Produced by Graflex in Rochester, New York, the Speed Graphic is commonly called the most famous press camera. Although the first Speed Graphic cameras were produced in 1912, production of later versions continued until 1973; with the most significant improvements occurring in 1947 with the introduction of the Pacemaker Speed Graphic (and Pacemaker Crown Graphic, which is one pound lighter but lacks the focal plane shutter). It was standard equipment for many American press photographers until the mid-1960s.
Despite the common appellation of Speed Graphic, various Graphic models were produced between 1912 and 1973. The authentic Speed Graphic has a focal plane shutter that the Crown Graphic and Century Graphic models lack. The Speed Graphic was available in 2¼ x 3¼ inch, 3¼ x 4¼ inch, 5 x 7 inch and the most common format 4 x 5 inch. Because of the focal plane shutter, the Speed Graphic can also use lenses that do not have shutters.
The Speed Graphic was a slow camera. Setting the focal plane shutter speed required selecting both a slit width and a spring tension. Each exposure required the photographer to change the film holder, open the lens shutter, cock the focal plane shutter, remove the dark slide from the inserted film holder, focus the camera [a], and release the focal plane shutter. Conversely, if the lens shutter were used, the focal plane shutter (on the Speed Graphic models with both shutters) had to be opened prior to cocking and releasing the shutter. If indoors, the photographer also had to change the flashbulb. Each film holder contained one or two pieces of sheet film which had to be loaded into the film holder in complete darkness. Faster shooting could be achieved with the Grafmatic film holder, which is a six sheet film "changer" that holds each sheet in a septum. Even faster if the photographer was shooting film packs 12 exposures, and later 16 exposures (discontinued in the late 1970s). With film packs one could shoot as fast as one could pull the tab and cock the shutter, and film packs could be loaded in daylight. A roll film adapter that used 120 or 220 film was available for 2.25 x 3.25, 3.25 x 4.25 and 4 x 5" cameras that permitted 8 to 20 exposures per roll, depending on the model of the adapter.  Photographers had to be conservative and anticipate when the action was about to take place to take the right picture. The cry, "Just one more!" if a shot was missed was common. President Harry Truman introduced the White House photographers as the "Just One More Club."
The 1942-1953 Pulitzer Prizes for photography were taken with Speed Graphic cameras, including AP photographer Joe Rosenthal's image of Marines raising the American flag on Iwo Jima in 1945. A few winning photographs after 1954 were taken with Rolleiflex or Kodak cameras. 1961 was the last Pulitzer Prize-winning photograph with a Speed Graphic, which taken by Yasushi Nagao showing Otoya Yamaguchi assassinating Inejiro Asanuma on stage.
Graflex manufacturing history
The company name changed several times over the years as it was absorbed and then released by the Kodak empire, finally becoming a division of the Singer Corporation and then dissolved in 1973. The award winning Graflex plant in suburban Pittsford, New York is still standing and is home to the MOSCOM Corporation.
|1887-1904||Folmer & Schwing Manufacturing Co., NY, NY|
|1905-1927||Folmer & Schwing Div., Eastman Kodak Co. Rochester, NY|
|1928-1946||Folmer Graflex Corp., Rochester, NY|
|1946-1955||Graflex Inc., Rochester, NY|
|1956-1968||Graflex Inc., Div. General Precision Equipment, Rochester, NY|
|1968-1973||Graflex Inc., Div. Singer Corporation|
|1973||Tooling bought by Toyo Co.|
Graflex model history
Post 1940 Graphic style cameras may be considered usable cameras, rather than antique or collectible cameras. The Speed Graphic was manufactured in a number of sizes, 4x5" being the most common, but also in 2.25x3.25", 3.25x4.25" and 5x7".
|Years produced||Model name and description||Notes|
|1958-1973||Super Graphic||Same features as the Super Speed Graphic, but without the Graflex-1000 1/1000 front shutter.|
|1961-1970||Super Speed Graphic||Graflex-1000 1/1000 front shutter, All metal body, including flash computer, electric shutter release, front standard had swing capability, & featured revolving back. (NO focal plane shutter !)|
|1947-1973||Pacemaker Crown Graphics (4x5, 3.25x4.25, 2.25x3.25)|
|1947-1970||Pacemaker Speed Graphics (4x5, 3.25x4.25, 2.25x3.25)|
|1949-1970||Century Graphic (2.25x3.25)||Post-war brought coated lenses and lenses in shutters, body release, folding infinity stops. The plastic bodied 'Century Graphic' and mahogany/metal 'Crown Graphic' were without focal plane shutters. Imported 2.25" cameras led to the design of the roll film holders, and the Graflok back (1949). Flat bar viewfinder, followed by flexible wire viewfinder. Side mounted rangefinder replaced by top rangefinder on 4x5" Graphics in 1955. Trim on face of Pacemaker bodies is found on top, sides, and bottom.|
|1940-1946||Anniversary Speed Graphic (3.25x4.25 and 4x5")||No grey metal exposed, satin black with chrome trim. Wartime model: no chrome. Bed and Body track rails linked, allowing focusing of wide angle lens within body. Solid wire frame viewfinder. Trim on face of body is found only on top and sides.|
|1939-1946||Miniature Speed Graphic (1st small 2.25x3.25" model)||wire hoop viewfinder has curved top. Early Kalart rangefinder. Focal plane shutter.|
|1928-1939||Pre-Anniversary Speed Graphic (3.25x4.25, 4x5, 5x7)||4x5 - wire hoop viewfinder has curved top. There is no trim on the front of the body, unlike later models. Early Pre-Anniversary models retained the "flip-up" optical viewfinder, but later ones were produced with the tubular viewfinder. These tubular viewfinders were also available as an after-market accessory, and many early Pre-Anniversary models carry tubular viewfinders as replacements for original flip-up viewfinders.|
|1912-1927||Top Handle Speed Graphic 3.25x4.25, 4x5, 3.25x5.5, 5x7|
- The Speed Graphic typically had several methods to focus. This sequence describes using the quick framing view finder on the top of the camera, the wire front and rear peepsight, or the optional added rangefinder. If a ground glass plate were used to focus it would be in place of the film holder, so focusing was done on the ground glass prior to the insertion of the film and removal of the dark slide.
- Miniature Speed graphic
- Graflex Graphic Models
- Grafmatic Sheet Film Holder
- "Graflex Graphic Accessories - Roll Film Backs". The Graflex Speed Graphic FAQ. www.graflex.org. Retrieved September 2, 2015.
- Buell, Hal. Moments: The Pulitzer Prize-Winning Photographs. Tess Press (2005).
- David Gonzalez (April 1, 1995). "Have Camera, Will Travel". The New York Times.
- David Gonzalez (January 3, 2010). "A Camera and Eye, Both One of a Kind". New York Times.
- Macdonald, Kerri (5 January 2010). "Must See: He Kept His Speed Graphic". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- Which Camera Does This Pro Use? It Depends on the Shot. New York Times.
- CameraWorks column. Washington Post
- "Speed Graphic FAQ file, section 23". R.I.T. Photo Forum. Retrieved 2007-02-27.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Speed Graphic cameras.|
- www.Graflex.org: Dedicated to promoting the use and preservation of Graflex Speed Graphics and other classic and large-format cameras
- MasterSite for the Larger Camera
- Graphic/Graflex FAQ on LargeFormatPhotography.com
- The Speed Graphic and the Aldis lens
- The Graflex Speed Graphic FAQ on Graflex.org
- Must See: He Kept His Speed Graphic
- A Camera and an Eye, Both One of a Kind
- 'Unknown Weegee,' on Photographer Who Made the Night Noir
- Weegee's World: Life, Death and the Human Drama
- Have Camera, Will Travel
- Weegee Photographs
- More Weegee Photographs
- Weegee Working Out of his Car Trunk
- Enter the world of Graflex
- The Speed Graphic and your personal lens