Special needs trust
|Part of the common law series|
|Other common law areas|
A special needs trust, also known in some jurisdictions as a supplemental needs trust, is a specialized trust that allows the disabled beneficiary to enjoy the use of property that is held in the trust for his or her benefit, while at the same time allowing the beneficiary to receive essential needs-based government benefits. A Special Needs Trust is a specific type of irrevocable trust that exists under Common Law. Several Common Law nations have established specific statutes relative to the creation and use of Special Needs Trusts, and where they exist a Special Needs Trust will not be valid unless it comports with the requirements listed in the statute. The applicable Federal statute in the United States is found at Title 42 United States Code Section 1396p(d)(4)(A). Several States have established their own statutes.
Generally, irrevocable trusts can be used for minors, beneficiaries with disabilities (either physically or mentally challenged), and as a method of asset protection. In addition to the public benefits preservation reasons for such a trust, there are administrative advantages of using a trust to hold and manage property intended for the benefit of the beneficiary, especially if the beneficiary lacks the legal capacity to handle his or her own financial affairs. However, Special Needs Trusts can also be used as asset reservoirs, allowing otherwise neurotypical individuals to qualify for governmental benefits.
Throughout the world
A trust for a beneficiary with disability may be set up in any of the common law countries, including the United States, and also in other countries that recognize the concept of a "trust." In such jurisdictions, there is often legislation that provides advantages to such trusts in the areas of taxation and state benefits, e.g., in Ireland and the United Kingdom. In the United States of America, such trusts provide advantages in helping beneficiaries qualify for health care coverage under state Medicaid programs, and also for monthly cash payments under the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program operated by the Social Security Administration.
Special needs trusts can provide benefits to, and protect the assets of, minors and the physically challenged or the mentally challenged. Special needs trusts are frequently used to receive an inheritance or personal injury settlement proceeds on behalf of a minor or a person with disability, or are founded from the proceeds of compensation for criminal injuries, litigation or insurance settlements.
A common feature of trusts in all common law jurisdictions is that they may be run either by family members (a private trust) or by trustees appointed by the court. Especially where a trust is to be established for a child or young person with disability, great care is generally taken in the choice of appropriate trustees to manage the trust assets and to deal with future replacement appointments. The use of a private discretionary trust can not only be more efficient in terms of taxation and access to government benefits but can also allow for more efficient investment of funds held than where funds are held by a court official (such as the Official Receiver in England and Wales). However where no appropriate trustees can be found, e.g. on the death of existing trustees, the court will intervene.
Special needs trusts are often set up under the guidance of a structured settlement planner in cooperation with a qualified legal and financial team to ensure the trust is set up correctly. Only authorized non-profit organizations are approved to manage a special needs trust program. Such pooled trusts are available throughout the United States and are often centered on certain purposes (often disabilities).
- "The Voice: Your Special Needs Trust". Special Needs Alliance. January 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
- "The Special Needs Trust". Pacer Center. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
- Barr, Katherine N.; Davis, Richard E.; Lewis, Kristen M. (2009). "Top Ten Tips Every Estate Planner Needs to Know About Special Needs Trusts" (PDF). American Bar Association. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
- Forbat, Pamela Savage (11 September 2001). "Serving Special Needs Kids". National Special Needs Network Inc. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
- Smith, Sandra L. (21 Oct 2011). "What is a Pooled Trust, and When Should You Use One?". LexisNexis. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
Protect your government benefits with a special needs trust published by the National Structured Settlements Trade Association, 2011.