Special economic zone
||It has been suggested that free trade zone and free economic zone be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since April 2016.|
The term Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is an area in which business and trade laws differ from the rest of the country. SEZs are located within a country's national borders, and their aims include: increased trade, increased investment, job creation and effective administration. To encourage businesses to set up in the zone, financial policies are introduced. These policies typically regard investing, taxation, trading, quotas, customs and labour regulations. Additionally, companies may be offered tax holidays, where upon establishing in a zone they are granted a period of lower taxation.
The creation of special economic zones by the host country may be motivated by the desire to attract foreign direct investment (FDI). The benefits a company gains by being in a Special Economic Zone may mean it can produce and trade goods at a lower price, aimed at being globally competitive. The operating definition of a SEZ is determined individually by each country. In some countries the zones have been criticized for being little more than Chinese labor camps, with workers denied fundamental labor rights.
Modern SEZs appeared from late 1950s in industrial countries. The first was in Shannon Airport in Clare, Ireland. From the 1970s onward, zones providing labor-intensive manufacturing have been established, starting in Latin America and East Asia. These zones attracted investment from multinational corporations.
A recent trend has been for African countries to set up SEZs in partnership with China.
The term Special Economic Zone can include:
- Free trade zones (FTZ),
- Export processing zones (EPZ),
- Free zones/ Free economic zones (FZ/ FEZ),
- Industrial parks/ industrial estates (IE),
- Free ports
- Bonded logistics parks (BLP),
- Urban enterprise zones.
|Type||Objective||Size||Typical Location||Typical Activities||Markets|
|FTZ||Support trade||<50 hectares||Port of entry||Entrepôts and trade related||Domestic, re-export|
|EPZ (traditional)||Export manufacturing||<100 hectares||None||Manufacturing, processing||Mostly export|
|EPZ (single Unit/free enterprise)||Export manufacturing||No minimum||Countrywide||Manufacturing, processing||Mostly export|
|EPZ (hybrid)||Export manufacturing||<100 hectares||None||Manufacturing, processing||Export, domestic|
|free port/SEZ||Integrated development||>1000 hectares||None||Multi-use||Internal, domestic, export|
Special economic zones by country
|This section requires expansion. (May 2016)|
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- Chee Kian Leong, (2007) A Tale of Two Countries: Openness and Growth in China and India, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade, DEGIT Conference Paper pdf
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- Thomas Farole, (2011) Special Economic Zones in Africa: Comparing Performance and Learning from Global Experiences, Washington, DC, World Bank
- Шмонов Н.Н. «Историческое исследование проблем развития особых экономических зон»
- Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority BEPZA
- South Kazakhstan "Ontustyk" special economic zone
- Indian Special Economic Zones
- Export Processing Zones Authority Pakistan
- PEZA Philippines website
- India Special Economic zones map
- Open Joint Stock Company "Special Economic Zones" (Russia)
- U.S.S.R. Special Economic Zones
- India: Citizens group demand moratorium on SEZs OneWorld South Asia