Spingarn Medal

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The Spingarn Medal is awarded annually by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for outstanding achievement by an African American. The award was created in 1914 by Joel Elias Spingarn, chairman of the Board of Directors of the NAACP.[1] It was first awarded to biologist Ernest E. Just in 1915, and has been given most years thereafter.

At its annual convention, the NAACP presents the award after deciding from open nominations. Should the organization end, it would be managed by Howard or Fisk Universities.[1] The gold medal is valued at $100, and Spingarn left $20,000 in his will for the NAACP to continue giving it indefinitely.[2]

List of recipients[edit]

Year Picture Name Rationale
1915 Ernest Everett Just Professor Ernest E. Just "Head of Physiology, Howard University Medical School for research in biology."
1916 Charles Young Major Charles Young "Services in organizing the Liberian Constabulary and roads in the Republic of Liberia."
1917 Harry Burleigh Harry T. Burleigh "Excellence in the field of creative music."
1918 William Braithwaite William Stanley Braithwaite "Distinguished achievements in literature."
1919 Archibald Grimké Archibald H. Grimké "U.S. Consul in Santo Domingo; President of American Negro Academy; for seventy years of distinguished service to his race and country."
1920 W. E. B. Du Bois William Edwards Burghardt (W. E. B.) DuBois "Author, Editor Crisis Magazine; founding and calling of Pan-African Congress."
1921 Charles Sidney Gilpin as Brutus Jones Charles S. Gilpin "Notable performance in the title role of The Emperor Jones and for excellence as an actor."
1922 Mary Burnett Talbert Mary B. Talbert "Former President of the National Association of Colored Women and for continued service to women of color."
1923 George Washington Carver George Washington Carver "Head of Department of Research and Director of the Experiment Station of Tuskegee Inst. For researching Agricultural Chemistry."
1924 Roland Hayes Roland Hayes "Singer; for artistry through interpreting Negro folk song; soloist with the Boston Symphony Orchestra."
1925 James Weldon Johnson James Weldon Johnson "Former U.S. Consul in Venezuela and Nicaragua; former editor and secretary of NAACP."
1926 Carter G. Woodson Carter G. Woodson "Historian and Founder of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History; editor, Negro Orators and Their Orations for his outstanding work as an historian."
1927 Anthony Overton "President of Victory Life Insurance Company, the first black company certified by the state of New York."
1928 Charles W. Chesnutt Charles W. Chesnutt "Author; for his pioneer work as a literary artist, depicting the life and struggle of Americans of Negro descent."
1929 Mordecai Wyatt Johnson Mordecai Wyatt Johnson "President of Howard University. For distinguished leadership as first black president."
1930 Henry A. Hunt Henry Hunt "Principal of the Fort Valley High and Industrial School, Fort Valley, GA. For twenty-five years of service in the education of black students."
1931 Richard Berry Harrison "For his fine and reverent characterization of the Lord in Marc Connelly's Play – The Green Pastures."
1932 Robert Russa Moton Robert Russa Moton "Principal of the Tuskegee Institute. For excellent leadership and service in the field of education."
1933 Max Yergan Max Yergan "American Y.M.C.A. Secretary; missionary of intelligence, tact and self-sacrifice. For the excellence of his work in Africa."
1934 William Taylor Burwell Williams "Dean of Tuskegee Institute, long service as field agent of the Slater and Jeanes Funds and the General Education Board."
1935 Mary McLeod Bethune Mary McLeod Bethune "Founder and President of Bethune Cookman College. For outstanding leadership and service to education."
1936 John Hope John Hope
(awarded posthumously)
"President of Atlanta University; distinguished leader of his race."
1937 Walter Francis White Walter White "Executive Secretary of NAACP. For his personal investigation of more than forty-one lynchings."
1938 No award given
1939 Marian Anderson Marian Anderson "Chosen for her special achievement in music."
1940 Louis T. Wright "Surgeon; chosen for his contribution to the healing of mankind and for his courageous position in the face of bitter attack."
1941 Richard Wright Richard Wright "Author; Uncle Tom's Children and Native Son. For his outstanding contributions to literature."
1942 A. Philip Randolph A. Philip Randolph "International President of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. For his role in securing the presidential order to establish the FEPC in 1941."
1943 William H. Hastie William H. Hastie "Jurist and Educator; chosen for his distinguished career as a jurist and uncompromising champion of equal justice."
1944 Charles R. Drew Charles Drew "Scientist; chosen for his outstanding work in blood plasma; research led to establishment of blood plasma bank."
1945 Paul Robeson Paul Robeson "Singer and Actor chosen for distinguished achievement in the theatre and concert stage."
1946 Thurgood Marshall Thurgood Marshall "Special Counsel for NAACP. For distinguished service as a lawyer before the U.S. Supreme Court."
1947 Dr. Percy Julian "Research Chemist chosen for many important discoveries that have saved many lives."
1948 Channing Heggie Tobias Channing H. Tobias "In recognition of his consistent role as a defender of fundamental American liberties."
1949 Ralph Bunche Ralph J. Bunche "International civil servant; acting UN mediator in Palestine. For singular service to the United Nations."
1950 Charles Hamilton Houston "Chairman, NAACP Legal Committee and stalwart defender of democracy."
1951 Mabel Keaton Staupers "Leader of the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses."
1952 Harry T. Moore "NAACP leader in the state of Florida and a martyr in the crusade for freedom."
1953 Paul Williams Paul R. Williams "Distinguished architect, for his pioneer contributions as a creative designer of livable, attractive modern dwellings."
1954 Theodore K. Lawless "Physician, educator and philanthropist. For pioneering achievements in dermatology."
1955 Carl J. Murphy "Dedicated editor, publisher and farsighted civic leader."
1956 Jackie Robinson Jack Roosevelt Robinson "Brilliant and versatile athlete; for superb sportsmanship and for his singular role in athletics."
1957 Martin Luther King, Jr Martin Luther King, Jr. "Dedicated and selfless clergyman; for leadership role in the Montgomery bus protest movement."
1958 The Little Rock Nine are escorted into the all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, by the 101st Airborne Daisy Bates and the Little Rock Nine "For their pioneer role in upholding the basic ideals of American democracy in the face of continuing harassment and constant threats of bodily injury."
1959 Duke Ellington Edward Kennedy (Duke) Ellington "Composer and orchestra leader. For outstanding and unique musical achievements."
1960 Langston Hughes Langston Hughes "Poet, author and playwright."
1961 Kenneth Clark Kenneth B. Clark "Professor of Psychology at the College of the City of New York; founder/director of the Northside Center for Child Development. For his dedicated service and inspired research in the field of psychology."
1962 Robert C. Weaver Robert C. Weaver "Administrator, Housing and Home Finance Agency; for his long years of dedicated public service at municipal, state and federal levels."
1963 Medgar Wiley Evers "NAACP field secretary for the state of Mississippi. For his dedication and steadfast courage in the face of continued death threats."
1964 Roy Wilkins Roy Wilkins "Executive Director, NAACP. For his leadership, integrity and his dedicated service."
1965 Leontyne Price Leontyne Price "Metropolitan Opera star, in recognition of her divinely inspired talent."
1966 John H. Johnson "Founder/President of the Johnson Publishing Company of Chicago."
1967 Edward Brooke Edward W. Brooke, III "First African American to win popular election to the United States Senate since Reconstruction."
1968 Sammy Davis Jr. Sammy Davis, Jr. "Broadway/Hollywood star and civil rights activist."
1969 Clarence Mitchell Jr. Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr. "Director, Washington Bureau, NAACP and civil rights lobbyist. For his pivotal role in the enactment of civil rights legislation."
1970 Jacob Lawrence "Artist, teacher and humanitarian."
1971 Leon Howard Sullivan "Clergyman, activist and prophet."
1972 Jacob Lawrence Gordon Alexander Buchanan Parks "In recognition of his unique creativity, as exemplified by his outstanding achievements as photographer, writer, film maker and composer."
1973 Wilson C. Riles "Educator, in recognition of the stature he has attained as a national leader in the field of education."
1974 Damon Keith Damon J. Keith "Jurist; in tribute to his steadfast defense of constitutional principles."
1975 No award given
1976 Hank Aaron Hank Aaron "Athlete, in recognition of his singular achievement in the sport which symbolizes America – baseball; his impressive home run record."
1977[a] Alvin Ailey Alvin Ailey "Innovative dancer, choreographer and artistic director."
Alex Haley Alexander Palmer Haley "Author, biographer and lecturer; exhaustive research and literary skill combined in Roots."
1978 No award given
1979[a] Andrew Young Andrew Jackson Young "Minister plenipotentiary and extraordinary United States Ambassador to the United Nations."
Rosa Parks Rosa L. Parks "In recognition to the quiet courage and determination exemplified when she refused to surrender her seat on a Montgomery, Alabama bus."
1980 Rayford W. Logan "Educator, historian, author for his prodigious efforts to set before the world the black American's continuing struggle against oppression."
1981 Coleman Alexander Young "Mayor, City of Detroit; public servant, labor leader."
1982 Benjamin Mays Benjamin Elijah Mays "Educator, theologian and humanitarian."
1983 Lena Horne Lena Horne "Artist humanitarian and living symbol of excellence."
1984 No award given
1985[a] Tom Bradley Tom Bradley "Government executive, public servant, humanist; Chief Executive of Calvert, Texas."
Bill Cosby William H. Cosby "Humorist, artist, educator, family man and humanitarian."
1986 Benjamin Lawson Hooks "Executive Director, NAACP. In tribute to his precedent-setting accomplishments."
1987 Percy Ellis Sutton "Public servant, businessman, community leader."
1988 Frederick Douglass Patterson "Educator, doctor of veterinary medicine, visionary and humanitarian."
1989 Jesse Jackson Jesse Louis Jackson "Clergyman, political leader, civil rights activist; first American of African descent to become a major presidential candidate."
1990 Douglas Wilder Lawrence Douglas Wilder "Governor, public servant, attorney and visionary in tribute to an extraordinary life of accomplishment."
1991 Colin Powell Colin L. Powell "General of the U.S. Army, 12th Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, U.S. Department of Defense."
1992 Barbara Jordan Barbara Jordan "Lawyer, educator, political leader and stateswoman."
1993 Dorothy Height Dorothy Irene Height "National Council of Negro Women; National YWCA; The Center for Radical Justice; President, Delta Sigma Theta Sorority. For extraordinary leadership in advancing women’s rights."
1994 Maya Angelou speaking at the first inauguration of President Bill Clinton Maya Angelou "Poet, author, actress, playwright, producer, educator and historian."
1995 John Hope Franklin John Hope Franklin "Historian, scholar and educator; in recognition of an unrelenting quest for truth and the enlightenment of Western Civilization."
1996 A. Jeon Higginbotham Jr. A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr. "Jurist, Scholar, teacher and humanitarian; in honor of a distinguished jurist who emerged a giant of jurisprudence during a three-decade tenure as the nation’s longest serving active Federal Judge."
1997 Carl T. Rowan "Journalist, publicist, civic leader and public servant."
1998 Myrlie Evers-Williams Myrlie Evers-Williams "Civil rights activist, risk-taker, mother, true believer."
1999 Earl G. Graves, Sr. "Founder, Black Enterprise Magazine; Businessman, publisher, educator, advocate, entrepreneur, family man."
2000 Oprah Winfrey Oprah Winfrey "Actress, producer, educator, publisher and humanitarian."
2001 Vernon Jordan Vernon E. Jordan "Lawyer, Advisor to Presidents, Champion of Civil Rights and Human Rights, Exemplar and True Believer."
2002 John Lewis John Lewis "Public servant, protector of civil and human rights, community leader and inspirer of youth."
2003 Constance Baker Motley "Civil rights pioneer, jurist, public official, for her commitment and pursuit of the goal of equal opportunity and justice for all Americans."
2004 Robert L. Carter Robert L. Carter "Attorney, educator, federal judge and guardian of civil rights; for his extraordinary achievement of winning twenty-one cases argued before the Supreme Court."
2005 Oliver Hill Oliver W. Hill "For his key role in the United States Supreme Court Case, Brown v. Board; for his determined, quiet and persistent pursuit of justice."
2006 Ben Carson Benjamin S. Carson, Sr. "In tribute to a lifetime of growth and singular achievement, from the bottom of his fifth grade class, to become the youngest ever Chief of Pediatric Neurosurgery in the United States."
2007 John Conyers John Conyers, Jr. "Guardian of Civil Rights and Civil Liberties, consummate legislator and public servant."
2008 Ruby Dee Ruby Dee "Actress, poet, playwright and civil rights activist"
2009 Julian Bond Julian Bond "Former Chairman of the NAACP Board of Directors and legendary civil rights activist"
2010 Cicely Tyson Cicely Tyson "Actress and civil rights activist"
2011 Frankie Muse Freeman Frankie Muse Freeman "Attorney and civil rights activist."
2012 Harry Belafonte Harry Belafonte "Singer, song writer, actor and social activist."
2013 Jessye Norman Jessye Norman "Opera singer, Grammy Award winner."
2014 Quincy Jones Quincy Jones "Composer, Producer, Grammy Award winner."
2015 Sidney Poitier Sidney Poitier "Actor and Social activist, Oscar Winner."
2016 Nathaniel R. Jones Nathaniel R. Jones "Lawyer, Jurist, Academic and Public Servant"

Notes[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ a b c Two separate medals were awarded this year.
Specific references
  1. ^ a b "Spingarn Medal". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 11, 2017. 
  2. ^ "An award of excellence, the Spingarn Medal". African American Registry. Retrieved November 11, 2017. 
General references