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For other leaf vegetables, see Spinach (disambiguation).
Spinacia oleracea Spinazie bloeiend.jpg
Spinach in flower
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Amaranthaceae,
formerly Chenopodiaceae[3]
Genus: Spinacia
Species: S. oleracea
Binomial name
Spinacia oleracea

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae native to central and western Asia.

It is an annual plant (rarely biennial), which grows up to 30 cm tall. Spinach may survive over winter in temperate regions. The leaves are alternate, simple, ovate to triangular, and very variable in size from about 2–30 cm long and 1–15 cm broad, with larger leaves at the base of the plant and small leaves higher on the flowering stem. The flowers are inconspicuous, yellow-green, 3–4 mm in diameter, maturing into a small, hard, dry, lumpy fruit cluster 5–10 mm across containing several seeds.

Common spinach, S. oleracea, was long considered to be in the family Chenopodiaceae, but in 2003, that family was merged into the family Amaranthaceae in the order Caryophyllales. Within the family Amaranthaceae, Amaranthoideae and Chenopodioideae are now subfamilies, for the amaranths and the chenopods, respectively.


Spinach plant in November, Castelltallat

The English word "spinach" dates to the late 14th century, and is from espinache (Fr. épinard), of uncertain origin. The traditional view derives it from O.Prov. espinarc, which perhaps is via Catalan espinac, from Andalusian Arabic اسبيناخ asbīnākh, from Arabic السبانخ al-sabānikh, from Persian اسپاناخ aspānākh, meaning purportedly 'green hand',[1] but the multiplicity of forms makes the theory doubtful.[2]


Spinach is thought to have originated in ancient Persia (modern Iran and neighboring countries). It is not known by whom, or when, spinach was introduced to India, but the plant was subsequently introduced to ancient China, where it was known as "Persian vegetable" (bōsī cài; 波斯菜; present:菠菜). The earliest available record of the spinach plant was recorded in Chinese, stating it was introduced into China via Nepal (probably in 647 AD).[3]

In AD 827, the Saracens introduced spinach to Sicily.[4] The first written evidence of spinach in the Mediterranean was recorded in three 10th-century works: the medical work by al-Rāzī (known as Rhazes in the West) and in two agricultural treatises, one by Ibn Waḥshīyah and the other by Qusṭus al-Rūmī. Spinach became a popular vegetable in the Arab Mediterranean and arrived in Spain by the latter part of the 12th century, where the great Arab agronomist Ibn al-ʻAwwām called it رئيس البقول raʼīs al-buqūl, 'the chieftain of leafy greens'.[5] Spinach was also the subject of a special treatise in the 11th century by Ibn Ḥajjāj.[6]

The prickly-seeded form of spinach was known in Germany by no later than the 13th century, though the smooth-seeded form was not described until 1552. (The smooth-seeded form is used in modern commercial production.)[3]

Spinach first appeared in England and France in the 14th century, probably via Spain, and it gained quick popularity because it appeared in early spring, when other vegetables were scarce and when Lenten dietary restrictions discouraged consumption of other foods. Spinach is mentioned in the first known English cookbook, the Forme of Cury (1390), where it is referred to as 'spinnedge' and/or 'spynoches'.[7] Smooth-seeded spinach was described in 1552.[3]

Spinach was supposedly the favourite vegetable of Catherine de' Medici. Dishes served on a bed of spinach are known as "Florentine", reflecting Catherine's birth in Florence.[8]

During World War I, wine fortified with spinach juice was given to French soldiers weakened by hemorrhage.[9]

Culinary information[edit]


Ch. = Choline; Ca = Calcium; Fe = Iron; Mg = Magnesium; P = Phosphorus; K = Potassium; Na = Sodium; Zn = Zinc; Cu = Copper; Mn = Manganese; Se = Selenium; %DV = % daily value i.e. % of DRI (Dietary Reference Intake) Note: All nutrient values including protein are in %DV per 100 grams of the food item. Significant values are highlighted in light Gray color and bold letters.[10][11] Cooking reduction = % Maximum typical reduction in nutrients due to boiling without draining for ovo-lacto-vegetables group[12][13]

Spinach, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 97 kJ (23 kcal)
3.6 g
Sugars 0.4 g
Dietary fiber 2.2 g
0.4 g
2.9 g
Vitamin A equiv.
469 μg
5626 μg
12198 μg
Vitamin A 9377 IU
Thiamine (B1)
0.078 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.189 mg
Niacin (B3)
0.724 mg
Vitamin B6
0.195 mg
Folate (B9)
194 μg
Vitamin C
28 mg
Vitamin E
2 mg
Vitamin K
483 μg
99 mg
2.71 mg
79 mg
0.897 mg
49 mg
558 mg
79 mg
0.53 mg
Other constituents
Water 91.4 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

In a 100-g serving providing only 23 calories, spinach has a high nutritional value, especially when fresh, frozen, steamed, or quickly boiled. It is a rich source (> 20% of the Daily Value, DV) of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin K, magnesium, manganese, and folate. Spinach is a good source (10-19% of DV) of the B vitamins riboflavin and vitamin B6, vitamin E, calcium, potassium, and dietary fiber.


Spinach, along with other green, leafy vegetables,[14] is rich in iron. For example, the United States Department of Agriculture states that a 180-g serving of boiled spinach contains 6.43 mg of iron, whereas a 170-g ground hamburger patty contains at most 4.42 mg.[14] However, spinach contains iron absorption-inhibiting substances, including high levels of oxalate, which can bind to the iron to form ferrous oxalate and render much of the iron in spinach unusable by the body.[15] In addition to preventing absorption and use, high levels of oxalates remove iron from the body.[15][16]


Spinach also has a moderate calcium content which can be affected by oxalates, decreasing its absorption.[15][17] The calcium in spinach is among the least bioavailable of food calcium sources.[15][18] By way of comparison, the human body can absorb about half of the calcium present in broccoli, yet only around 5% of the calcium in spinach.[19]

Types of spinach[edit]

A distinction can be made between older varieties of spinach and more modern ones. Older varieties tend to bolt too early in warm conditions. Newer varieties tend to grow more rapidly, but have less of an inclination to run up to seed. The older varieties have narrower leaves and tend to have a stronger and more bitter taste. Most newer varieties have broader leaves and round seeds.

The three basic types of spinach are:

  • 'Savoy' has dark green, crinkly and curly leaves. It is the type sold in fresh bunches in most supermarkets in the United States. One heirloom variety of savoy is 'Bloomsdale', which is somewhat resistant to bolting. Other common heirloom varieties are 'Merlo Nero' (a mild variety from Italy) and 'Viroflay' (a very large spinach with great yields).
  • Flat- or smooth-leaf spinach has broad, smooth leaves that are easier to clean than 'Savoy'. This type is often grown for canned and frozen spinach, as well as soups, baby foods, and processed foods. 'Giant Noble' is an example variety.
  • Semi-savoy is a hybrid variety with slightly crinkled leaves. It has the same texture as 'Savoy', but it is not as difficult to clean. It is grown for both fresh market and processing. 'Tyee Hybrid' is a common semi-savoy.

Production, marketing, and storage[edit]

Spinach is sold loose, bunched, packaged fresh in bags, canned, or frozen. Fresh spinach loses much of its nutritional value with storage of more than a few days.[20] While refrigeration slows this effect to about eight days, spinach will lose most of its folate and carotenoid content, so for longer storage, it is blanched and frozen, cooked and frozen, or canned. Storage in the freezer can be for up to eight months.

Top spinach-producing countries - 2011
(in million metric tons)
Rank Country Production
1  China 18,782,961
2  United States 409,360
3  Japan 263,500
4  Turkey 221,632
5  Indonesia 160,513
6  France 110,473
7  Iran 105,351
8  South Korea 104,532
9  Pakistan 103,446
10  Belgium 99,750
World 20,793,353
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization [21]
Spinach output in 2012

The Environmental Working Group reported spinach is one of the dozen most heavily pesticide-contaminated produce products.[22] The most common pesticides found on spinach are permethrin, dimethoate, and DDT.[citation needed] Spinach is high in cadmium contamination. An FDA study found more in boiled spinach in the early 1990s (0.125 mg/kg) than in the 320 other foods studied.[23]

Spinach is packaged in air, or in nitrogen gas to extend shelf life. Some packaged spinach is exposed to radiation to kill any harmful bacteria that may be on the leaves. The Food and Drug Administration approves of irradiation of spinach leaves up to 4.0 kilograys; however, using radiation to sanitize spinach is of concern because it may deplete the leaves of their nutritional value. Researchers at the Agricultural Research Service experimentally tested the concentrations of vitamins C, E, K, B9, and four other carotenoids in packaged spinach following irradiation. They found with increasing level of irradiation, four nutrients showed little or no change. Those nutrients include vitamins B9, E, K, and the carotenoid neoxanthin. This study showed the irradiation of packaged spinach to have little or no change to the nutritional value of the crop, and the health benefits of irradiating packed spinach to reduce harmful bacteria seem to outweigh the loss of nutrients.[24]

In popular culture[edit]

The comics and cartoon character Popeye the Sailor Man has been portrayed since 1931 as having a strong affinity for spinach,[25] becoming physically stronger after consuming it. The commonly accepted version of events states this portrayal was based on faulty calculations of the iron content.[26] In this version, German scientist Emil von Wolff misplaced a decimal point in an 1870 measurement of spinach's iron content, leading to an iron value ten times higher than it should have been, and this faulty measurement was not noticed until the 1930s. This caused the popular misconception that spinach is high in iron that makes the body stronger.[27]

Criminologist Mike Sutton wrote an article in the Internet Journal of Criminology, claiming the Popeye and iron link is just another long-standing myth, and spinach was chosen and promoted in Popeye for its vitamin A content alone.[28][29] In the cited article, he also disputes the above — what he calls the 'Spinach Popeye Iron Decimal Error Story (SPIDES)' — due to lack of verifiable sources, although he found a different reference from 1934 reporting 20 times the actual iron content.[30] In another article, Sutton distinguishes between the myth of spinach's iron content, which he blames on "bad science", and the myth that the error was caused by a misplaced decimal point.[31]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Douglas Harper, Online Etymological Dictionary s.v. spinach. (WWW: Accessed 03/07/2010). [1]
  2. ^ "spinach". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  3. ^ a b c Victor R. Boswell, "Garden Peas and Spinach from the Middle East". Reprint of "Our Vegetable Travelers" National Geographic Magazine, Vol 96:2 (Aug 1949). (WWW: Aggie Horticulture. Accessed 03/07/2010). Aggie Horticulture
  4. ^ Rolland, Jacques L.; Sherman, Carol (2006). The Food Encyclopedia. Toronto: Robert Rose. pp. 335–338. ISBN 9780778801504. 
  5. ^ Ibn al-ʻAwwām, Yaḥyá ibn Muḥammad. "23.8". Kitāb al-Filāḥah. Retrieved July 30, 2014. 
  6. ^ Clifford A. Wright. Mediterranean Vegetables: A Cook's ABC of Vegetables and their Preparation in Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Turkey, the Middle East, and North Africa, with More than 200 Authentic Recipes for the Home Cook. (Boston: Harvard Common Press, 2001). pp. 300-301.
  7. ^ Jacques Rolland and Carol Sherman, "Spinach". The Food Encyclopedia: Over 8,000 Ingredients, Tools, Techniques and People . Toronto: Robert Rose. 2006. (WWW: Canadian Living. Accessed 03/07/2010). [2]
  8. ^ Spinach, The George Mateljan Foundation
  9. ^ Margaret Grieve; Maud Grieve (1 June 1971). A modern herbal: the medicinal, culinary, cosmetic and economic properties, cultivation and folk-lore of herbs, grasses, fungi, shrubs, & trees with all their modern scientific uses. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 761–. ISBN 978-0-486-22799-3. Retrieved 13 August 2010. 
  10. ^ http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/nutrients/index
  11. ^ http://Nutritiondata.self.com
  12. ^ "USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors, Release 6" (PDF). USDA. USDA. Dec 2007. 
  13. ^ http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/processing
  14. ^ a b "Basic Report from the USDA National Nutrient Database: Spinach, raw, 100 g". US Department of Agriculture, National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 27. 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2015. 
  15. ^ a b c d Noonan SC, Savage GP (1999). "Oxalate content of foods and its effect on humans" (PDF). Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 8 (1): 64–74. PMID 24393738. 
  16. ^ Williams, Sue Rodwell; Long, Sara (1997). Nutrition and diet therapy. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-8151-9273-2. 
  17. ^ Insel, Paul M.; Turner, R. Elaine; Ross, Don (2003). Nutrition. p. 474. ISBN 978-0-7637-0765-1. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  18. ^ Heaney, Robert Proulx (2006). Calcium in human health. p. 135. ISBN 978-1-59259-961-5. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  19. ^ Whitney E, Rady Rolfes S (Jan 1, 2010). Understanding Nutrition. Cengage Learning. ISBN 0538734655. 
  20. ^ "Storage Time And Temperature Effects Nutrients In Spinach". Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  21. ^ "Production of Spinach by countries". UN Food & Agriculture Organization. 2011. Retrieved 2013-08-26. 
  22. ^ "Summary - EWG's 2015 Shopper's Guide to Pesticides in Produce™". ewg.org. 
  23. ^ http://www.yogurtforever.org/download/tds1byel.pdf (Previously at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~acrobat/ tds1byel.pdf  ?)
  24. ^ "ARS :". usda.gov. 
  25. ^ Sutton, Mike (2010). "SPINACH, IRON and POPEYE: Ironic lessons from biochemistry and history on the importance of healthy eating, healthy scepticism and adequate citation" (PDF). Internet Journal of Criminology: 15. Retrieved 4 November 2011. 
  26. ^ Gabbatt, Adam (8 December 2009). "E.C. Segar, Popeye's creator, celebrated with a Google doodle". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 5 May 2010. 
  27. ^ Fullerton-Smith, Jill (2007). The Truth about Food. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 224. Retrieved February 18, 2012. 
  28. ^ "SPINACH, IRON and POPEYE: Ironic lessons from biochemistry and history on the importance of healthy eating, healthy scepticism and adequate citation" (PDF). Internet Journal of Criminology. 
  29. ^ Karl Kruszelnicki (6 December 2011). "Popeye's spinach story rich in irony". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 
  30. ^ Sherman, W.C; Elvehjem, Hart (1934). "Further studies on the availability of iron in biological materials" (PDF). J.Biol.Chem. 107: 383–394. Retrieved 29 January 2014. 
  31. ^ Sutton, M. (2010). "The Spinach Popeye Iron Decimal Error Myth is Finally Busted". BestThinking. Retrieved 2015-02-01. 

Further reading[edit]

  • D. Maue, S. Walia, S. Sahore, M. Parkash, S. K. Walia, S. K. Walia (2005). "Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Ready-to-Eat Bagged Salads". American Society for Microbiology meeting. June 5–9. pp. Atlanta.  Abstract
  • Rogers, Jo. What Food is That?: and how healthy is it?. The Rocks, Sydney, NSW: Lansdowne Publishing Pty Ltd, 1990. ISBN 1-86302-823-4.
  • Cardwell, Glenn. Spinach is a Good Source of What?. The Skeptic. Volume 25, No 2, Winter 2005. Pp 31–33. ISSN 0726-9897
  • Blazey, Clive. The Australian Vegetable Garden: What's new is old. Sydney, NSW: New Holland Publishers, 1999. ISBN 1-86436-538-2
  • Stanton, Rosemary. Complete Book of Food and Nutrition. Australia, Simon & Schuster, Revised Edition, 1995. ISBN 0-7318-0538-0

External links[edit]