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Spiegeleisen (literally "mirror-iron", German: Spiegel—mirror or specular; Eisen—iron) is a ferromanganese alloy containing approximately 15% manganese and small quantities of carbon and silicon. Historically, this was the standard form in which manganese was traded and used in steel making. Being remarkably free from impurities, such as phosphorus, sulfur, and silica, it was much used in the Bessemer process for the purpose of reintroducing carbon.[clarification needed] It reduces the iron oxide and is itself subject to oxidation. It mostly originated in Germany and was made from hematite.
Today, manganese is usually traded and used in more concentrated form, 80% manganese content being typical. Spiegeleisen is sometimes also referred to as specular pig iron, Spiegel iron, just Spiegel, or Bisalloy.
- Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Spiegeleisen". Encyclopedia Americana.
- Hartmann, H. (1874). "Spiegeleisen Manufacturing". In Fifth Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Indiana, pp. 71-101. Indianapolis, IN: Sentinel Company, Printers. https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/handle/2022/3509
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