1765-choice-in-ecommerce-campaigns-for-resale.asp</ref><ref>http://www.webretailer.com/news/1777-choice-in-ecommerce-interview.asp</ref><ref>BILD, Online-Händler kämpfen gegen Hersteller-Boykott, 16.07.2013</ref><ref>eCommerce Magazin 7-2013, Online-Handel gründet Initiative gegen Verkauftsverbot, 17.07.2013</ref><ref>[http://www.focus.de/finanzen/news/unternehmen/aufstand-gegen-adidas-und-co-online-haendler-stemmen-sich-gegen-verkaufsverbote_aid_1043835.html Online-Händler stemmen sich gegen Verkaufsverbote]</ref> The cause was, in the view of the initiative, sales bans and online restrictions by individual manufacturers. The dealers felt cut off from their main sales channel and thus deprived them the opportunity to use online platforms like Amazon, [[Ebay|eBay]] or [[Rakuten]] in a competitive market for the benefit of their customers. ==Notable businesses founded by former employees== A number of companies have been started and founded by former Amazon employees.<ref name="gigaom_ceos">{{cite web|url=http://gigaom.com/2008/11/21/the-growing-ex-amazon-club-and-why-its-a-good-thing|title=The Growing Ex-Amazon Club and Why It's a Good Thing|authorlink=Om Malik|last=Malik|first=Om|date=November 21, 2008|publisher=[[GigaOM]]}}</ref> <!-- either the company or the business should be a bluelink on Wikipedia. See WP:WTAF, WP:NLIST. --> *[[Findory]] was founded by [[Greg Linden]] *[[Flipkart]] was founded by [[Sachin Bansal]] and [[Binny Bansal]]<ref name="StartupDunia">{{cite web|url=http://www.startupdunia.com/interview/interview-with-flipkart-founder-binny-bansal-776|title=StartupDunia|date=January 8, 2008|publisher=startupdunia.com|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> *[[Foodista.com|Foodista]] was founded by [[Barnaby Dorfman]] *[[Hulu]] was led by [[Jason Kilar]], a former SVP *[[Infibeam]] was founded by [[Vishal Mehta]] *[[Jambool]]/[[SocialGold]] was co-founded by [[Vikas Gupta]] and [[Reza Hussein]] *[[Nimbula]] was co-founded by [[Chris Pinkham]], a former VP, and [[Willem Van Biljon]], a former Product Manager *[[Opscode]] was co-founded by [[Jesse Robbins]], a former engineer and manager *[[Whrrl|Pelago]] was co-founded by [[Jeff Holden]], a former SVP, and [[Darren Vengroff]], a former Principal Engineer *[[Quora]] was co-founded by engineer [[Charlie Cheever]] *[[TeachStreet]] was founded by [[Dave Schappell]], an early product manager *[[The Book Depository]] was founded by [[Andrew Crawford]]; acquired by Amazon in 2011. *[[Trusera]] was founded by [[Keith Schorsch]], an early Amazonian *[[Twilio]] was founded by [[Jeff Lawson (entrepreneur)|Jeff Lawson]], a former Technical Product Manager *[[Vittana]] was founded by [[Kushal Chakrabarti]] and [[Brett Witt]] *[[Wikinvest]] was founded by [[Michael Sha]] *[[Yellowleg.com]] was founded by [[Aashish Gupta]] *[[Zeitgeist Research]] was founded by [[Manfred Bluemel]], former head of market research worldwide <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/06/04/net-us-amazon-grocery-idUSBRE95311Q20130604|title=Amazon plans big expansion of online grocery business: sources|publisher=Reuters|accessdate=2013-06-04}}</ref> <!-- either the company or the business should be a bluelink on Wikipedia. See WP:WTAF, WP:NLIST. --> ==See also== {{Portal|Seattle|Internet}} *[[Amazon Breakthrough Novel Award]] *[[Amazon Marketplace]] *[[Amazon Standard Identification Number]] (ASIN) *[[List of book distributors]] *[[Statistically Improbable Phrases]]: amazon.com's phrase extraction technique for indexing books. ==References== {{Reflist|30em}} ==Further reading== {{refbegin}} * {{cite book|title=One Click: Jeff Bezos and the Rise of Amazon.com|last=Brandt|first=Richard L. |year=2011|publisher=[[Portfolio Penguin|Portfolio]]|location=New York|isbn=978-1-59184-375-7 |url=http://us.penguingroup.com/nf/Book/BookDisplay/0,,9781591843757,00.html|accessdate=}} * {{cite book|authorlink=Mike Daisey|first=Mike|last=Daisey|title=21 Dog Years|publisher=[[Free Press (publisher)|Free Press]]|year=2002|isbn=0-7432-2580-5}} * {{cite book|first=Mara|last= Friedman|title=Amazon.com [[for Dummies]]|publisher=[[John Wiley & Sons|Wiley Publishing]]|year=2004|isbn=0-7645-5840-4}} * {{cite book|first=James|last=Marcus|title=Amazonia: Five Years at the Epicenter of the Dot.Com Juggernaut|publisher=[[W. W. Norton]]|year=2004|isbn=1-56584-870-5}} * {{cite book|first=Robert|last=Spector|title=Amazon.com – Get Big Fast: Inside the Revolutionary Business Model That Changed the World|publisher=[[HarperCollins Publishers]]|year=2000|isbn=0-06-662041-4}} * {{cite book |last=Stone |first=Brad |authorlink=Brad Stone (journalist) |title=The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon |year=2013 |publisher=Little Brown and Co |location=New York |isbn=9780316219266 |oclc=856249407}} {{refend}} ==External links== {{commons category|Amazon.com}} *{{official website|http://onlineprofitfordummies.com/cp2.php?user=factoryprices247}} Free System to Make Money Online *{{official website|http://www.amazon.com}} *{{Cite news|url=http://www.ibtimes.com/inside-amazon-warehouse-photos-909410|title=Inside An Amazon Warehouse|newspaper=IB Times|postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}. *{{OpenCorp|Amazon}} *{{Cite news|url=http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2286227/Amazons-human-robots-Is-future-British-workplace.html|title=Amazon's human robots: They trek 15 miles a day around a warehouse, their every move dictated by computers checking their work. Is this the future of the British workplace?|place=[[Rugeley]]|newspaper=The [[Daily Mail]]|date=February 28, 2013|postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}. {{Finance links |name=Amazon.com, Inc. |symbol=AMZN |sec_cik=1018724 }} {{Amazon|state=expanded}} {{Navboxes|list1= {{NASDAQ-100}} {{Seattle Corporations}} {{Major information technology companies}} {{ebooks}} }} [[Category:Amazon.com| ]] [[Category:1994 establishments in Washington (state)]] [[Category:American brands]] [[Category:American websites]] [[Category:Book selling websites]] [[Category:Bookstores of the United States]] [[Category:Cloud computing providers]] [[Category:Commerce websites]] [[Category:Companies based in Seattle, Washington]] [[Category:Companies established in 1994]] [[Category:Companies initially financed with venture capital]] [[Category:Companies listed on NASDAQ]] [[Category:E-book suppliers]] [[Category:Internet companies of the United States]] [[Category:Internet properties established in 1994]] [[Category:Multinational companies headquartered in the United States]] [[Category:Online companies]] [[Category:Online music stores]] [[Category:Online retail companies of the United States]] [[Category:Publicly traded companies of the United States]] [[Category:Review websites]] [[Category:Self-publishing companies]] [[Category:Webby Award winners]]
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{{Use mdy dates|date=November 2012}} {{Infobox dot-com company |company_name = Amazon.com, Inc. |company_logo = [[File:Amazon.com-Logo.svg|225px]] |company_type = [[Public company|Public]] |traded_as = {{NASDAQ|AMZN}}<br />[[NASDAQ-100]] Component<br />[[S&P 500]] Component |foundation = {{Start date|1994}} |founder = [[Jeff Bezos]] |location = [[Seattle]], [[Washington (state)|Washington]], [[United States]]<ref>{{Cite journal|url=http://goo.gl/maps/6Brkd|title=Maps|publisher=Google|postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.archdaily.com/271754/amazons-seattle-headquarters-nbbj|title=Arch daily|contribution=Amazon’s Seattle headquarters|postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/10/05/us-amazon-offices-idUSBRE8941EU20121005|title=Amazon pays top dollar to buy Seattle HQ|newspaper=Reuters|date=2012-10-05|postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}</ref> |area_served = Worldwide |key_people = [[Jeff Bezos]]<br />(Chairman, President and CEO) |industry = [[Internet]], [[online retailing]] |products = [[Amazon Appstore|Appstore]], [[LoveFilm]], [[The Book Depository]], [[Amazon Game Studios|Game Studios]], [[Amazon Instant Video|Instant Video]], [[Amazon Instant Video UK|Instant Video UK]], [[Amazon Instant Video German|Instant Video German]], [[Amazon Kindle|Kindle]], [[Amazon Lab126|Lab126]], [[Amazon Studios|Studios]], [[Woot]]<br>MyHabit.com<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.myhabit.com|title=My habit|postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}</ref><br>Askville<ref>{{Cite journal|title=Askville|url=http://askville.amazon.com|publisher=Amazon|postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}</ref> |revenue = {{Increase}} US$ 74.45&nbsp;[[1,000,000,000|billion]] (2013)<ref name="Amazon.com-Jan-2014-8-K">{{cite web|url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-SECText&TEXT=aHR0cDovL2FwaS50ZW5rd2l6YXJkLmNvbS9maWxpbmcueG1sP2lwYWdlPTkzNTA2ODQmRFNFUT0wJlNFUT0wJlNRREVTQz1TRUNUSU9OX0VOVElSRSZzdWJzaWQ9NTc%3d|title=Amazon.com, Form 8-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Jan 30, 2014|publisher=Amazon.com Investor Relations|accessdate=Jan 31, 2014}}</ref> |operating_income={{Increase}} US$ 745&nbsp;million (2013)<ref name="Amazon.com-Jan-2014-8-K" /> |net_income = {{Increase}} US$ 274&nbsp;million (2013)<ref name="Amazon.com-Jan-2014-8-K" /> |assets = {{Increase}} US$ 40.159&nbsp;billion (2013)<ref name="Amazon.com-Jan-2014-8-K" /> |equity = {{Increase}} US$ 9.746&nbsp;billion (2013)<ref name="Amazon.com-Jan-2014-8-K" /> |num_employees = 117,300 (January 2014)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://thenextweb.com/insider/2013/10/24/amazon-hits-109800-employees-passing-microsofts-employee-count-first-time/|title=Amazon Hits 109,800 Employees, Passes Microsoft's Headcount|accessdate=October 24, 2013}}</ref> |subsid = a2z, [[A9.com]], [[Amazon Web Services]], [[Alexa Internet]], [[Audible.com]], [[Digital Photography Review]], [[Goodreads]], [[Internet Movie Database]], [[Junglee.com]], [[Zappos]] |url = {{URL|amazon.com}} (original US site)<br />[[#Website|various national sites]] |programming_language = [[C++]], [[Perl]] and [[Java (programming language)|Java]] |website_type = [[E-commerce]] |language = English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Japanese, Chinese, Brazilian Portuguese |advertising = [[Web banner]]s, [[video]]s |launch_date = 1995 |alexa = {{Steady}} 10 ({{as of|2014|3|1|alt=March 2014}})<ref name="alexa">{{cite web|url= http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/Amazon.com |title= Amazon.com Site Info | publisher= [[Alexa Internet]] |accessdate= 2014-03-01 }}</ref><!--Updated monthly by OKBot.--> }} '''Amazon.com, Inc.''' {{IPAc-en|ˈ|æ|m|ə|z|ɒ|n}} is an [[United States|American]] international [[e-commerce|electronic commerce]] company with headquarters in [[Seattle]], [[Washington (state)|Washington]], United States. It is the [[List of largest Internet companies|world's largest]] [[online retailer]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.forbes.com/sites/walterloeb/2013/07/24/alibaba-a-threat-to-amazon-ebay-walmart-and-everyone-else/ |title=Alibaba Is A Threat To Amazon, eBay, Walmart And Everyone Else |publisher=Forbes.com |date= |accessdate=2013-12-16}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.forbes.com/sites/clareoconnor/2013/04/23/wal-mart-vs-amazon-worlds-biggest-e-commerce-battle-could-boil-down-to-vegetables/ |title=Wal-Mart Vs. Amazon: World's Biggest E-Commerce Battle Could Boil Down To Vegetables |publisher=Forbes.com |date=2013-04-23 |accessdate=2013-12-16}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Jopson|first=Barney|url=http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/61828252-ac1d-11e0-b85c-00144feabdc0.html#axzz1RxkefD8m|title=Amazon urges California referendum on online tax|work=Financial Times|date=July 12, 2011|accessdate=August 4, 2011|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110715045643/http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/61828252-ac1d-11e0-b85c-00144feabdc0.html|archivedate=July 15, 2011 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> Amazon.com started as an online [[bookstore]], but soon diversified, selling [[DVD]]s, [[VHS]]s, [[compact Disc|CDs]], [[Amazon Instant Video|video]] and [[MP3]] downloads/streaming, [[software]], [[video game]]s, [[consumer electronics|electronics]], apparel, furniture, food, toys, and jewelry. The company also produces [[consumer electronics]]—notably the [[Amazon Kindle]] [[e-book reader]] and the [[Kindle Fire]] [[tablet computer]]—and is a major provider of [[cloud computing]] services. Amazon is considered the fourth most successful [[startup company]] of all time by market capitalization, revenue, growth and cultural impact.<ref name="Top 20 Startups">{{cite web|last=Hunckler|first=Matt|title=Top 20 Startups of All Time|url=http://vergestartups.com/top-20-startups-of-all-time/|publisher=Verge Startups|accessdate=2 February 2014}}</ref> [[Jeff Bezos]] incorporated the company (as Cadabra) in July 1994 and the site went online as Amazon.com in 1995.<ref name=byers/> The company was renamed after the [[Amazon River]], one of the largest rivers in the world,<ref name=byers>{{citation|first=Ann|last=Byers|year=2006|title=Jeff Bezos: the founder of Amazon.com|publisher=The Rosen Publishing Group|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Nz43wixr2IcC&pg=PA47|pages=46–47}}</ref> which in turn was named after the [[Amazons]], the legendary nation of female warriors in [[Greek mythology]]. Amazon has separate retail websites for [[United States]], [[United Kingdom]], [[France]], [[Canada]], [[Germany]], [[Italy]], [[Spain]], [[Australia]], [[Brazil]], [[Japan]], [[China]], [[India]] and [[Mexico]], with international shipping to certain other countries for some of its products.<ref name="Amazon.com-Jan-2013-10-K">{{cite web|url=http://pdf.secdatabase.com/1562/0001193125-13-028520.pdf|title=Amazon.com, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Jan 30, 2013|publisher=SEC database|accessdate=Feb 26, 2013}}</ref> In 2011, it had professed an intention to launch its websites in Poland,<ref name="wp-polska">{{cite web|url=http://tech.wp.pl/kat,1009785,title,Amazon-wkrotce-w-Polsce,wid,13924137,wiadomosc.html?ticaid=1db8d|location=[[Poland|PL]]|title=Amazon wkrótce w Polsce|language=Polish|publisher=Wirtualna Polska|date=October 24, 2011|accessdate=January 11, 2012}}</ref> Netherlands, and Sweden, as well.<ref>[http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/09/14/amazon-spain-idUSS1E78D1XR20110914 "Amazon Spain launch may presage new overseas push"], Reuters, September 14, 2011.</ref> An [[Austria]]n website operates as part of the German website. ==History== [[File:Jeff Bezos' iconic laugh.jpg|thumb|upright|Amazon founder [[Jeff Bezos]]]] The company was founded in 1994, spurred by what Bezos called his "regret minimization framework", which described his efforts to fend off any regrets for not participating sooner in the Internet business boom during that time.<ref>{{cite news|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20000408032804/http://www.time.com/time/poy/bezos5.html|url=http://www.time.com/time/poy/bezos5.html|archivedate=April 8, 2000|work=Time|title=Person of the Year&nbsp;– Jeffrey P. Bezos|accessdate=January 5, 2008|date=December 27, 1999}}</ref> In 1994, Bezos left his employment as vice-president of [[D. E. Shaw & Co.]], a Wall Street firm, and moved to Seattle. He began to work on a business plan for what would eventually become Amazon.com. After reading a report about the future of the Internet which projected annual Web commerce growth at 2,300%, Bezos created a list of 20 products which could be marketed online. He narrowed the list to what he felt were the five most promising products which included: compact discs, computer hardware, computer software, videos, and books. Bezos finally decided that his new business would sell books online, due to the large world-wide demand for literature, the low price points for books, along with the huge number of titles available in print.<ref>{{cite web|title=Amazon Company History|url=http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/amazon-com-inc-history|accessdate=May 6, 2013}}</ref> Amazon<ref>{{cite book|last=Brandt|first=Richard L.|title=One Click: Jeff Bezos and the Rise of Amazon.com|year=2011|publisher=Penguin Publishing|isbn=0670920665|page=228}}</ref> was originally founded in Bezos' garage in Bellevue, Washington.<ref>{{cite web|last=Spiro|first=Josh|title=The Great Leaders Series: Jeff Bezos, Founder of Amazon.com|url=http://www.inc.com/30years/articles/jeff-bezos.html|publisher=Inc.com|accessdate=7 February 2013}}</ref> The company began as an online [[bookstore]], an idea spurred off with discussion with [[John R. Ingram (businessman)|John Ingram]] of Ingram Book (now called [[Ingram Content Group]]), along with Keyur Patel who still holds a stake in Amazon.<ref name="nyt10years">{{cite news|last=Rivlin|first=Gary|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/10/business/yourmoney/10amazon.html?ei=5090&en=c805d53acf76f2b3&ex=1278648000&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss&pagewanted=all|title=A Retail Revolution Turns 10|newspaper=[[The New York Times]]|date=July 10, 2005|accessdate=August 4, 2011}}</ref> In the first two months of business, Amazon sold to all 50 states and over 45 countries. Within two months, Amazon's sales were up to $20,000/week.<ref>{{cite web|last=Spiro|first=Josh|title=The Great Leaders Series: Jeff Bezos, Founder of Amazon.com|url=http://www.inc.com/30years/articles/jeff-bezos.html}}</ref> While the largest [[brick and mortar]] bookstores and [[mail order]] catalogs might offer 200,000 titles, an online bookstore could "carry" several times more, since they had an almost unlimited virtual (not actual) warehouse: those of the actual product makers/suppliers. Bezos wanted a name for his company that began with "A" so that it would appear early in alphabetic order. He began looking through the dictionary and settled on "Amazon" because it was a place that was "exotic and different" just as he planned for his store to be, and he believed it was the biggest river in the world, and he planned to make his store the biggest in the world.<ref name="byers" /> Bezos placed a premium on his head start in building a brand, telling a reporter, "There's nothing about our model that can't be copied over time. But you know, [[McDonald's]] got copied. And it still built a huge, multibillion-dollar company. A lot of it comes down to the brand name. Brand names are more important online than they are in the physical world."<ref>{{cite web|last=Murphy Jr.|first=Bill|title='Follow the Money' and Other Lessons From Jeff Bezos|url=http://www.inc.com/bill-murphy-jr/follow-the-money-lessons-from-jeff-bezos.html}}</ref> Since 2000, Amazon's logotype has featured a curved arrow leading from A to Z, representing that they carry every product from A to Z, with the arrow shaped like a smile.<ref name="a-to-z">{{cite web|url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=70550&highlight=|title=Amazon.com Introduces New Logo; New Design Communicates Customer Satisfaction and A-to-Z Selection|publisher=Corporate IR.net|date=January 5, 2000}}</ref> Amazon was incorporated in 1994, in the state of [[Washington (state)|Washington]]. In July 1995, the company began service and sold its first book on Amazon.com: [[Douglas Hofstadter]]'s ''[[Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies|Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought]]''.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=176060&p=irol-corporateTimeline|title=Amazon company timeline|publisher=Corporate IR}}</ref> In October 1995, the company announced itself to the public.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://www.urlwire.com/news/100495.html|title=World's Largest Bookseller Opens on the Web|publisher=URLwire}}</ref> In 1996, it was reincorporated in [[Delaware]]. Amazon issued its [[initial public offering]] of [[stock]] on May 15, 1997, trading under the [[NASDAQ]] stock exchange symbol '''AMZN''', at a price of [[United States dollar|US$]]18.00 per share ($1.50 after three [[stock split]]s in the late 1990s). Amazon's initial [[business plan]] was unusual; it did not expect to make a profit for four to five years. This "slow" growth caused stockholders to complain about the company not reaching profitability fast enough to justify investing in, or to even survive in the long-term. When the [[dot-com bubble]] burst at the start of the 21st Century, destroying many e-companies in the process, Amazon survived, and grew on past the bubble burst to become a huge player in online sales. It finally turned its first profit in the fourth quarter of 2001: $5 million (i.e., 1¢ per share), on revenues of more than $1 billion. This profit margin, though extremely modest, proved to skeptics that Bezos' unconventional [[business model]] could succeed.<ref>{{cite book|author=Robert Spector|title=Amazon.com: Get Big Fast|year=2002}}</ref> In 1999, ''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]'' magazine named Bezos the [[Time Person of the Year|Person of the Year]], recognizing the company's success in popularizing [[online shopping]]. [[Barnes & Noble]] sued Amazon on May 12, 1997, alleging that Amazon's claim to be "the world's largest bookstore" was false. Barnes and Noble asserted, "[It] isn't a bookstore at all. It's a book broker." The suit was later settled out of court, and Amazon continued to make the same claim."<ref name="referenceforbusiness.com">[http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/businesses/A-F/Amazon-com.html "Forming a Plan, The Company Is Launched, One Million Titles"]. Reference for Business: Encyclopedia of Business, 2nd ed. Retrieved September 1, 2012.</ref> [[Walmart]] sued Amazon on October 16, 1998, alleging that Amazon had stolen their trade secrets by hiring former Walmart executives. Although this suit was also settled out of court, it caused Amazon to implement internal restrictions and the re-assignment of the former Walmart executives.<ref name="referenceforbusiness.com"/> ===Acquisitions and investments=== {{expand list|date=February 2014}} Source:<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.seobythesea.com/2006/10/amazon-acquisitions-and-investments/ |title=Amazon Acquisitions and Investments |work=seobythesea.com |author=Bill Slawski |date=July 28, 2009 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> * 1998: [[PlanetAll]], a reminder service based in [[Cambridge, Massachusetts]]; Junglee, an [[XML]]-based [[data mining]] startup based in Sunnyvale;<ref>{{cite web |url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=233831&highlight= |title=Amazon.com Acquires Two Leading Internet Companies |publisher=Amazon.com |author= |date=August 4, 1998 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Amazon to buy two companies|publisher=CNET News|date=August 4, 1998|url=http://news.cnet.com/Amazon-to-buy-two-companies/2100-1001_3-214057.html|accessdate=February 18, 2012|location=USA|first=Sandeep|last=Junnarkar}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Beckett|first=Jamie|title=Amazon To Purchase 2 'Net Firms|publisher=San Francisco Gate|date=August 5, 1998|url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article/article?f=/c/a/1998/08/05/BU23774.DTL|accessdate=January 1, 2010}}</ref> Bookpages.co.uk,<ref name=1998-acquisitions/><ref>{{cite news|title=Leading Internet Bookseller Amazon.com Acquires UK-Based Internet Bookstore Bookpages Ltd|location=UK|agency=PR Newswire|url=http://www.prnewswire.co.uk/cgi/news/release?id=22936|accessdate=August 23, 2010}}</ref> a UK online book retailer, which became Amazon UK on October 15, 1998;<ref>{{cite news|title=Online giant Amazon.co.uk celebrates its 10th anniversary as shoppers use retailer website to buy goods|work=The Sun|date=October 15, 2008|url=http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/article1809903.ece|accessdate=August 23, 2010|location=London|first=Derek|last=Brown}}</ref> Telebook (www.telebuch.de) was Germany's leading online bookstore, it became Amazon's German online store;<ref name=1998-acquisitions>{{cite web |url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=233853&highlight= |title=Amazon.com Acquires Three Leading Internet Companies |publisher=Amazon.com |author= |date=April 27, 1998 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> [[Internet Movie Database]] (IMDb).<ref name=1998-acquisitions/><ref>{{cite news|last=Siklos|first=Richard|title=Amazon considering downloads|newspaper=The New York Times|date=March 10, 2006|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/10/technology/10iht-web.0310skilos.html|accessdate=January 1, 2010}}</ref> * 1999: [[Alexa Internet]] a database company;<ref>{{cite web |url=http://news.cnet.com/2100-1017-224975.html |title=Amazon makes Net triple play |work=CNet |author=Paul Festa |date=April 26, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> Accept.com a financial services company;<ref>{{cite news|title=Amazon's shopping spree|publisher=BBC News|date=April 27, 1999|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/329339.stm|accessdate=January 1, 2010}}</ref> [[Drugstore.com]] 40% investment in 1999,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://articles.latimes.com/1999/feb/25/business/fi-11466 |title=Amazon.com Buys 40% Stake in Drugstore.com |work=Los Angeles Times |author=Joseph Menn |date=February 25, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> increased stake in 2000,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://news.cnet.com/Amazon.com-inks-Drugstore.com-deal,-gets-upgrade/2100-12_3-264450.html |title=Amazon.com inks Drugstore.com deal, gets upgrade |work=cnet.com |author=Tiffany Kary |date=January 24, 2000 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> sold stake to Wallgreens in 2011 for a 90% loss;<ref>{{cite web |url=http://cnnmoneytech.tumblr.com/post/4065463038/walgreens-buys-amazon-backed-drugstore-com |title=Walgreens buys Amazon-backed Drugstore.com |work=CNN Moneytech |author=Julianne Pepitone (Staff Writer) |date=March 24, 2011 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> GeoWorks, a wireless communications company, acquisition of a minority interest;<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/amazoncom-purchases-minority-stake-in-geoworks-74944172.html |title=Amazon.com Purchases Minority Stake in Geoworks |work=PR Newswire |author= |date=February 16, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> [[Pets.com]], purchased a 54 percent stake;<ref>{{cite web |url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=232871&highlight= |title=Amazon.com Announces Investment in Pets.com |publisher=Amazon.com |author= |date=March 29, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> LiveBid.com, which produced Internet-based auction software;<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/2952.html# |title=Amazon Agrees To Purchase LiveBid.com |work=ecommercetimes.com |author= |date=April 12, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> e-Niche Incorporated comprising Exchange.com, Bibliofind.com (hard-to-find book titles), and Musicfile.com (hard to find music titles);<ref>{{cite web |url=http://corporate.findlaw.com/contracts/planning/agreement-and-plan-of-merger-amazon-com-inc-and-e-niche-inc.html |title=Agreement and Plan of Merger - Amazon.com Inc. and E-Niche Inc. |work=FindLaw |author= |date= |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-newsArticle_Print&ID=232864&highlight= |title=Amazon.com Acquires Exchange.com, Adding More than 12 Million Book and Music Items for Sale and Auction |work= |publisher=Amazon.com |date=April 26, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> HomeGrocer.com, a 35 percent stake in the online grocer;<ref>{{cite web |url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=232847&highlight= |title=Amazon.com Announces Minority Investment in HomeGrocer.com |publisher=Amazon.com |author= |date=May 18, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> Gear.com, 49 percent stake<ref>{{cite web |url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-newsArticle_Print&ID=232630&highlight= |title=Amazon.com Announces Strategic Alliance With and Minority Investment In Gear.com |publisher=Amazon.com |author= |date=July 14, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> (the company was purchased by [[Overstock.com]] in 2000); Tool Crib of the North, acquired the online and catalog sales division of the company in October 1999, selling a very wide variety of tools and home improvement items;<ref>{{cite web |url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-newsArticle_Print&ID=231835&highlight= |title=Amazon.com Launches Toolcrib.Amazon.com, a Tools and Equipment Store for Professional Tool Users and Woodworkers; Store's Wide Selection Includes Latest Tool Innovations and Tool Tests from Tools of the Trade |publisher=Amazon.com |author= |date=February 9, 2000 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> Convergence Corporation, software to connect wireless devices to the Internet;<ref>{{cite web |url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=232161&highlight= |title=Amazon.com launches 'Amazon.com Anywhere,' providing shopping from wireless devices, such as the Palm VII organizer |publisher=Amazon.com |author= |date=October 4, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> MindCorps Incorporated, applications for web sites including online chats to web based databases;<ref>{{cite web |url=//web.archive.org/web/20070711090247/http://www.mercent.com/NewsArticles/2004-09-20%20-%20eCommerceIQ%20-%20Champions%20of%20e-Commerce.htm |title=Champions of e-Commerce |work=e-Commerce IQ |author=Nettie Hartsock |date=July 11, 2007 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> Della.com, gift registry, expert advice, and personalized gift suggestions, Amazon purchased a 20% stake<ref>{{cite web |url=http://partners.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/11/cyber/commerce/15commerce.html |title=Letters to Santa Are No Longer Necessary |work=New York Times |author=Bob Tedeschi |date=November 15, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> (in April, 2000, the company merged with WeddingChannel.com<ref>{{cite web |url=//web.archive.org/web/20120714041842/http://wedding.weddingchannel.com:80/press_release/weddellPress.asp |title=WeddingChannel.com and Della.com Merge to Create World's Definitive Marketplace for Weddings |work=WeddingChannel.com |author= |date=April 27, 2000 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref>); Back to Basics Toys, catalog toy store<ref>{{cite web |url=http://money.cnn.com/1999/12/01/deals/amazon/ |title=Online merchant in $10M marketing pact with luxury-products Web retailer |work=CNN |author= |date=December 1, 1999 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> (sold to Scholastic in 2003<ref>{{cite web |url=http://multichannelmerchant.com/printchannel-lists/scholastic-buys-back-to-basics-toys-from-amazon-com-24092003/ |title=Scholastic Buys Back to Basics Toys from Amazon.com |work=multichannelmerchant.com |author=Paul Miller |date=September 24, 2003 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref>); Ashford.com, retailer of luxury products, Amazon acquired a 16.6 percent ownership;{{citation needed|date=February 2014}} Leep Technology Inc., developer of on-line database query tools;{{citation needed|date=February 2014}} * 2003: Online music retailer [[CDNow]].<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/dp/0966103262 The Cdnow Story: Rags to Riches on the Internet], by [[Jason Olim]] (Author), [[Matthew Olim]] (Author), [[Peter Kent]] (Author)</ref> By 2011, the website cdnow.com was defunct and in use by a different company. * 2004: [[Joyo.com]], a Chinese e-commerce website.<ref>{{cite news|title=Amazon ups investment in China online shopping site|agency=Reuters|location=UK|date=June 5, 2007|url=http://uk.reuters.com/article/idUKPEK15159920070605|accessdate=January 1, 2010}}</ref> * 2005: BookSurge,<ref>{{cite news|title=Amazon Expands Into Book Printing|newspaper=The New York Times|date=April 11, 2005|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/11/technology/11ecom.html?ei=5088&en=5ed37782694b0920&ex=1270872000&partner=rssnyt&pagewanted=all&position=|accessdate=January 1, 2010|first=Bob|last=Tedeschi}}</ref> a [[print on demand]] company, and [[Mobipocket.com]], an [[e-Book]] software company.<ref>{{cite web|title=About|publisher=Mobipocket.com|url=http://www.mobipocket.com/en/Corporate/AboutMobipocket.asp?Language=EN}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Franklin interest in company, retires shares|work=Philadelphia Business Journal|date=March 31, 2005|url=http://philadelphia.bizjournals.com/philadelphia/stories/2005/03/28/daily32.html|accessdate=June 14, 2010}}</ref> CreateSpace.com (formerly CustomFlix), a distributor of on-demand DVDs, based in [[Scotts Valley, California]].<ref>{{cite journal|publisher=Com|journal=News|url=http://news.com.com/Amazon+buys+DVD-on-demand+site/2100-1025_3-5783824.html|title=Amazon buys DVD-on-demand site|accessdate=August 3, 2007|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070822225954/http://news.com.com/Amazon+buys+DVD-on-demand+site/2100-1025_3-5783824.html|archivedate=August 22, 2007 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> CreateSpace has since expanded to include print on-demand books (POD), CDs, and video. * 2006: Shopbop, a retailer of designer clothing and accessories for women, based in [[Madison, Wisconsin]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://wistechnology.com/article.php?id=2730|title=Wisconsin Technology Network: "Amazon acquires Madison-based Shopbop"|publisher=Wistechnology.com|date=February 27, 2006|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> * 2007: [[dpreview.com]], a digital photography review website based in London; Brilliance Audio, the largest independent publisher of [[audiobook]]s in the United States.<ref name=brilliance-taume>{{cite news|url=http://news.taume.com/World-Business/Business-Finance/Amazon_com-Acquires-Brilliance-Audio-1358|title=amazon.com Acquires Brilliance Audio|work=Taume News|date=May 27, 2007|accessdate=May 28, 2007|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070704192411/http://news.taume.com/World-Business/Business-Finance/Amazon_com-Acquires-Brilliance-Audio-1358|archivedate=July 4, 2007 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> * 2008: [[Audible.com]]; Fabric.com;<ref>{{cite web|author=Bill Briggs|url=http://www.internetretailer.com/dailyNews.asp?id=26889|title=Amazon weaves Fabric.com into its e-commerce quilt|publisher=Internet Retailer|date=June 25, 2008|accessdate=August 29, 2010|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100721122324/http://www.internetretailer.com/dailyNews.asp?id=26889|archivedate=July 21, 2010 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> [[Box Office Mojo]];<ref name="Amazon">{{cite news|url=http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117997423.html?categoryid=18&cs=1|title=IMDb links up with Box Office|work=Variety|first=Ben|last=Fritz|date=December 15, 2008}}{{dead link|date=March 2013}}</ref> [[AbeBooks]];<ref>{{cite web|last=Vancouver|first=The|url=http://www.canada.com/vancouversun/news/business/story.html?id=450f0c09-4733-4488-96d5-d6ba05f06876|title=Amazon looks to fill niche with AbeBooks purchase|publisher=Canada.com|date=August 2, 2008|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> [[Shelfari]];<ref>{{cite web|last=Gonsalves|first=Antone|url=http://www.informationweek.com/news/internet/retail/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=210200911|title=Amazon Buys Social Network For Book Lovers|publisher=Informationweek.com|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> (including a 40% stake in [[LibraryThing]] and whole ownership of [[BookFinder.com]], Gojaba.com, and [[FillZ]]); [[Reflexive Entertainment]],<ref>{{cite web|last=Kawamoto|first=Dawn|url=http://news.cnet.com/8301-10797_3-10072600-235.html|title=Amazon.com snaps up Reflexive Entertainment|publisher=news.cnet.com|date=October 22, 2008|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> a casual video game development company. * 2009: [[Zappos.com|Zappos]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-07/23/content_11756468.htm|title=Xinhuanet.com|publisher=News.xinhuanet.com|date=July 23, 2009|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> an online shoe and apparel retailer<ref name="tc-billion">{{cite news|url=http://www.techcrunch.com/2009/11/02/amazon-closes-zappos-deal-ends-up-paying-1-2-billion|title=Amazon Closes Zappos Deal, Ends Up Paying $1.2 Billion|last=Wauters|first=Robin|date=November 2, 2009|publisher=TechCrunch|accessdate=January 28, 2010|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100123070014/http://www.techcrunch.com/2009/11/02/amazon-closes-zappos-deal-ends-up-paying-1-2-billion|archivedate=January 23, 2010 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> [[Lexcycle]],<ref>{{cite news|first=Brad|last=Stone|url=http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/04/27/amazon-acquires-stanza-an-e-book-application-for-the-iphone|title=Amazon Acquires Stanza, an E-Book Application for the iPhone|newspaper=The New York Times|date=April 27, 2009|accessdate=April 27, 2009|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090429111042/http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/04/27/amazon-acquires-stanza-an-e-book-application-for-the-iphone|archivedate=April 29, 2009 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> SnapTell, an image matching startup,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://techcrunch.com/2009/06/16/image-recognition-startup-snaptell-acquired-by-amazon-subsidiary-a9com|title=Image Recognition Startup SnapTell Acquired by Amazon Subsidiary A9.com|publisher=TechCrunch|date=June 16, 2009|accessdate=March 19, 2012}}</ref> Stanza, a rival e-book reader to Amazon's Kindle.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://gigaom.com/2009/04/28/leading-iphone-ebook-reader-stanza-acquired-by-amazon|title=Leading iPhone eBook Reader Stanza Acquired by Amazon|work=Gigaom|last=Etherington|first=Darrell|date=April 28, 2009|accessdate=September 10, 2013}}</ref> * 2010: Touchco.,<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/04/technology/04amazon.html?scp=2&sq=amazon&st=cse|newspaper=The New York Times|title=Amazon Said to Buy Touch Start-Up|first1=Nick|last1=Bilton|first2=Brad|last2=Stone|date=February 4, 2010|accessdate=March 27, 2010}}</ref> [[Woot]],<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.woot.com/Blog/ViewEntry.aspx?Id=13390|title=Woot|date=June 30, 2010|publisher=woot.com|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> [[Diapers.com|Quidsi]], BuyVIP, [[Amie Street]]. * 2010: Toby Press<ref>http://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by-topic/industry-news/publisher-news/article/45230-amazon-acquires-toby-press-titles.html</ref> * 2011: [[LoveFilm]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/Business/Amazon-Is-To-Take-Full-Control-Of-DVD-And-Game-Rental-By-Post-Firm-Lovefilm/Article/201101315901025?f=rss|title=Amazon Is To Take Full Control Of DVD And Game Rental-By-Post Firm Lovefilm|work=News|publisher=Sky|date=2011-01-31|accessdate=August 4, 2011}}</ref> [[The Book Depository]],<ref>{{cite news|last=Chirgwin|first=Richard|url=http://www.theregister.co.uk/2011/07/04/amazon_buys_book_depository|work=The Register|date=2011-07-04|title=Amazon buys book depository|accessdate=2012-09-06}}</ref> [[Pushbutton]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pushbutton.tv/press/amazon-acquires-pushbutton|title=Amazon Acquires Pushbutton|publisher=pushbutton.tv|date=July 28|accessdate=September 6, 2012|archiveurl=http://archive.is/fVXx|archivedate=2012-09-07}}{{dead link|date=February 2013}}</ref> Yap,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://cltblog.com/23836|title=Charlotte voice-to-text startup Yap quietly acquired by Amazon|work=News|publisher=CLTBlog|date=2011-11-09|accessdate=November 9, 2011}}</ref> * 2012: [[Kiva Systems]],<ref>{{cite news|last=Rusli|first=Evelyn|title=Amazon.com Buys Kiva Systems for $775 Million|url=http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2012/03/19/amazon-com-buys-kiva-systems-for-775-million|newspaper=The New York Times|accessdate=March 19, 2012|date=March 19, 2012}}</ref> [[Teachstreet]]<ref>Cook, John (2 February 2012). [http://www.geekwire.com/2012/exclusive-amazoncom-buys-teachstreet/ "Exclusive: Amazon.com buys TeachStreet"]. geekwire.com</ref> [[Evi (software)|Evi]]<ref>{{cite news|url=http://techcrunch.com/2013/04/17/sources-say-amazon-acquired-siri-like-evi-app-for-26m-is-a-smartphone-coming|title=Sources Say Amazon Acquired Siri Like Evi App for 26M is a Smartphone Coming?|work=TechCrunch|date=April 18, 2013|accessdate=April 18, 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.engadget.com/2013/04/17/amazon-may-have-quietly-acquired-evi-for-voice-guided-search|title=Amazon has reportedly acquired Evi for voice-guided search ?|work=Engadget|date=April 17, 2013|accessdate=April 18, 2013}}</ref> * 2013: [[IVONA|IVONA Software]],<ref>{{cite news|url=http://techcrunch.com/2013/01/24/amazon-gets-into-voice-recognition-buys-ivona-software-to-compete-against-apples-siri|title=Amazon Gets Into Voice Recognition, Buys Ivona Software To Compete Against Apple’s Siri|work=TechCrunch|accessdate=January 24, 2013}}</ref> [[GoodReads]]<ref>{{cite news|url=http://techcrunch.com/2013/03/28/amazon-acquires-social-reading-site-goodreads|title=Amazon Acquires Social Reading Site Goodreads, Which Gives The Company A Social Advantage Over Apple|work=TechCrunch|date=March 28, 2013|accessdate=March 29, 2013}}</ref> [[Liquavista]] <ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/05/13/us-amazon-acquisition-idUSBRE94C0XE20130513|title=Amazon buys Liquavista from Samsung,launches Digital Currency|work=Reuters|date=May 13, 2013|accessdate=September 3, 2013}}</ref> * 2014: [[Double Helix Games]]<ref>{{cite news | url=http://techcrunch.com/2014/02/05/amazon-acquires-video-gaming-studio-double-helix-games/ | title=Amazon Acquires Video Gaming Studio Double Helix Games | work=TechCruch | accessdate=February 5, 2014}}</ref> ===Investment=== *2008: [[Engine Yard]], a Ruby-on-Rails [[platform as a service]] (PaaS) company.<ref>{{cite web|last=Olsen|first=Stefanie|url=http://news.cnet.com/8301-1001_3-9990466-92.html|title=Amazon invests in Engine Yard's cloud computing|publisher=News.cnet.com|date=July 14, 2008|accessdate=August 4, 2011}}</ref> *2010: [[LivingSocial]], a local deal site.<ref>{{cite news|last=Isaac|first=Mike|date=December 2, 2010|url=http://www.forbes.com/sites/mikeisaac/2010/12/02/livingsocial-receives-175-million-investment-from-amazon|title=LivingSocial Receives $175 Million Investment From Amazon|work=Forbes|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> ===Subsidiaries=== *2004: [[A9.com]], a company focused on researching and building innovative [[technology]].<ref>McCracken, Harry, [https://web.archive.org/web/20110716052029/http://blogs.pcworld.com/techlog/archives/002876.html "Amazon's A9 Search as We Knew It: Dead!"], ''[[PC World]]''. September 29, 2006. Retrieved September 6, 2012.</ref> *2004: [[Lab126]], developers of integrated consumer electronics such as the Kindle. *2007: Endless.com, an e-commerce brand focusing on shoes.<ref>Jonathan Birchall, New York, [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/c9bc90b4-17e7-11de-8c9d-0000779fd2ac.html Amazon launches accessories brand in Japan], ''[[Financial Times]]''. March 23, 2009. Retrieved September 6, 2012 {{subscription required|date=September 2012}}</ref> *2007: Brilliance Audio, the largest independent audiobook producer in the US.<ref>{{cite news|last=Kawamoto|first=Dawn|url=http://news.cnet.com/Amazon-acquires-Brilliance-Audio/2110-1030_3-6185975.html|title=Amazon acquires Brilliance Audio|date=May 23, 2007|publisher=news.cnet.com|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> ==Merchant partnerships== Until June 30, 2006, typing [[Toys R Us|ToysRUs.com]] into a browser would bring up Amazon.com's "Toys & Games" tab; however, this relationship was terminated due to a lawsuit.<ref name="ect">E-Commerce Times: [http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/49188.html Toys 'R' Us wins right to end Amazon partnership.], March 3, 2006</ref> Amazon also hosted and managed the website for [[Borders Group|Borders bookstores]] but this ceased in 2008.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/20080527/borders-amazon-barnes-noble-web-online-store-retailer.htm|title=Borders Returns to Online Sales, Drops Amazon|work=International Business Times|author=Diane Oswald|date=May 27, 2008}}</ref> From 2001 until August 2011, Amazon hosted the retail website for [[Target Corporation|Target]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Target Launches Redesigned E-Commerce Website|url=http://pressroom.target.com/pr/news/target-launches-redesigned-e-commerce-aug2011.aspx|date=August 23, 2011|publisher=Target Corporation|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> [[Benefit Cosmetics]], another merchant partner of Amazon, has also launched a major E-Commerce platform of their own based on [[Hybris (company)|Hybris]] and [http://us.arvatosystems.com/ arvato systems NA], in the US, EU and China.<ref>{{cite web|title=Benefit Cosmetics launches new ecommerce website in the US powered by hybris|url=http://www.hybris.com/news-events/press-releases/benefits-cosmetics-2011|date=November 8, 2011|publisher=Benefit Cosmetics|accessdate=September 10, 2011}}</ref> Amazon.com operates retail websites for [[Sears Canada]], [[bebe Stores]], [[Marks & Spencer]], [[Mothercare]], and [[Lacoste]]. For a growing number of [[Business|enterprise]] clients, currently including the UK merchants Marks & Spencer, Benefit Cosmetics' UK entity, edeals.com, and Mothercare, Amazon provides a unified multichannel platform where a customer can interact with some people they call the retail website, standalone in-store terminals, or phone-based customer service agents. [[Amazon Web Services]] also powers [[AOL]]'s Shop@AOL. On October 18, 2011, Amazon.com announced a partnership with DC Comics for the exclusive digital rights to many popular comics, including Superman, Batman, Green Lantern, The Sandman, and Watchmen. The partnership has caused well-known bookstores like Barnes & Noble to remove these titles from their shelves.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/19/technology/bookstores-drop-comics-after-amazon-deal-with-dc.html?_r=1&ref=technology|newspaper=The New York Times|first=David|last=Streitfeld|title=Bookstores Drop Comics After Amazon Deal With DC|date=October 18, 2011}}</ref> In November 2013, Amazon.com announced a partnership with the [[United States Postal Service]] to begin delivering orders on Sundays. The service, included with Amazon’s standard shipping rates, initiated in metropolitan areas of Los Angeles and New York, with plans to expand into Dallas, Houston, New Orleans, and Phoenix by 2014.<ref>{{cite web|last=Barr|first=Alistair|title=Amazon starts Sunday delivery with US Postal Service|url=http://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2013/11/11/amazon-sunday-delivery-usps/3479055/|publisher=USA Today|accessdate=25 November 2013}}</ref> ==Locations== Amazon has offices, [[fulfillment center]]s, warehouses, customer service centers and software development centers across North America, Latin America, Europe, Africa, and Asia.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com/Locations-Careers/b?ie=UTF8&node=239366011|title=Global locations|publisher=Amazon.com|accessdate=August 2013}}</ref> ===Headquarters=== [[File:Seattle-PacMed-2571.JPG|thumb|right|Amazon.com's former headquarters in the [[Pacific Medical Center]] building in [[Beacon Hill, Seattle]].]] The company's global headquarters are in 14 buildings in Seattle's [[South Lake Union, Seattle|South Lake Union]] neighborhood. The European headquarters are in Luxembourg's capital, [[Luxembourg (city)|Luxembourg City]]. In Seattle, as of 2013, a 3-tower headquarters near Amazon's existing buildings with a capacity of 12,000 employees was under construction.<ref name=NYT82513>{{cite news|title=As Amazon Stretches, Seattle’s Downtown Is Reshaped|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/26/us/as-amazon-stretches-seattles-downtown-is-reshaped.html|accessdate=August 26, 2013|newspaper=The New York Times|date=August 25, 2013|author=Kirk Johnson|author2=Nick Wingfield}}</ref> ===Software development centers=== While much of Amazon's software development occurs in Seattle, the company employs software developers in centers across the globe. Some of these sites are run by an Amazon subsidiary called A2Z Development.<ref name=WSJ>{{cite news|last=Woo|first=Stu|title=California Online Tax Law Pressures Amazon|url=http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702304450604576416191562187986.html?mod=googlewsj|accessdate=February 25, 2012|newspaper=The Wall Street Journal|date=July 1, 2011}}</ref> *North America **USA: [[Cambridge, Massachusetts|Cambridge, MA]];<ref>{{cite news|last=Kirsner|first=Scott|title=Amazon plans Cambridge office|url=http://www.bostonglobe.com/business/2011/12/22/amazon-plans-cambridge-office/ySyuSjQUdlyJSe15xSPqGJ/story.html?camp=pm|accessdate=February 22, 2012|newspaper=Boston Globe|date=December 23, 2011}}</ref> [[Irvine, CA]];<ref>{{cite news|last=Kirsner|first=Scott|title=Amazon plans Irvine development center|url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/jobs/ref=j_sq_btn?jobSearchKeywords=&category=*&location=US%2C+CA%2C+Irvine&x=20&y=9}}</ref>[[Charleston, South Carolina|Charleston, SC]];<ref>{{cite web|title=Charleston|url=http://www.a2z.com/all-locations/charleston|publisher=a2z.com|accessdate=February 25, 2012|archiveurl=http://archive.is/iq69|archivedate=2012-07-20}}</ref> [[Cupertino, California|Cupertino, CA]];<ref name=WSJ/> [[Orange County, California|Orange County, CA]]; [[San Francisco, CA]]; [[San Luis Obispo, California|San Luis Obispo, CA]];<ref>{{cite web|title=San Luis Obispo|url=http://www.a2z.com/all-locations/san-luis-obispo|publisher=a2z.com|accessdate=February 25, 2012|archiveurl=http://archive.is/Fx96|archivedate=2012-07-18}}</ref> [[Seattle|Seattle, WA]]; [[New York|New York, NY]] and [[Tempe, Arizona|Tempe, AZ]] **Canada: [[Vancouver]], British Columbia, Toronto downtown and [[Mississauga]], Ontario *Europe **Ireland: [[Dublin]] **Germany: [[Berlin]] and [[Dresden]]<ref>{{cite news|title=Amazon taps germany for engineers|url=http://gigaom.com/2013/05/03/amazon-taps-germany-for-cloud-and-machine-learning-engineers/}}</ref> **Netherlands: [[Rijswijk]] **Romania: [[Iași]] **UK: [[Slough]] (England), [[London]] (England) [[Dunfermline]] (Scotland) and [[Edinburgh]] (Scotland) *Asia **India: [[Hyderabad, India|Hyderabad]], [[Bangalore]] and [[Chennai]] **Japan: [[Meguro, Tokyo|Meguro]] ([[Tokyo]]) **China: [[Beijing]] *Africa **South Africa: [[Cape Town]] ===Customer Service Centers=== *United States: [[Kennewick, Washington|Kennewick, WA]]; [[Huntington, West Virginia|Huntington, WV]]; [[Grand Forks, North Dakota|Grand Forks, ND]]; [[Winchester, Kentucky|Winchester, KY]] *India: Hyderabad, Chennai, Bangalore *South Africa: [[Cape Town]]<ref>[http://www.1stream.co.za/2012/02/amazon-chooses-1streams-hosted-contact-centre-solution/ "Amazon chooses 1stream call center solutions for South Africa"], Retrieved, February 1, 2012.</ref> *Philippines: Convergys Cebu, Convergys Bacolod *China: Chengdu *Germany: Berlin *Ireland: Cork *Morocco: Sala al Jadida *UK: Edinburgh, Scotland *Japan: Sapporo *Costa Rica: Heredia and San Jose *Uruguay: Montevideo *Italy: Cagliari *Jamaica: Kingston ===Fulfillment and warehousing=== Fulfillment centers are located in the following cities, often near airports. These centers also provide warehousing and order-fulfillment for third-party sellers:<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/ Fulfillment by Amazon] from the company's website</ref> Warehouses are large and each has hundreds of employees. Employees are responsible for four basic tasks: unpacking and inspecting incoming goods; placing goods in storage and recording their location; picking goods from their computer recorded locations to make up an individual shipment; and shipping. A central computer which records the location of goods and maps out routes for pickers plays a central role; employees carry hand-held computers which communicate with the central computer and monitor their rate of progress. A picker with their cart may walk 10 or more miles a day. In the United Kingdom initial staffing was provided by [[Randstad Holding]] and other temporary employment agencies. Some workers are accepted as Amazon employees and granted pension and shares of stock; others are dismissed. "When we have permanent positions available, we look to the top performing temporary associates to fill them."<ref name=FT02813 /> Development of a high level of [[automation]] is anticipated in the future following Amazon's 2012 acquisition of [[Kiva Systems]], a warehouse automation company. [[File:Amazon.com Customer Service Center (Huntington, West Virginia) 003.jpg|thumb|Customer Service Center in Huntington, West Virginia]] *North America **USA ***[[Goodyear, Arizona|Goodyear, AZ]] ***[[Phoenix, Arizona|Phoenix, AZ]] ***[[Patterson, California|Patterson, CA]] ***[[San Bernardino, California|San Bernardino, CA]] ***[[Tracy, California|Tracy, CA]] (''opening 2014'') ***[[Windsor Locks, Connecticut|Windsor Locks, CT]] ***[[Middletown, Delaware|Middletown, DE]]<ref>{{cite web|last=Manahan|first=Kim|url=http://www.middletowntranscript.com/topstories/x123111779/Construction-on-Amazon-warehouse-to-start-by-next-month|title=Construction on Amazon warehouse to start by next month - Middletown, DE|publisher=Middletown Transcript|accessdate=March 19, 2012}}</ref> ***[[New Castle, Delaware|New Castle, DE]] ***[[Jeffersonville, Indiana|Jeffersonville, IN]] ***[[Plainfield, Indiana|Plainfield, IN]] ***[[Whitestown, Indiana|Whitestown, IN]] ***[[Coffeyville, Kansas|Coffeyville, KS]] ***[[Campbellsville, Kentucky|Campbellsville, KY]] ***[[Hebron, Kentucky|Hebron, KY]] (''near [[Cincinnati|Cincinnati, OH]]'') ***[[Lexington, Kentucky|Lexington, KY]] ***[[Louisville, Kentucky|Louisville, KY]] ***[[Baltimore|Baltimore, MD]] (''opening Fall 2014'')<ref>{{cite web|url=http://baltimore.cbslocal.com/2013/10/22/amazon-com-to-open-baltimore-fulfillment-center/ |title=Amazon.com To Open Baltimore Distribution Center, Giving Area 1,000+ Jobs |publisher=Baltimore.cbslocal.com |date=2013-10-22 |accessdate=2013-12-16}}</ref> ***[[Robbinsville, New Jersey|Robbinsville, NJ]] (''opening early 2014'')<ref>{{cite web|author=Martin Griff / The Times of Trenton|url=http://www.nj.com/mercer/index.ssf/2013/01/amazon_will_open_robbinsville.html|title=Amazon's prime location: Business experts say distribution hub in Mercer is ideal|publisher=NJ.com|date=|accessdate=2013-01-31}}</ref> ***[[Fernley, Nevada|Fernley, NV]] ***[[North Las Vegas, Nevada|North Las Vegas, NV]] ***[[Nashua, New Hampshire|Nashua, NH]] ***[[Breinigsville, Pennsylvania|Breinigsville, PA]] ***[[Carlisle, Pennsylvania|Carlisle, PA]] ***[[Hazleton, Pennsylvania|Hazleton, PA]] ***[[Lewisberry, Pennsylvania|Lewisberry, PA]] ***[[Lexington, South Carolina|Lexington, SC]]<ref>{{cite news|author=Seanna Adcox (Associated Press)|url=http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9NNRRO80.htm|title=Amazon posts jobs for SC as deal becomes law|work=[[Bloomberg Businessweek]]|date=June 8, 2011|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=176060&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1571752&highlight=|title=Amazon Fulfillment Center in Lexington County, South Carolina Hiring for Hundreds of Full-time Jobs with Great Benefits|publisher=Amazon.com|accessdate=June 8, 2011}}</ref> ***[[Spartanburg, South Carolina|Spartanburg, SC]]; ***[[Chattanooga, Tennessee|Chattanooga, TN]] ***[[Lebanon, Tennessee|Lebanon, TN]] ***[[Murfreesboro, Tennessee|Murfreesboro, TN]] ***[[Irving, Texas|Irving, TX]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.dallasnews.com/business/headlines/20110412-amazon-hasnt-delivered-on-threat-to-close-irving-distribution-center-over-sales-tax-dispute.ece|title=Amazon hasn’t closed its Irving distribution center, as it threatened|work=The Dallas Morning News|date=April 12, 2011|accessdate=July 12, 2011}}</ref> (''between [[Dallas]] and [[Fort Worth, Texas|Fort Worth]]'') ***[[Schertz, Texas|Schertz, TX]] (''near San Antonio'') ***[[Chester, Virginia|Chester, VA]] ***[[Dinwiddie, Virginia|Dinwiddie, VA]] (''near [[Richmond, Virginia|Richmond, VA]]'') ***[[Sterling, Virginia|Sterling, VA]] ***[[Bellevue, Washington|Bellevue, WA]] ***[[DuPont, Washington|DuPont, WA]] (''opening Fall 2013'') ***[[Sumner, Washington|Sumner, WA]].<ref>{{cite news|url=http://blog.seattlepi.com/amazon/2008/08/19/a-peek-at-the-quietly-expanding-amazonfresh|title=A peek at the quietly expanding AmazonFresh|work=Seattle Post-Intelligencer|date=August 19, 2008|accessdate=August 19, 2008|first=Andrea|last=James}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.thenewstribune.com/2011/05/04/1652278/amazoncom-to-open-sumner-warehouse.html#storylink=omni_popular|title=Amazon to open Sumner warehouse, hire several hundred|publisher=The News Tribune|date=May 5, 2011|accessdate=February 23, 2012|first=John|last=Gillie}}{{dead link|date=February 2013}}</ref> ***[[Huntington, West Virginia]] **Canada ***[[Mississauga, Ontario]] ***[[Annacis Island]] a part of [[Delta, British Columbia]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.delta-optimist.com/Amazon+locate+centre+Delta+Annacis+Island/7256260/story.html|title=Amazon to locate centre on Delta's Annacis Island|publisher=delta-optimist.com|accessdate=December 12, 2012}}</ref> [[File:Amazon warehouse Glenrothes.jpg|thumb|Amazon.co.uk warehouse in [[Glenrothes]], Scotland, UK]] *Europe **United Kingdom, as of 2013, 7 in operation with 3 more planned.<ref name=FT02813 /> ***England ****Marston Gate (''near [[Brogborough]]'') ****[[Rugeley]],<ref name=FT02813>{{cite news|title=Amazon unpacked: The online giant is creating thousands of UK jobs, so why are some employees less than happy?|url=http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/2/ed6a985c-70bd-11e2-85d0-00144feab49a.html|accessdate=February 8, 2013|newspaper=Financial Times|date=February 8, 2013|author=Sarah O’Connor}}</ref> [[Staffordshire]] ****[[Peterborough]] ****[[Doncaster]] ****[[Hemel Hempstead]] ***Scotland ****[[Gourock]] ([[Inverclyde]]) ****[[Dunfermline]] ([[Fife]]) ***Wales ****[[Crymlyn Burrows]] ****[[Swansea]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/help/seller/at-a-glance.html?seller=A2OAJ7377F756P&marketplaceSeller=1|title=Warehouse Deals address|publisher=Amazon.co.uk|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/south-wales-news/neath/2007/05/24/call-for-jobs-to-go-to-locals-91466-19192844|title=Call for jobs to go to locals|publisher=Wales Online|date=May 24, 2007|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> (''near [[Jersey Marine]]'')<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/7349546.stm|publisher=BBC News|title=Jobs boost as web warehouse opens|date=April 16, 2008|accessdate=April 23, 2010}}</ref> **France ***[[Boigny-sur-Bionne]] (''2000'') ***[[Saran, Loiret|Saran]] (''2007'') ***[[Montélimar]] (''2010'') ***[[Sevrey]] (''Autumn 2012'') ***[[Lauwin-Planque]] (''October 2013'') **Germany ***[[Bad Hersfeld]] (''1996'' and ''2010'') (Hessen) ***[[Leipzig]] (''2006'') (Saxony) ***[[Werne]] (''2010'') (North Rhine-Westphalia) ***[[Rheinberg]] (''2011'') (North Rhine-Westphalia) ***[[Graben, Bavaria|Graben]] (''2011'') (Bavaria) ***[[Koblenz]] (''2012'') (Rhineland-Palatinate) ***[[Pforzheim]] (''2012'') (Baden-Württemberg) **Netherlands ***[[Amsterdam]] **Italy ***[[Castel San Giovanni]] (''2011'' and ''2013'') ([[Emilia-Romagna]])<ref>{{cite web|author=Giacomo Dotta|url=http://www.webnews.it/2011/10/27/amazon-mette-radici-in-italia/?ref=post|title=Amazon mette radici in Italia|publisher=Webnews.it|date=October 27, 2011|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> **Slovakia: [[Bratislava]] (2011)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cas.sk/clanok/200234/amazon-otvara-v-bratislave-centrum-podpory-predaja-hlada-200-ludi.html|title=Amazon otvára v Bratislave centrum podpory predaja, hľadá 200 ľudí|publisher=profimedia.sk|date=June 14, 2011|accessdate=August 4, 2011}}</ref> **Spain ***[[San Fernando de Henares, Madrid|San Fernando de Henares]] ([[Comunidad de Madrid|Madrid]]) *Asia **Japan ***[[Ichikawa, Chiba|Ichikawa]] ***[[Yachiyo, Chiba|Yachiyo]] ***[[Chiba Prefecture|Chiba]] ***[[Sakai, Osaka|Sakai]] ***[[Daito, Osaka|Daito]] ***[[Osaka Prefecture|Osaka]] ***[[Kawagoe, Saitama|Kawagoe]] ***[[Saitama Prefecture|Saitama]] **China ***[[Guangzhou]] ***[[Suzhou]] ***[[Beijing]] ***[[Chengdu]] **India ***[[Mumbai]] ***[[Bangalore]] (Feb 2014) ===Other=== *[[Audible.com]] (subsidiary) Headquarters at [[1 Washington Park]] in [[Newark, NJ]]. *[[Zappos.com]] Headquarters in [[Las Vegas, Nevada]]. *Woot Headquarters in [[Carrollton, Texas]]. ===Closed fulfillment, warehousing and customer service locations=== These US distribution centers have been closed: SDC Seattle Distribution Center, located in Georgetown, just south of downtown Seattle; Red Rock, Nevada; [[Chambersburg, Pennsylvania]]; [[Munster, Indiana]]; and [[McDonough, Georgia]].<ref>{{cite web|last=Flach|first=Tim|url=http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2011/04/28/113086/amazon-packing-after-south-carolina.html|title=McClatchy, Thursday, April 28, 2011|publisher=Mcclatchydc.com|date=April 28, 2011|accessdate=August 4, 2011}}</ref><ref>[http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9130686 amazon.com shuttering 3 US distribution centers], a March 2009 ''[[Computer World]]'' article</ref><ref>[http://www.seattlepi.com/venture/layoff.asp?id=101 Recent Layoffs at Area Technology Companies]{{dead link|date=October 2011}}, a January 2001 SeattlePI article</ref> From 2000<ref>{{cite news|last=Wolverton|first=Troy|url=http://news.cnet.com/2100-1017-235621.html|title=Amazon adds East Coast customer service center|date=January 13, 2000|publisher=[[CNET]]|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> until February 2001, there was an Amazon customer service based in [[The Hague, Netherlands]].<ref>{{cite web|publisher=thefreelibrary.com|url=http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Amazon.com+Releases+2001+Second+Quarter+Results.-a076708124|title=Amazon.com Releases 2001 Second Quarter Results.|date=July 23, 2001|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|title=Amazon.com: Get Big Fast|last=Spector|first=Robert|year=2002|publisher=[[HarperCollins]]|isbn=0066620422|page=243|accessdate=September 6, 2012|url=http://books.google.com/?id=J-NkSGoY-cIC&pg=PA243&lpg=PA243&dq=Amazon.com+2000+The+Hague#v=onepage&q=Amazon.com%202000%20The%20Hague&f=false}}</ref> ==Products and services== [[File:Amazon Kindle 3.JPG|thumb|upright|Third-generation [[Amazon Kindle]]]] ===Retail goods=== Amazon product lines include media - [[book]]s, DVDs, music CDs, software, [[VHS|videotapes]], and software - apparel, baby products, [[consumer electronics]], [[cosmetics|beauty products]], gourmet food, groceries, health and personal-care items, industrial & scientific supplies, kitchen items, [[jewelry]] and watches, lawn and garden items, musical instruments, [[sports equipment|sporting goods]], tools, and toys & games. The company launched amazon.com Auctions, a web auctions service, in March 1999. However, it failed to chip away at the large market share of the industry pioneer, [[eBay]]. Later, the company launched a fixed-price [[marketplace]] business, zShops, in September 1999, and the now defunct partnership with [[Sotheby's]], called ''Sothebys.amazon.com'', in November. Auctions and zShops evolved into [[Amazon Marketplace]], a service launched in November 2000 that let customers sell used books, CDs, DVDs, and other products alongside new items. Today, Amazon Marketplace's main rival is eBay's [[Half.com]] service.{{citation needed|date=November 2013}} In August 2007, Amazon announced [[AmazonFresh]], a grocery service offering [[perishable food|perishable]] and [[nonperishable food]]s. Customers can have orders delivered to their homes at dawn or during a specified daytime window. Delivery was initially restricted to residents of [[Mercer Island, Washington]], and was later expanded to several [[ZIP code]]s in Seattle proper.<ref name="fresh">Arrington, Michael (August 1, 2007). [http://www.techcrunch.com/2007/08/01/remember-webvan-so-does-amazon/ "Remember Webvan? So Does Amazon"]. [[TechCrunch]].</ref> AmazonFresh also operated pick-up locations in the suburbs of [[Bellevue, Washington|Bellevue]] and [[Kirkland, Washington|Kirkland]] from summer 2007 through early 2008. In 2012, Amazon announced the launch of Vine.com for buying green products, including groceries, household items, and apparel.<ref name=miller2012>{{cite web|url=http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/26/amazon-starts-a-shopping-site-for-the-environmental-crowd/?smid=tw-nytimesbits&seid=auto|title=Amazon Starts a Shopping Site for the Environmental Crowd|work=[[The New York Times]]|author=CLAIRE CAIN MILLER|date=September 26, 2012|accessdate=October 9, 2012}}</ref> It is part of [[Quidsi]], the company that Amazon bought in 2010 that also runs the sites [[Diapers.com]] (baby), [[Wag.com]] (pets), and [[YoYo.com]] (toys).<ref name=miller2012/> Amazon also owns other e-commerce sites like [[Shopbop.com]], [[Woot.com]], and [[Zappos.com]].<ref name=miller2012/> Amazon's Subscribe & Save program offers a discounted price on an item (usually sold in bulk), free shipping on every Subscribe & Save shipment, and automatic shipment of the item every one, two, three, or six months.<ref>{{cite web|title=Amazon.com Subscribe & Save|url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/subscribe-and-save/details/index.html|publisher=Amazon|accessdate=July 21, 2011}}</ref> In 2013, Amazon launched its site in India, amazon.in. It has started with electronic goods and plans to expand into fashion apparel, beauty, home essentials, and healthcare categories by the end of 2013.{{citation needed|date=September 2013}} ===Consumer electronics=== In November 2007, Amazon launched [[Amazon Kindle]], an [[e-book]] reader which downloads content over "[[Whispernet]]", via [[Sprint Corporation|Sprint's]] [[EV-DO]] wireless network. The screen uses [[E Ink]] technology to reduce [[battery (electricity)|battery]] consumption and to provide a more legible display. As of March 2011, the stated library numbers over 850,000 titles.{{citation needed|date=November 2013}} In September 2011, Amazon announced its entry into the [[tablet computer]] market by introducing the [[Kindle Fire]], which runs a customized version of the operating system [[Android (operating system)|Android]]. The exceedingly low pricing of Fire ($199 USD{{when|date=November 2013}}{{citation needed|date=November 2013}}) was widely perceived as a strategy backed by Amazon's revenue from its content sales, to be stimulated by sales of the Fire. In September 2012, Amazon unveiled the second generation tablet, called the [[Kindle Fire HD]]. On September 25, 2013, Amazon.com unveiled its third generation tablet, called [[Kindle Fire HDX]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Kindle Fire HDX Tablets, Impressive Device At An Insanely Low Price By Amazon.com|url=http://ceoworld.biz/2013/09/25/kindle-fire-hdx-tablets-impressive-device-at-an-insanely-low-price-by-amazon-com-198016|date=September 25, 2013|publisher=CEOWORLD Magazine|accessdate=September 25, 2013}}</ref> In October 2013, the sixth generation [[Amazon Kindle#Sixth generation|Kindle]] was released. ===Digital content=== [[File:Amazon Kindle Fire HD 8.9" Tablet Japanese Edition.JPG|thumb|right|Amazon Kindle Fire HD 8.9" Tablet]] Amazon's Honor System was launched in 2001 to allow customers to make donations or buy digital content, with Amazon collecting a percentage of the payment plus a fee; however, the service was discontinued in 2008<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com|title=Amazon.com|publisher=Amazon.com|date=September 9, 2009|accessdate=August 29, 2010|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100828044958/http://www.amazon.com|archivedate=August 28, 2010 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> and replaced by [[Amazon Payments]]. [[Amazon MP3]], its own online music store, launched in the US on September 25, 2007, selling downloads exclusively in MP3 format without [[digital rights management]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=176060&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1055053&highlight=|title=amazon.com-News Release|publisher=Phx.corporate-ir.net|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> (In addition to copyright law, Amazon's [[terms of service|terms of use]] agreements restrict use of the MP3s, but Amazon does not use [[Digital rights management|digital rights management (DRM)]] to enforce those terms.)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com|title=Amazon MP3 Frequently Asked Questions|publisher=Amazon.com|date=September 9, 2009|accessdate=August 29, 2010|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100828044958/http://www.amazon.com|archivedate=August 28, 2010 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> In addition to independent music labels, Amazon MP3 primarily sells music from the "[[music industry|Big 4]]" record labels: [[EMI]], [[Universal Music Group|Universal]], [[Warner Bros. Records]], and [[Sony Music]]. Prior to the launch of this service, Amazon made an investment in [[Amie Street]], a music store with a variable pricing model based on [[demand]].<ref>{{cite news|url=http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20070806-amazon-invests-in-social-music-site-amie-street.html|title=Amazon invests in social music site Amie Street|last=Cheng|first=Jacqui|accessdate=September 26, 2007|publisher=Ars Technica|date=August 6, 2007|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071014015314/http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20070806-amazon-invests-in-social-music-site-amie-street.html|archivedate=October 14, 2007 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> Amazon MP3 was the first online offering of DRM-free music from all four major record companies.<ref name="launch-pr">{{cite web|url=http://home.businesswire.com/portal/site/google/index.jsp?ndmViewId=news_view&newsId=20070925005710&newsLang=en|title=amazon.com Launches Public Beta of Amazon MP3|publisher=Home.businesswire.com|date=September 25, 2007|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref><ref name="warner">{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/28/technology/28music.html|title=Amazon to Sell Warner Music Minus Copy Protection|newspaper=The New York Times|date=December 28, 2007|accessdate=January 12, 2009|last=Leeds|first=Jeff|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20081211172006/http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/28/technology/28music.html|archivedate=December 11, 2008 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref name="sony1">{{cite news|url=http://www.informationweek.com/news/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=205602334&subSection=All+Stories|title=Amazon Adds Fourth Major Record Label To DRM-Free Music Store|work=[[InformationWeek]]|accessdate=January 12, 2009|date=January 10, 2008}}{{dead link|date=February 2013}}</ref><ref name="sony2">{{cite news|url=http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/01/10/sony-drives-another-nail-in-the-drm-coffin/?ref=technology|title=Sony Drives Another Nail in the D.R.M. Coffin|newspaper=The New York Times|date=January 10, 2008|accessdate=January 12, 2009|first=Saul|last=Hansell}}</ref> In January 2008, Amazon began distributing its MP3 service to subsidiary websites worldwide<ref name='AmazonMP3 Coming to UK'>{{cite web|url=http://uk.gizmodo.com/2008/01/28/amazon_mp3_coming_to_the_uk_an.html|title=Amazon MP3 Music Coming to UK'|accessdate=February 1, 2008|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080629001350/http://uk.gizmodo.com/2008/01/28/amazon_mp3_coming_to_the_uk_an.html|archivedate=June 29, 2008}}</ref> and, in December 2008, Amazon MP3 was made available in the UK. At the launch of Amazon MP3 in the UK, over 3 million Digital Rights Management (DRM)-free songs were made available to consumers, with prices that started at 59p, compared to Apple's 79p starting price.<ref>{{cite web|title=iTunes-killer Amazon MP3 launches in the UK|url=http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/news/audio/107924/itunes-killer-amazon-mp3-launches-in-the-uk/|work=PC Advisor|publisher=IDG|accessdate=7 February 2014|author=Carrie-Ann Skinner|date=3 December 2008}}</ref> In July 2010, Amazon announced that [[e-book]] sales for its Kindle reader outnumbered sales of [[hardcover]] books for the first time ever during the second [[Fiscal year|quarter]] of 2010. Amazon claims that, during that period, 143 e-books were sold for every 100 hardcover books, including hardcovers for which there is no digital edition; and during late June and early July, sales rose to 180 digital books for every 100 hardcovers.<ref name=NYT071910>{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/20/technology/20kindle.html|title=E-Books Top Hardcovers at Amazon|newspaper=The New York Times|date=July 19, 2010|accessdate=July 19, 2010|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100721171929/http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/20/technology/20kindle.html|archivedate=July 21, 2010 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> On March 22, 2011, Amazon launched the [[Amazon Appstore]] for [[Android (operating system)|Android]] devices and the service was made available in over 200 countries.<ref>{{cite web|author=Amazon.com |url=https://developer.amazon.com/post/Tx3IJP9TKDQOXS5/Developers-Can-Now-Distribute-Apps-in-Nearly-200-Countries-Worldwide-on-Amazon.html |title=Developers Can Now Distribute Apps in Nearly 200 Countries Worldwide on Amazon - Amazon Mobile App Distribution Blog |publisher=Developer.amazon.com |date=2013-05-23 |accessdate=2013-11-27}}</ref> Also in 2011, Amazon announced that it was releasing a Mac download store to offer dozens of games and hundreds of pieces of software for Apple computers.<ref>Kyle Orland, Gamasutra. "[http://gamasutra.com/view/news/34868/Amazon_Launches_Mac_Download_Store_To_Compete_With_Apple.php Amazon Launches Mac Download Store To Compete With Apple]." May 26, 2011. Retrieved May 31, 2011.</ref> In January 2013, Amazon launched AutoRip, a digital music service. The service allows customers to receive a free MP3 copy of select CDs purchased through Amazon.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.msn.com/science-technology/amazon-launches-its-own-digital-music-service|title=Amazon launches its own digital music service|work=MSN News|date=January 10, 2013|accessdate=January 11, 2013}}</ref> Amazon announced in September 2013 that they would launch Kindle MatchBook in October 2013, a similar service for books allowing customers who buy books from Amazon to acquire an e-book copy for free, or at a discounted price of US$3 or less.<ref>{{cite web|author=Ian Paul @ianpaul |url=http://www.techhive.com/article/2048048/amazons-kindle-matchbook-turns-past-print-purchases-into-low-cost-e-books.html |title=Amazon's Kindle MatchBook turns past print purchases into low-cost ebooks |publisher=Techhive.com |date= |accessdate=2013-12-16}}</ref> MatchBook was launched on the company's site on October 29, 2013.<ref>{{cite web|author=[%= data.comment.created_on %] |url=http://www.theverge.com/2013/10/29/5042058/amazon-launches-matchbook-offering-cheap-digital-copies-of-print-books |title='&#39;The Verge: Amazon launches Kindle MatchBook, offering cheap digital copies of your physical books'&#39; |publisher=Theverge.com |date=2013-10-29 |accessdate=2013-12-16}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com/kindlematchbook |title=Kindle MatchBook'&#39; |publisher=Amazon.com |date= |accessdate=2013-12-16}}</ref> ====Amazon Games==== In August 2012, Amazon announced it would be adding a gaming department to its company titled Amazon Game Studios. Amazon stated that they will introduce "innovative, fun and well-crafted games" to consumers.<ref>{{cite web|last=Li|first=Anita|title=Amazon Launches Game Studio, Gives Zynga Competition|url=http://mashable.com/2012/08/07/amazon-game-studios|publisher=Mashable}}</ref> According to the Amazon Game Studios website, the last game that was launched by the department was Amazon's first ever mobile game ''Air Patriots'', released on November 1, 2012.<ref>{{cite web|title=Amazon launches its first mobile game, 'Air Patriots,' for iOS and Android|url=http://www.theverge.com/2012/11/1/3585244/amazon-first-mobile-game-air-patriots-iphone-android-kindle-fire|work=The Verge|publisher=Vox Media, Inc|accessdate=7 February 2014|author=Andrew Webster|date=1 November 2012}}</ref> On February 6, 2014, Amazon confirmed the acquisition of the gaming company Double Helix Games without any indication of the financial terms. The 75 Double Helix employees will become Amazon employees and their [[Orange County, California]] headquarters remain their operating base. Amazon informed the ''TechCrunch'' media company that it "acquired Double Helix as part of our [Amazon's] ongoing commitment to build innovative games for customers" and confirmed that Double Helix's current game roster and other future developments will receive support following the acquisition.<ref>{{cite web|title=Amazon Acquires Video Gaming Studio Double Helix Games|url=http://techcrunch.com/2014/02/05/amazon-acquires-video-gaming-studio-double-helix-games/?ncid=tcdaily|work=TechCrunch|publisher=AOL, Inc|accessdate=7 February 2014|author=Sarah Perez|date=6 February 2014}}</ref> ===Amazon Art=== In August 2013 Amazon launched Amazon Art as an online marketplace selling original and limited edition fine art from selected galleries.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-23599640|title=Amazon to sell Warhol and Dali in online venture|work=BBC News|date=August 7, 2013|accessdate=August 8, 2013}}</ref> The initial 40000 items listed for sale included [[Norman Rockwell|Norman Rockwell's]] painting [[Willie Gillis#Willie Gillis Series|“Willie Gillis: Package from Home”]] priced at $4.85 million, "[[L'Enfant a la tasse]]" by [[Claude Monet]] for $1.45 million and [[Andy Warhol|Andy Warhol's "Sachiko"]] for $45 000.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/arts/culture/la-et-cm-amazon-art-andy-warhol-20130806,0,2223415.story|title=Amazon Art launches with masterpieces by Andy Warhol, Monet|work=Los Angeles Times|date=August 6, 2013|accessdate=August 8, 2013}}</ref> ===Amazon Instant Video=== {{main|Amazon Instant Video|Amazon Instant Video UK|Amazon Instant Video German}} ===Amazon Prime=== Amazon Prime is a service of free two-day shipping on all eligible purchases, for a flat annual fee, as well as discounted one-day shipping rates.<ref>{{cite web|title=Amazon Prime|url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/prime|publisher=amazon.com|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> Amazon launched the program in the contiguous United States in 2005, in Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany in 2007, in France (as "Amazon Premium") in 2008, in Italy in 2011 and in Canada in 2013. Amazon Prime membership in the United States, United Kingdom and Germany also provides [[Amazon Instant Video]], the instant streaming of selected movies and TV shows at no additional cost.<ref>{{cite web|title=Amazon Adds Instant Videos to Amazon Prime|url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=176060&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1531234|date=February 22, 2011|publisher=phx.corporate.ir.net|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> In November 2011, it was announced that Prime members have access to the Kindle Owners’ Lending Library, which allows users to borrow certain popular titles for free reading on Kindle hardware, up to one book a month, with no due date.<ref>[http://www.mediabistro.com/galleycat/kindle-owners-lending-library-opens_b41463 "Kindle Owners’ Lending Library Unveiled"], GalleyCat, Jason Boog, November 3, 2011.</ref> ===Private labels and exclusive marketing arrangements=== In August 2005,<ref name="tmregis">US [[Trademark]] registrations numbered 3216667 and 3266840/3266847, issued March 6, 2007 and July 17, 2007</ref> Amazon began selling products under its own [[private label]], "Pinzon"; the [[trademark]] applications indicated that the label would be used for textiles, kitchen utensils, and other household goods.<ref name="tmregis" /> In March 2007, the company applied to expand the trademark to cover a more diverse list of goods and to register a new design consisting of the "word PINZON in stylized letters with a notched letter "O" which appears at the "one o'clock" position".<ref name="tmsearch">[http://tess2.uspto.gov/bin/gate.exe?f=login&p_lang=english&p_d=trmk Trademark Electronic Search System] from the [[United States Patent and Trademark Office|USPTO]], supplying "PINZON" as the search term</ref> Coverage by the trademark grew to include items such as paints, carpets, wallpaper, hair accessories, clothing, footwear, headgear, cleaning products, and jewelry.<ref name="tmsearch" /> In September 2008, Amazon filed to have the name registered. [[United States Patent and Trademark Office|USPTO]] has finished its review of the application, but Amazon has yet to receive an official registration for the name. AmazonBasics is a private-label consumer electronics product line. It sells AV cables, blank DVD media and other electronics products under the AmazonBasics product label.<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/b?node=1267157011 AmazonBasics], official website.</ref> The line was launched in 2009.<ref>{{cite web|author=Darren Murph|url=http://www.engadget.com/2009/09/20/amazonbasics-bezos-and-co-starts-private-label-consumer-electr|title=AmazonBasics: Bezos and Co. starts private-label consumer electronics line|date=September 20, 2009|publisher=engadget.com|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> An Amazon.com exclusive is a product, usually a DVD, that is available exclusively on Amazon.com. Some DVDs are produced by the owner of the film/product, while others are produced by Amazon.com itself. The DVDs produced by Amazon are made using their "CreateSpace" program, in which DVDs are created, upon ordering, using DVD-R technology. The DVDs are then shipped about two days later. Some DVDs (such as the [[Jersey Shore]] Season 1 or [[The Unusuals]] Season 1) first release their DVD on Amazon as an Amazon.com Exclusive for a limited time before being released elsewhere. On May 23, 2011, Amazon.com allowed customers to download Lady Gaga's Born This Way album for $0.99, resulting in some downloads being delayed, due to an extremely high volume of downloads.<ref name=post>{{cite news|title=Lady Gaga’s $0.99 Album Download Overwhelms Amazon|work=Mashable|date=May 23, 2011|url=http://mashable.com/2011/05/23/lady-gaga-amazon-2/}}</ref> Amazon self publishing services through one of its companies, CreateSpace, a member of the Amazon group of companies.<ref name=amazonself>{{cite web|last=Amazon.com|title=Self-Publish with Us|url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/seller-account/mm-summary-page.html?topic=200260520|publisher=Amazon.com|accessdate=14 May 2013}}</ref> ===Computing services=== [[File:AWSSummit2013NYC2.JPG|thumb|right|AWS Summit 2013 event in NYC.]] Amazon launched [[Amazon Web Services]] (AWS) in 2002, which provides programmatic access to latent features on its website. Amazon Web Services (AWS) was first launched as a public beta of [[Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud]] running Microsoft Windows Server and Microsoft SQL Server.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=176060&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1216597&highlight=|title=Corporate-ir.net|publisher=Phx.corporate-ir.net|date=December 31, 2007|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> This was later expanded to several operating systems, including various flavors of Linux and OpenSolaris. In November 2005, amazon.com began testing [[Amazon Mechanical Turk]], an [[application programming interface]] (API) allowing programs to dispatch tasks to human processors. In March 2006, Amazon launched an online storage service called [[Amazon S3|Amazon Simple Storage Service]] (Amazon S3). An unlimited number of data objects, from 1&nbsp;[[byte]] to 5&nbsp;[[terabyte]]s in size, can be stored in S3 and distributed via [[Hypertext Transfer Protocol|HTTP]] or [[BitTorrent]]. The service charges monthly fees for data stored and transferred. In 2006, Amazon introduced [[Amazon Simple Queue Service]] (Amazon SQS), a distributed queue messaging service, and product [[wiki]]s (later folded into [[#2007|Amapedia]]) and [[Internet forum|discussion forums]] for certain products using guidelines that follow standard [[Internet forum|message board]] conventions. Also in 2006, Amazon introduced Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2), a virtual site farm, allowing users to use the Amazon infrastructure to run applications ranging from running simulations to web hosting. In 2008, Amazon improved the service by adding Elastic Block Store (EBS), offering persistent storage for Amazon EC2 instances and [[Elastic IP address]]es, and offering static IP addresses designed for dynamic [[cloud computing]]. Amazon introduced [[Amazon SimpleDB|SimpleDB]], a database system, allowing users of its other infrastructure to utilize a high-reliability, high-performance database system. Amazon continues to refine and add services to AWS, adding such services as Scalable DNS service (Amazon Route 53), payment handling, and AWS specific APIs for their [[Amazon Mechanical Turk|Mechanical Turk]] service. In August 2012, Amazon announced [[Amazon Glacier]], a low-cost [[online file storage]] [[web service]] that provides reliable data archiving, storage, and backup.<ref>{{cite news|first=Stephanie|last=Mlot|title=Amazon Launches Glacier Cloud Storage Service|date=August 21, 2012|publisher=PCMag.com}}</ref> In November 2012 at AWS' web developer conference in Las Vegas it announced it was targeting large companies as cloud storage clients. It will further cut its S3 prices to customers with long-term contracts in its "Redshift" storage service launching in 2013. In March 2013 Amazon announced its Mobile Ads API for developers. The new Ads API can be used on apps distributed on any Android platform as long as the app is also available on Amazon’s Appstore.<ref>Panzarino, Matthew. (2013-03-04) [http://thenextweb.com/mobile/2013/03/04/amazon-introduces-mobile-ads-api-offering-in-app-advertising-to-u-s-viewers-of-any-android-app/?fromcat=all Amazon Launches Mobile Ads API]. Thenextweb.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.</ref> ===Content production=== [[Amazon Publishing]] is Amazon's publishing unit.<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?docId=1000664761 Amazon Publishing], official website.</ref> It is composed of AmazonEncore,<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?docId=1000373401 AmazonEncore], official website</ref> AmazonCrossing,<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?docId=1000507571 AmazonCrossing], official website.</ref> Montlake Romance,<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?docId=1000677371 Montlake Romance], official website.</ref> Thomas & Mercer,<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?docId=1000664921 Thomas & Mercer], official website.</ref> 47 North,<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?docId=1000715991 47 North], official website.</ref> and Powered by Amazon. Additional imprints are planned. Launched in 2005, Amazon Shorts offered exclusive short stories and non-fiction pieces from best-selling authors for immediate download. By June 2007, the program had over 1,700 pieces and was adding about 50 new pieces per week. The program was discontinued on June 1, 2010.<ref name=Shorts>{{cite web|title=SHORTS CUT OFF: AMAZON CLOSING STORY PROGRAM|url=http://ereads.com/2010/05/shorts-cut-offamazon-closing-story-program-but-you-can-transfer-to-kindle.html|date=May 5, 2010|work=Huffington Post|accessdate=April 26, 2012}}{{dead link|date=February 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Amazon Shorts cancellation notice|url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?ie=UTF8&docId=570212|accessdate=April 26, 2012}}</ref> In 2008, Amazon expanded into [[filmmaking|film production]], producing the film ''The Stolen Child'' with [[20th Century Fox]].<ref>{{cite news|last=Graser|first=Marc|url=http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117981288.html?categoryid=13&cs=1|title=Amazon, Fox nursing 'Stolen Child'|date=February 21, 2008|work=Variety|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}{{dead link|date=March 2013}}</ref> ===Donations=== Amazon also created "channels" to benefit certain causes. In 2004, Amazon allowed customers to donate $5 to $200 to the campaigns of [[United States presidential election, 2004|2004 US presidential hopefuls]], providing links that raised $300,000 for the candidates.<ref>{{cite news|last=Justice|first=Glen|title=Kerry Kept Money Coming With the Internet as His ATM|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/06/politics/campaign/06internet.html?pagewanted=print&position=&_r=0|accessdate=2 February 2013|newspaper=The New York Times|date=6 November 2004}}</ref> Amazon has periodically reactivated a [[Red Cross]] donation channel after crises such as [[Hurricane Sandy]], [[Hurricane Katrina]], and the 2004 [[2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami|earthquake and tsunami in the Indian Ocean]]. By January 2005, nearly 200,000 people had donated over $15.7 million in the US.<ref>''[https://americanredcross.com/pressrelease/0,1077,0_489_4152,00.html More than $43 Million Raised by Consumer Programs for Red Cross Tsunami Relief]'', [[American Red Cross]] press release, January 21, 2005.</ref> ===Amazon Local=== Amazon Local is a [[Deal of the day|daily deal]] service launched in June 2011 in [[Boise, Idaho]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://local.amazon.com/mediaroom#amazonlocal-birthday|title=Amazon Local: Media Room|publisher=Local.amazon.com|date=|accessdate=2013-12-05}}</ref> As of 2013, Amazon Local offers daily deals to over 100 regions in 36 [[U.S. state]]s. Amazon Local also acts as a deal aggregator; some of the deals are actually offered through [[LivingSocial]], a firm in which Amazon has heavily invested.<ref>{{cite web|author=Pascal-Emmanuel Gobry|url=http://www.businessinsider.com/amazon-local-daily-deals-livingsocial-groupon-2011-6|title=Amazon.com: Amazon Local Is Its Foray Into The Daily Deal Space|publisher=Business Insider|date=2011-06-02|accessdate=2013-01-31}}</ref> ===AmazonWireless=== In July 2009, Amazon.com launched their AmazonWireless website,<ref name="Fast Company">{{cite web|url=http://www.fastcompany.com/blog/clay-dillow/culture-buffet/amazonwireless-offers-phones-and-plans-minus-cellular-store|title=AmazonWireless Offers Phones and Plans, Minus the Cellular Store|last=Dillow|first=Clay|date=9 July 2009|publisher=[[Fast Company (magazine)]]|accessdate=2009-09-07}}</ref> which offers cellular devices and service plans for [[Verizon Wireless]], [[AT&T Mobility|AT&T]], [[Sprint Nextel]] and [[T-Mobile USA|T-Mobile]] in the US.<ref name="phandroid">{{cite web|url=http://phandroid.com/2009/07/09/amazon-launches-amazonwirelesscom|title=Amazon launches AmazonWireless.com|last=Jackson|first=Rob|date=9 July 2009|publisher=Phandroid.com|accessdate=2009-09-07}}</ref> ===AmazonFresh=== {{main|AmazonFresh}} ===Amazon Prime Air=== ''[[60 Minutes]]'' announced on December 1, 2013 that Amazon Prime Air is a possible future [[Package delivery|delivery]] service expected to be many more years in development. In concept, the process would use [[unmanned aerial vehicle|drones]] to deliver small packages (less than five pounds) within 30 minutes by flying short distances (10–20&nbsp;km) from local Amazon Fulfillment Centers.<ref name=Mash>{{cite web|last=Strange|first=Adario|title=Amazon Unveils Flying Delivery Drones on '60 Minutes'|url=http://mashable.com/2013/12/01/amazon-unveils-flying-robot-delivery-drones/|work=Mashable|accessdate=2013-12-01}}</ref><ref name=AirF>{{cite web|last=Hickey|first=Matt|title=Meet Amazon Prime Air, A Delivery-By-Aerial-Drone Project|url=http://www.forbes.com/sites/matthickey/2013/12/01/meet-amazon-prime-air-amazons-delivery-by-aerial-drone-project/|work=Forbes|accessdate=2013-12-01}}</ref> The project will require the [[FAA]] (Federal Aviation Administration) to approve commercial use of unmanned drones.<ref name=TV>{{cite web|last=Pierce|first=David|title=Delivery drones are coming: Jeff Bezos promises half-hour shipping with Amazon Prime Air|url=http://www.theverge.com/2013/12/1/5164340/delivery-drones-are-coming-jeff-bezos-previews-half-hour-shipping|work=The Verge|publisher=Vox Media|accessdate=2013-12-01}}</ref> Although such approval could be in place as early as 2015, the project is still expected to be a few years off.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://gma.yahoo.com/amazon-prime-air-delivery-drones-could-arrive-early-104334220--abc-news-tech.html |title=Amazon Prime Air: Delivery by Drones Could Arrive As Early as 2015 - Yahoo |publisher=Gma.yahoo.com |date=2013-12-02 |accessdate=2013-12-16}}</ref> ===Other services=== In 2007, Amazon launched [[Amapedia]], a now-defunct [[wiki]] for user-generated content to replace ProductWiki, and the [[video on demand]] service [[Amazon Unbox]]. Also in 2007, Amazon launched [[Amazon Vine]], which allows reviewers free access to pre-release products from vendors in return for posting a review, as well as a payment service specifically targeted at developers, [[Amazon Flexible Payments Service|Amazon FPS]].{{citation needed|date=January 2009}} [[Internet Movie Database|IMDb]] and Amazon launched a website called SoundUnwound for browsing music metadata with wiki-like user contribution in September 2007; this data was also used for Amazon's Artist Pages.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.soundunwoundblog.com/2008/09/and-the-light-1.html|title=And the Lights Go Up on SoundUnwound!|publisher=Soundunwoundblog.com|date=September 1, 2008|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> Soundunwound ceased existence on June 18, 2012, and the site redirected to Amazon. Amazon Connect enables authors to post remarks on their book pages to customers. Amazon Webstore allows businesses to create custom e-commerce websites using Amazon technology. Sellers pay a commission of 1-2%, plus credit-card processing fees and fraud protection, and a subscription fee which ranges from $0 to $39.99 per month depending on the bundle option for an unlimited number of listings.<ref>[http://webstore.amazon.com/amazon-webstore-pricing/b/6368778011 Amazon Webstore Pricing - Find the Plan That Fits Your Business]. Webstore.amazon.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.</ref> Amazon has chosen very few companies to become their implementation solution provider, and they are [[4C Media]], [[Absolute Webstores]], [[atmosol]], [[eCatalog]], [[Explore Consulting]], [[GoWebBaby]], [[Kaushalam]], [[KLoc Technologies]], [[Luxor Design]], [[SynapseIndia]], and [[V Group]]. These companies ecourages traders to have their own webstore with easy guidance and solutions.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://webstore.amazon.com/Implementation-Solution-Providers-Solution-Providers-Resources/b/6368775011 |title=Amazon Webstore Implementation Solution Providers |publisher=Webstore.amazon.com |date= |accessdate=2013-12-16}}</ref> ==Companies== Companies owned by Amazon that operate under their own brand. ===Brilliance Audio{{anchor|brilliance}}=== Brilliance Audio is an [[audiobook]] publisher founded in 1984 by Michael Snodgrass in [[Grand Haven, Michigan]].<ref name=brilliance>{{cite web |url=http://www.brillianceaudio.com/company_overview |title=Company Overview |publisher=Brilliance Audio |author= |date= |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> The company produced its first 8 audio titles in 1985.<ref name=brilliance/> The company was purchased by Amazon in 2007 for an undisclosed amount.<ref name=brilliance-taume/><ref name=gigaom>{{cite web |url=http://gigaom.com/2007/05/23/419-amazon-acquires-audiobook-indie-brilliance-audio/ |title=Amazon Acquires Audiobook Indie Brilliance Audio |work=Gigaom |author=Staci D. Kramer |date=May 23, 2007 |accessdate=February 14, 2014}}</ref> At the time of the acquisition Brilliance was producing 12-15 new titles a month.<ref name=gigaom/> It operates as an independent company within Amazon. In 1984, [[Brilliance Audio]] invented a technique for recording twice as much on the same cassette.<ref name=blake>{{cite book |title=Information Literacies for the Twenty-First Century |chapter=Something New Has Been Added: Aural Literacy and Libraries |publisher=G. K. Hall & Co. |author=Virgil L. P. Blake |year=1990 |pages=203–218}}</ref> The technique involved recording on each of the two channels of each stereo track.<ref name=blake/> It has been credited with revolutionizing the burgeoning audiobook market in the mid-1980s since it made unabridged books affordable.<ref name=blake/> ==Website== The domain ''amazon.com'' attracted at least 615 million visitors annually by 2008, twice the number of ''[[Walmart]]''.<ref>[http://siteanalytics.compete.com/amazon.com/?metric=uv SnapShot of amazon.com, walmart.com]. Retrieved April 12, 2008.</ref> Amazon attracts approximately 65 million customers to its US website per month.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://siteanalytics.compete.com/amazon.com|title=SnapShot of amazon.com (rank #11) - Compete|publisher=Siteanalytics.compete.com|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> The company has also invested heavily on a massive amount of server capacity for its website, especially to handle the excessive traffic during the December [[Christmas holiday season]].<ref name="Amazon takedown">{{cite news|title=Why attackers can't take down Amazon.com|url=http://money.cnn.com/2010/12/09/technology/amazon_wikileaks_attack|publisher=CNN|date=December 9, 2010|accessdate=December 14, 2010|quote=Amazon has famously massive server capacity in order to handle the December e-commerce rush. That short holiday shopping window is so critical, and so intense, that even a few minutes of downtime could cost Amazon millions.|first=Julianne|last=Pepitone}}</ref> In addition to amazon.com, there are different versions of Amazon for several different countries, each varying in assortment and prices. As of December 2013, in alphabetical order by region, these are: * [[Asia]]: amazon[[.cn]] or z[[.cn]] ([[China]]), amazon[[.in]] ([[India]]), amazon.co[[.jp]] ([[Japan]]). * [[Europe]]: amazon[[.de]] ([[Germany]]), amazon[[.es]] ([[Spain]]), amazon[[.fr]] ([[France]]), amazon[[.it]] ([[Italy]]), amazon.co[[.uk]] ([[United Kingdom|UK]]). * [[North America]]: amazon[[.ca]] ([[Canada]]), amazon.com[[.mx]] ([[Mexico]]). * [[Oceania]]: amazon.com[[.au]] ([[Australia]]). * [[South America]]: amazon.com[[.br]] ([[Brazil]]). ===Reviews=== {{see also|Amazon.com controversies#Amazon reviews}} Amazon allows users to submit reviews to the web page of each product. Reviewers must rate the product on a [[rating scale]] from one to five stars. Amazon provides a badging option for reviewers which indicate the real name of the reviewer (based on confirmation of a credit card account) or which indicate that the reviewer is one of the top reviewers by popularity. Customers may comment or vote on the reviews, indicating whether or not they found it helpful to them. If a review is given enough "helpful" hits, it appears on the front page of the product. In 2010, Amazon was reported as being the largest single source of Internet consumer reviews.<ref>{{cite web|author=Business Wire|url=http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20100503005110/en/2010-Social-Shopping-Study-Reveals-Consumers%E2%80%99-Online|title=2010 Social Shopping Study Reveals Changes in Consumers' Online Shopping Habits and Usage of Customer Reviews|publisher=Business Wire|date=2010-05-03|accessdate=2013-01-31}}</ref> When publishers asked Bezos why Amazon would publish negative reviews, he defended the practice by claiming that amazon.com was "taking a different approach...we want to make every book available&nbsp;– the good, the bad, and the ugly...to let truth loose".<ref>{{cite book|title=amazon.com|author=Spector, Robert|year=2002|page=132}}</ref> Although reviews are attributed to the credit-card name of the reviewer, there have been cases of positive reviews being written and posted by a public relations company on behalf of its clients,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cincinnatibeacon.com/index.php?/contents/comments/amazon.com_rave_book_reviews_too_good_to_be_true|title=BEACON SPOTLIGHT: Amazon.com rave book reviews - too good to be true? - Cincinnati blog, Cincinnati news, Cincinnati politics|publisher=The Cincinnati Beacon|date=|accessdate=2013-01-31}}</ref> and writers employing pseudonyms to leave negative reviews of their rivals' work.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1333885/Amazons-amateur-book-reviewing-vicious-free-readers-victims.html|location=London|work=Daily Mail|first=Nick|last=Fagge|title=Women writers at war over fake book reviews on Amazon|date=November 29, 2010}}</ref> Following listing for sale of ''Untouchable: The Strange Life and Tragic Death of Michael Jackson'' a disparaging biography of [[Michael Jackson]] by Randall Sullivan his fans, organized via [[social media]] as "Michael Jackson’s Rapid Response Team to Media Attacks" bombarded Amazon with negative reviews and negative ratings of positive reviews.<ref name=NYT012013>{{cite news|title=Swarming a Book Online|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/21/business/a-casualty-on-the-battlefield-of-amazons-partisan-book-reviews.html|accessdate=January 21, 2013|newspaper=The New York Times|date=January 20, 2013|author=David Streitfeld}}</ref> ===Content search=== "Search Inside the Book" is a feature which allows customers to search for keywords in the full text of many books in the catalog.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com|title=Amazon's online reader '&#39;Search Inside'&#39; reference|publisher=Amazon.com|date=September 9, 2009|accessdate=August 29, 2010|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100828044958/http://www.amazon.com|archivedate=August 28, 2010 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com|title='&#39;Search Inside'&#39; reference|publisher=Amazon.com|date=September 9, 2009|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> The feature started with 120,000 titles (or 33 million pages of text) on October 23, 2003.<ref>{{cite web|author=Eric Ward|url=http://www.urlwire.com/news/102203.html|title=Amazon.com Launches "Search Inside the Book" Feature|publisher=Urlwire.com|date=October 23, 2003|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> There are currently about 300,000 books in the program. Amazon has cooperated with around 130 [[publisher]]s to allow users to perform these searches. To avoid copyright violations, amazon.com does not return the computer-readable text of the book. Instead, it returns a picture of the matching page, instructs the web browser to disable printing, and puts limits on the number of pages in a book a single user can access. Additionally, customers can purchase online access to some of the same books via the "Amazon Upgrade" program. ===Third-party sellers=== Amazon derives about 40% of its sales from affiliate marketing called "Amazon Associates" and third-party sellers who sell products on Amazon.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.stanford.edu/class/ee204/Publications/Amazon-EE353-2008-1.pdf|format=PDF|title=AMAZON ENTERS THE CLOUD COMPUTING BUSINESS|deadurl=no|accessdate=May 29, 2013}}</ref> Associates receive a commission for referring customers to Amazon by placing links on their websites to Amazon, if the referral results in a sale. Worldwide, Amazon has "over 900,000 members" in its affiliate programs.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://affiliate-program.amazon.co.uk/gp/associates/join|title=Amazon.co.uk Associates: The web's most popular and successful Affiliate Program|publisher=Affiliate-program.amazon.co.uk|date=July 9, 2010|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}{{dead link|date=February 2013}}</ref> Amazon reported over 1.3 million sellers sold products through Amazon's websites in 2007. Unlike eBay, Amazon sellers do not have to maintain separate payment accounts; all payments are handled by Amazon. Associates can access the Amazon catalog directly on their websites by using the Amazon Web Services (AWS) [[XML]] service. A new affiliate product, aStore, allows Associates to embed a subset of Amazon products within another website, or linked to another website. In June 2010, Amazon Seller Product Suggestions was launched (rumored to be internally called "Project Genesis") to provide more transparency to sellers by recommending specific products to third-party sellers to sell on Amazon. Products suggested are based on customers' browsing history.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amazonservices.com/content/product_alerts.htm?ld=AOguerillaPGJG|title=Amazon Seller Product Suggestions|publisher=Amazonservices.com|accessdate=August 29, 2010}}</ref> A January 2010 survey of third-party sellers by Auctionbytes.com<ref name="survey">{{cite web|url=http://www.auctionbytes.com/cab/abu/y210/m01/abu0255/s02|title=Seller's Choice: Merchants Rate Ecommerce Marketplaces|accessdate=June 9, 2010|author=Ina Steiner|date=January 24, 2010|publisher=Auctionbytes.com|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100629034631/http://www.auctionbytes.com/cab/abu/y210/m01/abu0255/s02|archivedate=June 29, 2010 <!--DASHBot-->|deadurl=no}}</ref> found that Amazon was 4th overall.<ref name="auctionbytes13">{{cite web|url=http://www.auctionbytes.com/cab/abu/y210/m01/abu0255/s03|title=Seller's Choice Marketplace Ratings: Amazon|accessdate=June 29, 2010|author=Ina Steiner|date=January 24, 2010|publisher=Auctionbytes.com}}</ref> Amazon.com placed second in "Profitability". Its lowest rating, but still above average, was in "Ease of Use". Sellers felt it had clearly defined rules, provided a steady stream of traffic to their listings, and put less emphasis on a community component. Amazon came in second in the Recommended Selling Venue category. ==Amazon sales rank== The Amazon sales rank (ASR) provides an indication of the popularity of a product sold on any Amazon locale. It is a relative indicator of popularity that is updated hourly. Effectively, it is a "best sellers list" for the millions of products stocked by Amazon.<ref name="amazon">{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=14101911|title=Amazon FAQ|accessdate=September 5, 2011}}</ref> While the ASR has no direct effect on the sales of a product, it is used by Amazon to determine which products to include in their best sellers lists.<ref name="amazon" /> Products that appear in these lists enjoy additional exposure on the Amazon website, and this may lead to an increase in sales. In particular, products that experience large jumps (up or down) in their sales ranks may be included within Amazon's lists of "movers and shakers," and this also provides additional exposure that may lead to an increase in sales.<ref name="movers">{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/movers-and-shakers|title=Amazon.com Movers and shakers|accessdate=September 5, 2011}}</ref> For competitive reasons, Amazon does not release actual sales figures to the public. However, Amazon has now begun to release [[point of sale]] data via the [http://en-us.nielsen.com/ Nielsen BookScan] service to verified authors.<ref name="pos">{{cite web|url=https://authorcentral.amazon.com/gp/help?topicID=200580390|title=Amazon.com Author Central|accessdate=September 5, 2011}}</ref> While the ASR has been the source of much speculation by publishers, manufacturers and marketers, Amazon itself does not release the details of its sales rank calculation algorithm. In addition, it states: {{quote|text=Please keep in mind that our sales rank figures are simply meant to be a guide of general interest for the customer and not definitive sales information for publishers - we assume you have this information regularly from your distribution sources|sign=Amazon.com Help|source=<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=14101911|title=Frequently Asked Questions about Amazon.com|publisher=Amazon.com|accessdate=2012-09-06}}</ref>}} ==Amazon technology== Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Information Management (IM) support Amazon’s business strategy. The core technology that keeps Amazon running is Linux-based. As of 2005, Amazon had the world’s three largest Linux databases, with capacities of 7.8 TB, 18.5 TB, and 24.7 TB. The central data warehouse of Amazon is made of 28 Hewlett Packard servers with four CPUs per node running Oracle database software. Amazon’s technology architecture handles millions of back-end operations every day, as well as queries from more than half a million third-party sellers. With hundreds of thousands of people sending their credit card numbers to Amazon’s servers everyday, security becomes a major concern. Amazon employs Netscape Secure Commerce Server using the Secure Socket Layer protocol which stores all credit card details in a separate database. The company also records data on customer buyer behavior which enables them to offer or recommend to an individual specific item, or bundles of items based upon preferences demonstrated through purchases or items visited.<ref name="technology">{{cite web|url=http://money.howstuffworks.com/amazon1.htm|title=How Amazon Works|accessdate=November 25, 2011}}</ref> On January 31, 2013 Amazon experienced an outage that lasted approximately 49 minutes, leaving its site inaccessible to some customers.<ref>{{cite news|last=Letzing|first=John|title=Amazon Suffers Outage for Nearly an Hour|url=http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324156204578276320631771436.html|accessdate=31 January 2013|newspaper=The Wall Street Journal|date=31 January 2013}}</ref> ==Multi-level sales strategy== Amazon employs a multi-level e-commerce strategy. Amazon started off by focusing on Business-to-Consumer relationships between itself and its customers, and Business-to-Business relationships between itself and its suppliers but it then moved to incorporate Customer-to-Business transactions as it realized the value of customer reviews as part of the product descriptions. It now also facilitates customer to customer with the provision of the Amazon marketplace which act as an intermediary to facilitate consumer to consumer transactions. The company lets almost anyone sell almost anything using its platform. In addition to affiliate program that lets anybody post Amazon links and earn a commission on click through sales, there is now a program which let those affiliates build entire websites based on Amazon’s platform.<ref name="relationships">{{cite web|url=http://money.howstuffworks.com/amazon2.htm|title=How Amazon Works|accessdate=December 15, 2011}}</ref> Some other large e-commerce sellers use Amazon to sell their products in addition to selling them through their own websites. The sales are processed through Amazon.com and end up at individual sellers for processing and order fulfillment and Amazon leases space for these retailers. Small sellers of used and new goods go to Amazon Marketplace to offer goods at a fixed price.<ref name="value">{{cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?ie=UTF8&nodeId=743056|title=Help|accessdate=December 16, 2011}}</ref> Amazon also employs the use of [[drop shipping|drop shippers]] or meta sellers. These are members or entities that advertise goods on Amazon who order these goods direct from other competing websites but usually from other Amazon members. These meta sellers may have millions of products listed, have large transaction numbers and are grouped alongside other less prolific members giving them credibility as just someone who has been in business for a long time. Markup is anywhere from 50% to 100% and sometimes more, these sellers maintain that items are in stock when the opposite is true. As Amazon increases their dominance in the marketplace these drop shippers have become more and more commonplace in recent years. The resulting damage to a supply and demand marketplace remains to be seen but advertising contracts with large search engines eliminating smaller websites from overall exposure these practices should have a negative effect on the industry on the whole. ==Revenue== Over the last decade,{{when|date=April 2012}} Amazon has developed a customer base of around 30 million people. Amazon.com is primarily a retail site with a sales revenue model. Amazon makes its money by taking a small percentage of the sale price of each item that is sold through its website. Amazon also allows companies to advertise their products by paying to be listed as featured products.<ref name="revenue">{{cite web|url=http://marketingteacher.com/swot/amazon-swot.html|title=SWOT Analysis Amazon|accessdate=December 17, 2011}}</ref> ==Controversies== {{main|Amazon.com controversies}} Since its founding, the company has attracted criticism and controversy from multiple sources over its actions. These include: luring customers away from the site's brick and mortar competitors,<ref name="Business Week">{{cite news|title=Amazon Lure's Shoppers Away from Stores|author=Nick Leiber|url=http://www.businessweek.com/smallbiz/running_small_business/archives/2011/12/amazon_turns_shops_into_showrooms_with_new_app.html|newspaper=Bloomberg BusinessWeek|date=December 7, 2011|accessdate=December 7, 2011}}</ref> poor warehouse conditions for workers; anti-[[unionization]] efforts; Amazon Kindle remote content removal; taking public subsidies; its "[[1-Click]] patent" claims; anti-competitive actions; [[price discrimination]]; various decisions over whether to censor or publish content such as the [[WikiLeaks]] website; [[LGBT]] book sales rank;,<ref>{{cite web|last=Slatterly|first=Brennon|title=Amazon 'Glitch' Yanks Sales Rank of Hundreds of LGBT Books|url=http://www.pcworld.com/article/162996/amazon_glitch_yanks_sales_rank_of_hundreds_of_lgbt_books.html|work=PC World|accessdate=July 28, 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Armstrong|first=Paul|title=Amazon: 'Glitch' caused gay censorship error|url=http://articles.cnn.com/2009-04-14/tech/amazon.gay.lesbian.ranking_1_online-retailer-amazon-amazon-spokeswoman-patty-smith-glitch?_s=PM:TECH|publisher=CNN|accessdate=July 28, 2012|date=November 28, 2000}}</ref> and works containing [[Defamation|libel]], facilitating [[Dog fighting|dogfight]], [[cockfight]], or [[pedophilia|pedophile]] activities. In December 2011, Amazon faced backlash from small businesses for running a one-day deal to promote its new Price Check app. Shoppers who used the app to check prices in a brick-and-mortar store were offered a 5% discount to purchase the same item from Amazon.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2011/12/20/groupon-launches-anti-amazon-promotion-of-sorts/?mod=google_news_blog|work=The Wall Street Journal|first=Shayndi|last=Raice|title=Groupon Launches Anti-Amazon Promotion of Sorts|date=December 20, 2011}}</ref> Companies like Groupon, eBay, and Taap.it countered Amazon's promotion by offering $10 off from their products.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.internetretailer.com/commentary/2011/12/22/while-some-still-cry-others-fight-back|title=Focus on Mobile Commerce - While some still cry, others fight back|publisher=Internet Retailer|accessdate=February 1, 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mobilecommercedaily.com/2011/12/20/what-can-retailers-learn-from-amazon-groupon-and-ebay|title=What can retailers learn from Amazon, Groupon and eBay? - Mobile Commerce Daily - Multichannel retail support|publisher=Mobile Commerce Daily|date=December 20, 2011|accessdate=February 1, 2012|archiveurl=http://archive.is/ePzw|archivedate=2012-09-05}}{{dead link|date=February 2013}}</ref> <!--Please integrate new controversies into [[Amazon.com controversies]] except for the biggest and most well known -- tax avoidance and working conditions -- summarized on the main page here.--> ===Sales and use taxes=== {{main|Amazon tax}} ===Poor working conditions=== Amazon has attracted widespread criticism by both current and former employees,<ref>[http://www.recruiter.co.uk/news/2013/08/amazon-under-fire-for-staffing-practices-in-randstad-contract/ Amazon under fire for staffing practices in Randstad contract|Business intelligence for recruitment and resourcing professionals]. Recruiter.co.uk (2013-08-02). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.businessinsider.com/brutal-conditions-in-amazons-warehouses-2013-8|title=Brutal Conditions In Amazon's Warehouses Threaten To Ruin The Company's Image|publisher=[[Business Insider]]|accessdate=2014-02-24}}</ref> as well as the media and politicians for poor working conditions. In fall 2011 it was publicized that at the Breinigsville, Pennsylvania warehouse, workers had to carry out work in {{convert|100|°F|°C}} heat, resulting in employees becoming extremely uncomfortable and suffering from dehydration and collapse. Loading-bay doors were not opened to allow in fresh air as "managers were worried about theft". Amazon's initial response was to pay for an ambulance to sit outside on call to cart away overheated employees. Some workers, "pickers", who travel the building with a trolley and a handheld scanner "picking" customer orders can walk up to 15 miles a day back and forward, and if they fall behind on their targets, they can be reprimanded. The handheld scanners feed back to the employee real time information on how fast or slowly they are going, and also serve to allow Team Leads and Area Managers to track the specific locations of employees and how much "idle time" they gain when not working.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.businessinsider.com/amazon-warehouse-rules-2011-9|last1=Yarrow|first1=Jay|last2=Kovach|first2=Steve|title=10 Crazy Rules That Could Get You Fired From Amazon Warehouses|accessdate=2013-04-21|date=2011-09-20|publisher=Business Insider}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/ed6a985c-70bd-11e2-85d0-00144feab49a.html#slide0|title=Amazon unpacked|last1=O'Connor|first1=Sarah|accessdate=2013-04-21|date=2013-02-08|publisher=Financial Times}}</ref> In a German television report broadcast in February 2013, journalists Diana Löbl and Peter Onneken conducted a covert investigation at the distribution center of Amazon in the town of [[Bad Hersfeld]] in the German state of [[Hesse]]. The report highlights the behavior of some of the security guards who apparently either had a [[Neo-Nazism|Neo-nazi]] background or deliberately dressed in Neo-Nazi apparel, and who were intimidating foreign and temporary female workers at its distribution centres.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.tagesschau.de/inland/amazon136.html|title=Kritik an Arbeitsbedingungen bei Amazon|publisher=tagesschau.de|date=|accessdate=2013-02-20}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.daserste.de/information/reportage-dokumentation/dokus/sendung/hr/13022013-ausgeliefert-leiharbeiter-bei-amazon-100.html|title=Ausgeliefert! Leiharbeiter ... - Ausgeliefert! Leiharbeiter bei Amazon - Reportage & Dokumentation - ARD &#124; Das Erste|publisher=Daserste.de|date=2013-02-13|accessdate=2013-02-20}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|author=Tony Paterson|url=http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/amazon-used-neonazi-guards-to-keep-immigrant-workforce-under-control-in-germany-8495843.html|title=Amazon 'used neo-Nazi guards to keep immigrant workforce under control' in Germany - Europe - World|publisher=The Independent|date=2013-02-14|accessdate=2013-02-20}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/762083.shtml|title=Germany to probe claims of staff abuse|publisher=Globaltimes.cn|date=|accessdate=2013-02-20}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|author=Associated Press|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/technology/amazon-to-investigate-reports-temporary-staff-in-germany-were-mistreated/2013/02/14/a8074368-76bd-11e2-b102-948929030e64_story.html|title=Amazon to investigate reports temporary staff in Germany were mistreated|publisher=Washingtonpost.com|date=2013-02-14|accessdate=2013-02-20}}{{dead link|date=March 2013}}</ref> ==Lobbying== Amazon.com lobbies the United States federal government and state governments on issues such as the enforcement of sales taxes on online sales, transportation safety, privacy and data protection, and intellectual property. According to regulatory filings, Amazon.com focuses its lobbying on the US Congress, the Federal Communications Commission, and the Federal Reserve. Amazon.com spent $500,000 on lobbying in the second quarter of 2010, $630,000 in the first quarter of 2011, and $450,000 in the second quarter of that year.<ref>{{cite news|title=Amazon spends $450K on lobbying government in 2Q|agency=Associated Press|url=http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9P5E2880.htm|newspaper=Bloomberg BusinessWeek|date=August 16, 2011|accessdate=August 18, 2011}}</ref> Amazon.com was a corporate member of the [[American Legislative Exchange Council]] (ALEC) until it dropped membership following protests at its shareholders' meeting May 24, 2012.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.bizjournals.com/seattle/news/2012/05/24/amazon-shareholders-met-by-protesters.html|first=Emily|last=Parkhurst|title=Amazon shareholders met by protesters, company cuts ties with ALEC|date=May 24, 2012}}</ref> The initiative [[Choice in eCommerce]] was founded on May 8, 2013 by several online retailers in [[Berlin]], [[Germany]].<ref>[http://tamebay.com/2013/07/petition-for-choice-in-ecommerce.html Petition for Choice in Ecommerce]</ref><ref>[http://newrooms.wordpress.com/2013/07/23/choice-in-ecommerce/ Choice in eCommerce]</ref><ref>http://www.trustedshops.co.uk/news/online-retailers-prepare-to-fight-the-sales-ban/</ref><ref>http://www.toyworldmag.co.uk/news/2013/07/ebay-asks-retailers-to-back-choice-in-ecommerce-campaign</ref><ref>http://www.webretailer.com/news/1765-choice-in-ecommerce-campaigns-for-resale.asp</ref><ref>http://www.webretailer.com/news/1777-choice-in-ecommerce-interview.asp</ref><ref>BILD, Online-Händler kämpfen gegen Hersteller-Boykott, 16.07.2013</ref><ref>eCommerce Magazin 7-2013, Online-Handel gründet Initiative gegen Verkauftsverbot, 17.07.2013</ref><ref>[http://www.focus.de/finanzen/news/unternehmen/aufstand-gegen-adidas-und-co-online-haendler-stemmen-sich-gegen-verkaufsverbote_aid_1043835.html Online-Händler stemmen sich gegen Verkaufsverbote]</ref> The cause was, in the view of the initiative, sales bans and online restrictions by individual manufacturers. The dealers felt cut off from their main sales channel and thus deprived them the opportunity to use online platforms like Amazon, [[Ebay|eBay]] or [[Rakuten]] in a competitive market for the benefit of their customers. ==Notable businesses founded by former employees== A number of companies have been started and founded by former Amazon employees.<ref name="gigaom_ceos">{{cite web|url=http://gigaom.com/2008/11/21/the-growing-ex-amazon-club-and-why-its-a-good-thing|title=The Growing Ex-Amazon Club and Why It's a Good Thing|authorlink=Om Malik|last=Malik|first=Om|date=November 21, 2008|publisher=[[GigaOM]]}}</ref> <!-- either the company or the business should be a bluelink on Wikipedia. See WP:WTAF, WP:NLIST. --> *[[Findory]] was founded by [[Greg Linden]] *[[Flipkart]] was founded by [[Sachin Bansal]] and [[Binny Bansal]]<ref name="StartupDunia">{{cite web|url=http://www.startupdunia.com/interview/interview-with-flipkart-founder-binny-bansal-776|title=StartupDunia|date=January 8, 2008|publisher=startupdunia.com|accessdate=September 6, 2012}}</ref> *[[Foodista.com|Foodista]] was founded by [[Barnaby Dorfman]] *[[Hulu]] was led by [[Jason Kilar]], a former SVP *[[Infibeam]] was founded by [[Vishal Mehta]] *[[Jambool]]/[[SocialGold]] was co-founded by [[Vikas Gupta]] and [[Reza Hussein]] *[[Nimbula]] was co-founded by [[Chris Pinkham]], a former VP, and [[Willem Van Biljon]], a former Product Manager *[[Opscode]] was co-founded by [[Jesse Robbins]], a former engineer and manager *[[Whrrl|Pelago]] was co-founded by [[Jeff Holden]], a former SVP, and [[Darren Vengroff]], a former Principal Engineer *[[Quora]] was co-founded by engineer [[Charlie Cheever]] *[[TeachStreet]] was founded by [[Dave Schappell]], an early product manager *[[The Book Depository]] was founded by [[Andrew Crawford]]; acquired by Amazon in 2011. *[[Trusera]] was founded by [[Keith Schorsch]], an early Amazonian *[[Twilio]] was founded by [[Jeff Lawson (entrepreneur)|Jeff Lawson]], a former Technical Product Manager *[[Vittana]] was founded by [[Kushal Chakrabarti]] and [[Brett Witt]] *[[Wikinvest]] was founded by [[Michael Sha]] *[[Yellowleg.com]] was founded by [[Aashish Gupta]] *[[Zeitgeist Research]] was founded by [[Manfred Bluemel]], former head of market research worldwide <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/06/04/net-us-amazon-grocery-idUSBRE95311Q20130604|title=Amazon plans big expansion of online grocery business: sources|publisher=Reuters|accessdate=2013-06-04}}</ref> <!-- either the company or the business should be a bluelink on Wikipedia. See WP:WTAF, WP:NLIST. --> ==See also== {{Portal|Seattle|Internet}} *[[Amazon Breakthrough Novel Award]] *[[Amazon Marketplace]] *[[Amazon Standard Identification Number]] (ASIN) *[[List of book distributors]] *[[Statistically Improbable Phrases]]: amazon.com's phrase extraction technique for indexing books. ==References== {{Reflist|30em}} ==Further reading== {{refbegin}} * {{cite book|title=One Click: Jeff Bezos and the Rise of Amazon.com|last=Brandt|first=Richard L. |year=2011|publisher=[[Portfolio Penguin|Portfolio]]|location=New York|isbn=978-1-59184-375-7 |url=http://us.penguingroup.com/nf/Book/BookDisplay/0,,9781591843757,00.html|accessdate=}} * {{cite book|authorlink=Mike Daisey|first=Mike|last=Daisey|title=21 Dog Years|publisher=[[Free Press (publisher)|Free Press]]|year=2002|isbn=0-7432-2580-5}} * {{cite book|first=Mara|last= Friedman|title=Amazon.com [[for Dummies]]|publisher=[[John Wiley & Sons|Wiley Publishing]]|year=2004|isbn=0-7645-5840-4}} * {{cite book|first=James|last=Marcus|title=Amazonia: Five Years at the Epicenter of the Dot.Com Juggernaut|publisher=[[W. W. Norton]]|year=2004|isbn=1-56584-870-5}} * {{cite book|first=Robert|last=Spector|title=Amazon.com – Get Big Fast: Inside the Revolutionary Business Model That Changed the World|publisher=[[HarperCollins Publishers]]|year=2000|isbn=0-06-662041-4}} * {{cite book |last=Stone |first=Brad |authorlink=Brad Stone (journalist) |title=The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon |year=2013 |publisher=Little Brown and Co |location=New York |isbn=9780316219266 |oclc=856249407}} {{refend}} ==External links== {{commons category|Amazon.com}} *{{official website|http://www.amazon.com}} *{{official website|http://onlineprofitfordummies.com/cp2.php?user=factoryprices247 }Free System to Make Money Online} *{{Cite news|url=http://www.ibtimes.com/inside-amazon-warehouse-photos-909410|title=Inside An Amazon Warehouse|newspaper=IB Times|postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}. *{{OpenCorp|Amazon}} *{{Cite news|url=http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2286227/Amazons-human-robots-Is-future-British-workplace.html|title=Amazon's human robots: They trek 15 miles a day around a warehouse, their every move dictated by computers checking their work. Is this the future of the British workplace?|place=[[Rugeley]]|newspaper=The [[Daily Mail]]|date=February 28, 2013|postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}. {{Finance links |name=Amazon.com, Inc. |symbol=AMZN |sec_cik=1018724 }} {{Amazon|state=expanded}} {{Navboxes|list1= {{NASDAQ-100}} {{Seattle Corporations}} {{Major information technology companies}} {{ebooks}} }} [[Category:Amazon.com| ]] [[Category:1994 establishments in Washington (state)]] [[Category:American brands]] [[Category:American websites]] [[Category:Book selling websites]] [[Category:Bookstores of the United States]] [[Category:Cloud computing providers]] [[Category:Commerce websites]] [[Category:Companies based in Seattle, Washington]] [[Category:Companies established in 1994]] [[Category:Companies initially financed with venture capital]] [[Category:Companies listed on NASDAQ]] [[Category:E-book suppliers]] [[Category:Internet companies of the United States]] [[Category:Internet properties established in 1994]] [[Category:Multinational companies headquartered in the United States]] [[Category:Online companies]] [[Category:Online music stores]] [[Category:Online retail companies of the United States]] [[Category:Publicly traded companies of the United States]] [[Category:Review websites]] [[Category:Self-publishing companies]] [[Category:Webby Award winners]]
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@@ -483,8 +483,8 @@ ==External links== {{commons category|Amazon.com}} -*{{official website|http://onlineprofitfordummies.com/cp2.php?user=factoryprices247}} Free System to Make Money Online *{{official website|http://www.amazon.com}} +*{{official website|http://onlineprofitfordummies.com/cp2.php?user=factoryprices247 }Free System to Make Money Online} *{{Cite news|url=http://www.ibtimes.com/inside-amazon-warehouse-photos-909410|title=Inside An Amazon Warehouse|newspaper=IB Times|postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}. *{{OpenCorp|Amazon}} *{{Cite news|url=http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2286227/Amazons-human-robots-Is-future-British-workplace.html|title=Amazon's human robots: They trek 15 miles a day around a warehouse, their every move dictated by computers checking their work. Is this the future of the British workplace?|place=[[Rugeley]]|newspaper=The [[Daily Mail]]|date=February 28, 2013|postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}.
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