Special education in the United Kingdom
"Special Educational Needs" is an umbrella term for an aspect of UK school education focusing on students primarily with learning difficulties and/or disability. In school documents, it is abbreviated to 'SEN' or 'SEND' – these abbreviations are also used in Commonwealth countries such as Australia and Singapore. It is also commonly interchanged with 'Inclusion' and 'Narrowing the Gap' as broad terminology. The term covers specific learning difficulties such as dyslexia and ADHD, pervasive disorders such as autism and physical disability such as visual impairment and hearing impairment. It may also describe a need for gifted education.
SEN policy and provision is a devolved matter with each of the countries of the United Kingdom having separate systems under separate governments: the UK Government is responsible for education in England, the Scottish Government is responsible for education in Scotland, the Welsh Government is responsible for education in Wales and the Northern Ireland Executive is responsible for education in Northern Ireland.
Across the UK school education systems, provision for SEN is widely varied with a 'mixed economy' of 'learning support' teams based in mainstream schools, specialist schools offering permanent placements and pupil referral units offering temporary placements for students subject to formal exclusion and requiring further assessment.
However, there are common practices found across the country. All schools are legally obliged to maintain an SEN Coordinator post or equivalent position. It is the only mandatory position other than the headteacher / principal position. There is also an SEN Code of Practice, updated in 2014, which provides legally-binding guidance on how provision should be shaped and maintained.
- NASEN - Special Educational Needs charity
- PATOSS - association of SEN teachers
- TES Special Needs - non-profit SEN info & resources site
- Humans Not Robots - non-profit SEN info & resources site
- What are special educational needs Article on Directgov website
- Special Educational Needs and Disability Code of Practice: 0 - 25 years 2014