|Range of the Eurasian siskin|
Summer Resident Winter
The Eurasian siskin (Spinus spinus) is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae. It is also called the European siskin, common siskin or just siskin. Other (archaic) names include black-headed goldfinch, barley bird and aberdevine. It is very common throughout Europe and Eurosiberia. It is found in forested areas, both coniferous and mixed woodland where it feeds on seeds of all kinds, especially of alder and conifers.
It can be distinguished from other similar finches by the color of the plumage. The upper parts are greyish green and the under parts grey-streaked white. Its wings are black with a conspicuous yellow wing bar, and the tail is black with yellow sides. The male has a mainly yellow face and breast, with a neat black cap. Female and young birds have a greyish green head and no cap. It is a trusting, sociable and active bird. The song of this bird is a pleasant mix of twitters and trills. For these reasons it is often raised in captivity.
These birds have an unusual migration pattern as every few years in winter they migrate southwards in large numbers. The reasons for this behaviour are not known but may be related to climatic factors and above all the availability of food. In this way overwintering populations can thrive where food is abundant. This small finch is an acrobatic feeder, often hanging upside-down like a tit. It will visit garden bird feeding stations.
Taxonomy and systematics
The siskin was first was described by Linnaeus in 1758 as Fringilla spinus, in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae. In 1760, Brisson described the genus Carduelis, where this species was then placed. Recent taxonomic studies suggest placing it in the genus Spinus.
Despite being found across a wide area it is a monotypic species, that is, there are no distinct subspecies. This could be explained by a number of factors, such as spatial variability of individuals in breeding areas between years, the large overwintering area which supposes a constant genetic interchange,[clarification needed] and females having a number of clutches of eggs in one breeding season, each in a different place.
This bird may have reached America either from Asia or from Europe (Greenland/Iceland). It is the extant parental species of one of the Spinus/Carduelis three evolutive North American radiations of atriceps, pinus and dominicenses finches. It has been recorded both in the Aleutian Islands and the East: the Labrador Peninsula and St. Lawrence River mouth (Canada). This raises the possibility that this bird entered (or may still try to enter) America through Greenland/Iceland from Western Europe.
The siskin is a small, short-tailed bird, 11–12.5 centimetres (4.3–4.9 in) in length[full citation needed] with a wingspan that ranges from 20–23 centimetres (7.9–9.1 in). It weighs between 10–18 grams (0.35–0.63 oz).
The bird's appearance shows sexual dimorphism. The male has a greyish green back; yellow rump; the sides of the tail are yellow and the end is black; the wings are black with a distinctive yellow wing stripe; its breast is yellowish becoming whiter and striped towards the cloaca; it has a black bib (or chin patch) and on its head it has two yellow auriculas and a black cap. The amount of black on the bib is very variable between males and the size of the bib has been related to dominance within a flock. The plumage of the female is more olive-coloured than the male. The cap and the auriculas are greenish with a white bib and a rump that is a slightly striped whitish yellow. The young have a similar colouration to the females, with drab colours and a more subdued plumage.
The shape of the siskin's beak is determined by its feeding habits. It is strong although it is also slender in order to pick up the seeds on which they feed. The legs and feet are dark brown and the eyes are black.
It has a rapid and bounding flight pattern that is similar to other finches.
The siskin is easy to recognize, but in some instances it can be confused with other finches such as the citril finch, the greenfinch or the European serin. The European siskin, in many plumages, is a bright bird. Adult male European siskins are bright green and yellow with a black cap, and an unstreaked throat and breast. Adult females also usually have green and yellow plumage tones: for example, yellow in the supercilium and on the sides of the breast, green tones in the mantle and yellow in the rump. The ground colour of the underparts of European siskin is normally pure white. In females and juveniles, the centre of the belly and lower breast are often largely or entirely unstreaked. The wingbars of European siskin are broad and yellow (with the tips white) and the bill is short with a decurved culmen.
Distribution and habitat
This species can be found across the greater part of Eurosiberia and the north of Africa. Its breeding area is separated into two zones, each side of the Palearctic ecozone: the east coast of Asia and the central and northern part of Europe.
These birds can be found throughout the year in Central Europe and some mountain ranges in the south of the continent. They are present in the north of Scandinavia and in Russia and they over-winter in the Mediterranean basin and the area around the Black Sea. In China they breed in the Khingan Mountains of Inner Mongolia and in Jiangsu province; they spend winter in Tibet, Taiwan, the valleys of the lower Yangtse River and the south east coast.
Their seasonal distribution is also marked by the fact that they follow an anomalous migration pattern. Every few years they migrate southwards in larger numbers and the overwintering populations in the Iberian Peninsula are greatly augmented. This event has been the object of diverse theories, one theory suggests that it occurs in the years when Norway Spruce produces abundant seeds in the centre and north of Europe, causing populations to increase. An alternative theory is that greater migration occurs when the preferred food of alder or birch seed fails. This species will form large flocks outside the breeding season, often mixed with redpolls.
It is a bird that does not remain for long in one area but which varies the areas it used for breeding, feeding, over-wintering from one year to the next.
Its habitat is forested areas at a particular altitude on a mountain side and they have a certain predilection for humid areas. Coniferous woodland, especially Spruce, is favoured for breeding. It builds its nest in a tree, laying 2–6 eggs. The British range of this once local breeder has expanded greatly due to an increase in commercial conifer plantations. The siskin also breeds in mixed woodland; while in winter they prefer stubble and crops and areas containing trees with seeds.
Behaviour and ecology
They are very active and restless birds. They are also very social, forming small cohesive flocks especially in autumn and winter. They are fairly trusting of humans, it being possible to observe them from a short distance. During the breeding season, however, they are much more timid, solitary and difficult to observe. For this reason there is a German legend which says that siskins guard a magic stone in their nests that makes them invisible. It is one of the few species which has been described as exhibiting "allofeeding"' behavior, this is where subordinates (of the same sex) regurgitate food for the dominant members of the group, which creates a strong cohesion in the flocks and implies a hierarchical structure within the group.
In autumn and winter its diet is based on the seeds of deciduous trees such as birch and above all alder. They also visit cultivated areas and pasture where they join with other finches in eating the seeds of various Compositae such as thistles, dandelions, Artemisia, knapweeds and other herbaceous plants such as St. John's wort, meadowsweet and sorrel.
In spring, during the breeding season, they are found in coniferous forests. At this time their feeding is based on the seeds of these trees, especially on trees belonging to the genera Abies, Picea and Larix. They also feed on elms and poplars. When feeding the young they eat more insects, mainly beetles, as the proteins they contain help the chicks to grow. In summer their feeding is more varied, adding other herbaceous plants to their diet of conifer seeds: goosefoots and other Compositae.
Pairs are generally formed during the winter period before migration. The males compete aggressively for the females. As part of the courtship the male plumps up the feathers of the pileus and rump, making itself bigger, extending the tail and singing repeatedly. They also make mating flights from tree to tree, although they are not as eye-catching as the flights of the other finches. They construct a nest that is generally located at the end of a relatively high branch in a conifer, such that the nest is reasonably hidden and difficult to see. On the Iberian Peninsula they make their nests in afirs, Scotch pine and Corsican pine. They form small colonies of up to six pairs with the nests located near to each other. The nest is small and bowl-shaped. It is made from small twigs, dried grasses, moss and lichen and lined with down.
The first brood is born in mid-April. The female lays between 2 and 6 eggs. The eggs are white or light grey or light blue, with small brown spots and they are approximately 16.5mm by 12mm in size. Incubation takes between 10 and 14 days and is carried out entirely by the female. The chicks are altricial and nidicolous. They leave the nest after 15 days in a semi-feathered condition. They then remain close to the nest area for up to a month when, with their plumage now complete, they disperse. The siskin usually has a second brood, from the middle of June up to the middle of July.
Song and call
This bird has two calls, both powerful but conflicting, one is descending and the other is ascending, their onomatopoeic sounds can be represented as "tilu" and "tluih". On occasions they also issue a harsh rattling chirrup.
The song is similar to the other finches, a smooth and rapid twitter and trill with a long duration and which is occasionally interrupted by a stronger of shorter syllable. Siskins sing throughout the year and often in groups.
Status and conservation
The worldwide population of the siskin is estimated as between 20 and 36 million. The European population is estimated as between 2.7 and 15 million pairs. There does not seem to be a major decline in population numbers and for this reason the IUCN has listed their conservation status as Least Concern. The siskin appears in Annex II of the Berne Convention as a protected bird species.
Relationship with humans
Like many of the finches the siskin is valued by aviculturalists as a domestic bird for its song and appearance. They do not require specific care and adapt well to captivity, although they do not breed well in captivity. There are no specific diseases that affect the species, although they can show certain intestinal pathologies associated with a poor diet. They live for between 11 and 14 years, in sharp contrast to the 2 or 3 years it is estimated they live in the wild.
They form hybrids with some other finches (for example canaries) giving rise to intermediate species. Hybridisation also occurs in nature without human intervention.[failed verification] In some areas individuals that are found are the result of escapes or releases of captive birds.
In Saint Petersburg there is a statue of a siskin, as its colours are the same as the uniform worn by the students at an elite school in the city. These students have come to be known by the sobriquet siskin, Russian: Чиж. This term was popularised in the Russian song Chizhik-Pyzhik. There has been a statue of siskin on the embankement by the First Engineer Bridge since 1994, though it has been stolen and replaced multiple times.
Elif Shafak, in the novel "Three Daughters of Eve," mentioned a siskin in a pivotal scene in which the heroine, Peri, meets the charismatic and controversial Professor Azur. When Peri entered Professor Azur's office, she found a siskin with yellow-green feathers and a forked tail trapped amid the shelves and stacks of books.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Carduelis spinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)old-form url
- "Eurasian Siskin (Carduelis spinus) (Linnaeus, 1758)". Avibase. 30 September 2009.
- Lockwood, W. B. (1993). The Oxford Dictionary of British Bird Names. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866196-7.
- "Carduelis spinus". Fauna Europaea. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
- Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London, United Kingdom: Christopher Helm. p. 362. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
- "Siskin". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Newton, Ian (2003). The Speciation and Biogeography of Birds. London, UK: Academic Press. p. 505. ISBN 0-12-517375-X.
- "Carduelis spinus". Terra.es. Retrieved 23 October 2008. This reference is based on theories expounded in Payevsky, V. A. (1994). "Age and sex structure, mortality and spatial winter distribution of siskins (Carduelis spinus) migrating through eastern Baltic area". Vogelwarte. 37: 190–198.
- Zamora, J.; Moscoso, J.; Ruiz-del-Valle, V.; Ernesto, L.; Serrano-Vela, J. I.; Ira-Cachafeiro, J.; Arnaiz-Villena, A. (2006). "Conjoint mitochondrial phylogenetic trees for canaries Serinus spp. and goldfinches Carduelis spp. show several specific polytomies" (PDF). Ardeola. 53 (1): 1–17.
- Arnaiz-Villena, A.; Ruiz-del-Valle, V.; Moscoso, J.; Serrano-Vela, J. I.; Zamora, J. (2007). "mtDNA phylogeny of North American Carduelis pinus group" (PDF). Ardeola. 54 (1): 1–14.
- Clement, P (1999). Finches and Sparrows. Princeton University Press. p. 221. ISBN 9780691048789.
- Arnaiz-Villena, A; Ruiz-del-Valle V; Reguera R; Gomez-Prieto P; Serrano-Vela JI (2012). "What Might have been the Ancestor of New World Siskins?" (PDF). The Open Ornithology Journal. 1: 46–47. doi:10.2174/1874453200801010046. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2013.
- Arnaiz-Villena, A; Areces C; Rey D; Enríquez-de-Salamanca M; Alonso-Rubio J; Ruiz-del-Valle V (2012). "Three different North American siskin/goldfinch evolutionary radiations (genus Carduelis): pine siskin green morphs and European siskins in America" (PDF). The Open Ornithology Journal. 5: 73–81. doi:10.2174/1874453201205010073. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2013.
- The Birds of the Western Palearctic (abridged ed.). Oxford University Press. 1997. ISBN 0-19-854099-X.
- Mullarney, K.; Svensson, L.; Zetterström, D; Grant, P. J. (2003). Guía de Campo de las Aves de España y de Europa (in Spanish). Editorial Omega. ISBN 84-282-1218-X.
- "Eurasian Siskin (Carduelis spinus)". Stamps of Israeli Birds. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
- Schauenberg, P.; et al. (1979). Fichero Safari Club (Lúgano). Madrid: S.A.P.E. ISBN 84-7461-167-9.
- Hume, Rob (2002). Guía de Campo de las Aves de España y de Europa (in Spanish). Editorial Omega. ISBN 84-282-1317-8.
- Senar, J. C.; Camerino, L.; Copete, J. L.; Metcalfe N. B. (1993). "Variation in black bib of the Eurasian siskin (Carduelis spinus) and its role as reliable badge of dominance" (PDF). The Auk. 110 (4): 924–927. doi:10.2307/4088649. JSTOR 4088649. Retrieved 20 October 2008.
- Senar, J.C.; Borrás, A. "Lúgano en el Atlas de las Aves Reproductoras de España" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 October 2008.[permanent dead link]
- China's Species Information Service. "Carduelis spinus". Archived from the original on 15 May 2006. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
- Borror, A.C. (1963). "Eurasian siskin (Carduelis spinus) in Maine" (PDF). The Auk. 80 (2): 109. Retrieved 20 October 2008.
- "Lúgano" (in Spanish). Pajaricos.es. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- Copete, J.L. (1990). "Observación de un dormidero de Lúganos (Carduelis spinus)". Butlletí del Grup Català d'Anellament. 7.
- "Tarin des aulnes" (in French). Oiseaux.net. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- "Lúgano" (in Spanish). Pajaricos.es. Archived from the original on 12 December 2007. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- Senar, J.C.; Borrás, A. (2004). "Sobevivir al invierno: estrategias de las aves invernantes en la Península Ibérica" (PDF). Ardeola. 51 (1): 133–168. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 September 2006. Retrieved 20 October 2008.
- Senar, J.C. (April–June 1984). "Allofeeding in Eurasian siskin (Carduelis spinus)" (PDF). Condor. The Cooper Ornithological Society. 86 (2): 213–214. doi:10.2307/1367046. JSTOR 1367046. Retrieved 20 October 2008.
- Senar, J.C.; Copete, J.L. (1990). "Observación de alimentación de cortejo en Lúganos (Carduelis spinus) invernantes". Butlletí del Grup Català d'Anellament. 7. Archived from the original on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2010.
- Newton, I. (1973). Finches. London: Taplinger Publishing. ISBN 0-8008-2720-1.
- "Lúgano (Carduelis spinus)". Enciclopedia Balear de Ornitología. Retrieved 19 November 2008.
- "Lúgano-Aves". Rednaturaleza.com. Archived from the original on 12 February 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
- Birdlife International. "Species factsheet: Carduelis spinus". Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- Tucker, G. M.; Heath, M. F. (1994). Birds in Europe: their conservation status. BirdLife Conservation Series 3. Cambridge: BirdLife International. ISBN 0-946888-29-9.
- Cramp, S.; Perrins, C.M. (1994). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol. IX. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-857506-8.
- "Boletín Oficial del Estado (España): Ratificación del Convenio de Berna" (PDF) (in Spanish). 1 October 1986. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. "Carduelis spinus x Serinus canaria". Retrieved 13 October 2008.
- "Hibridaciones de Carduelis spinus". Archived from the original on 6 November 2007. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
- McCarthy, Eugene M. (2006). Handbook of Avian Hybrids of the World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-518323-8.
- Galarza, A. (1989). Urdaibai, avifauna de la ría de Gernika. Diputación Foral de Bizkaia. ISBN 84-404-5084-2.
- "Eurasian Siskin". Bird Stamps. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- "Chizhik-Pyzhik". Saint-Petersburg.com. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carduelis spinus.|
|Wikispecies has information related to Carduelis spinus|
- Audio recordings from Xeno-canto
- Eurasian Siskin videos, photos & sounds on the Internet Bird Collection
- Ageing and sexing (PDF; 3.1 MB) by Javier Blasco-Zumeta & Gerd-Michael Heinze
- Feathers of Eurasian Siskin (Carduelis spinus)
- Carduelis spinus in the Flickr: Field Guide Birds of the World
- "Carduelis spinus". Avibase.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .