The spiny turtle (Heosemys spinosa) inhabits lowland and hill rainforest, usually in the vicinity of small streams, mainly in hill areas up to 900 m above sea level.
The origin of its common and specific name is immediately apparent from the sharp, pointed, spiky-edged carapace, and spiny keel, of this unique turtle, also known as the ‘cog-wheel turtle'.
Mating behaviour appears to be triggered by rain; in captivity, spraying males with water results in them chasing females and attempting to mount. Nothing is known of nesting behaviour in the wild. One, two, or rarely three eggs are laid per clutch; in captivity, laying usually occurs in the night or early morning. Females produce up to three clutches per year. A plastron hinge develops to ease laying. It has been bred in captivity several times; in three cases the incubation time was 106, 110, and 145 days.
- Rhodin 2011, p. 000.190
- Asian Turtle Trade Working Group (2000). "Heosemys spinosa". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2000: e.T9942A97366991. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2000.RLTS.T9942A13027850.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- Fritz, Uwe; Peter Havaš (2007). "Checklist of Chelonians of the World" (PDF). Vertebrate Zoology. 57 (2): 224–225. ISSN 1864-5755. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- Rhodin, Anders G.J.; van Dijk, Peter Paul; Inverson, John B.; Shaffer, H. Bradley; Roger, Bour (31 December 2011). "Turtles of the world, 2011 update: Annotated checklist of taxonomy, synonymy, distribution and conservation status" (PDF). Chelonian Research Monographs. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 January 2012.
- Fritz, Uwe; Havaš, Peter (2007). "Checklist of Chelonians of the World" (PDF). Vertebrate Zoology. 57 (2). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2010.
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