|Great Hammerhead (S. mokarran)|
Sphyrna (from the Greek word σφυρί "hammer") is a genus of hammerhead sharks with a cosmopolitan distribution in the world's oceans. Members of Sphyrna have a tendency to inhabit coastal waters along the intertidal zone rather than the open ocean, as their prey items such as invertebrates, fish, rays, small crustaceans and other benthic organisms hide in the sands and sediment along these zones. Members of Sphyrna are also known by a large number of synonyms such as Zygaena, Cestracion, and Sphyrichthys. The earliest species described of this genus was Sphyrna zygaena by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, while the newest member Sphyrna gilberti was discovered and described in 2013.
- Sphyrna corona S. Springer, 1940 (Scalloped bonnethead)
- Sphyrna gilberti Quattro, Driggers, Grady, Ulrich & M. A. Roberts, 2013 (Carolina hammerhead)
- Sphyrna lewini (E. Griffith & C. H. Smith, 1834) (Scalloped hammerhead)
- Sphyrna media S. Springer, 1940 (Scoophead)
- Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell, 1837) (Great hammerhead)
- Sphyrna tiburo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bonnethead)
- Sphyrna tudes (Valenciennes, 1822) (Smalleye hammerhead)
- Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758) (Smooth hammerhead)
- Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2013). Species of Sphyrna in FishBase. June 2013 version.
- Quattro, J.M., Driggers, W.B. III, Grady, J.M., Ulrich, G.F. & Roberts, M.A. (2013): Sphyrna gilberti sp. nov., a new hammerhead shark (Carcharhiniformes, Sphyrnidae) from the western Atlantic Ocean. Zootaxa, 3702 (2): 159–178.
- Martin, R. Aidan. (February 24, 1998). Recent Changes in Hammerhead Taxonomy. ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research. Retrieved on October 18, 2008.
- Media related to Sphyrna at Wikimedia Commons
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