|Founded||1980 (as Charter One)|
|Company slogan||Less Money, More Go.|
|Parent company||Publicly traded (NASDAQ: SAVE)|
|Headquarters||Miramar, Florida, USA|
|Revenue||US$ 1.65 billion (2013)|
|Net income||US$ 176.92 million (2013)|
Spirit Airlines, Inc. is an American low-cost carrier headquartered in Miramar, Florida. Spirit operates scheduled flights throughout the U.S. as well as the Caribbean, Mexico, and Latin America. Major focus cities include; Ft. Lauderdale, Dallas/Fort Worth, Detroit, Las Vegas, Chicago-O'Hare, Houston-Intercontinental, Atlantic City, and Myrtle Beach. As of 2015, Spirit remains the only 2-star airline in the United States per Skytrax Airline Quality.
- 1 History
- 2 Service concept
- 3 Destinations
- 4 Fleet
- 5 Controversial advertising campaigns
- 6 Incidents and accidents
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Early years (1964-2006)
The company initially started as Clipper Trucking Company in 1964. The airline service was founded in 1980 in Macomb County, Michigan, (by Ned Homfeld) as Charter One, a Detroit-based charter tour operator providing travel packages to entertainment destinations such as Atlantic City, Las Vegas, and the Bahamas. In 1990, Charter One began scheduled service from Boston and Providence, R.I., to Atlantic City. On May 29, 1992, Charter One brought jet equipment into the fleet, changed its name to Spirit Airlines and inaugurated service from Detroit to Atlantic City.
In April 1993, Spirit Airlines began scheduled service to destinations in Florida. During the next five years, Spirit expanded rapidly, increasing service from Detroit and adding service in new markets such as Myrtle Beach, South Carolina; Los Angeles, and New York.
Spirit initially had their headquarters in Eastpointe, Michigan (formerly East Detroit) in Greater Detroit. It relocated its headquarters in November 1999, moving to Miramar, Florida in the Miami Metropolitan Area. Prior to the decision to move the headquarters to Miramar, Spirit considered Atlantic City, New Jersey and Detroit, Michigan.
In 2000, the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) proposed to fine Spirit Airlines $67,000 for allegedly violating federal regulations on cabin and seat markings and placards. Discrepancies were found in the marking and placarding of emergency equipment, passenger seats, storage areas and doors on eight of Spirit's DC9 and MD80 aircraft.
In the Fall of 2003, Spirit resumed flights to Washington, D.C.'s Reagan National Airport, which were suspended after the September 11 attacks. Spirit also began service to Grand Cayman, San Francisco, and Boston in 2006, and in 2007 filed DOT applications to offer service to Costa Rica, Haiti, the Netherlands Antilles and Venezuela.
In 2006, Spirit exercised options to order 30 Airbus A320-200 aircraft for further expansion. Deliveries began in March 2010.
Transition to ultra low cost carrier and pilot strike (2007-2010)
On March 6, 2007, Spirit began a transition to an ultra low-cost carrier. Their initial plan was to begin charging US$10 per checked bag for the first two bags, $5 if bags are reserved before 24 hours prior to the flight, in addition to charging $1 for drinks which were previously complimentary. On September 26, 2007, Spirit also unveiled a new branding for the airline.
On June 3, 2008, Spirit Airlines made a WARN (Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notice) application to potentially relocate or lay off hundreds of pilots and flight attendants, and the closure of their San Juan and LaGuardia crew bases. In September 2008, Spirit began advertising on the side of aircraft, overhead bins, tray tables, seatback inserts and bulkheads.
In May 2009, Spirit pilots overwhelmingly voted in favor of strike action (98% of votes) due to stalled contract negotiations with management. Areas of dispute included compensation, work rules and benefits. At that time, Spirit pilots were among the lowest paid Airbus pilots in the United States.
On June 20, 2010, Spirit Plus was rebranded as "Big Front Seat" and business class service was discontinued. For an additional fee, a person could choose "Big Front Seat", or upgrade at the airport. In December 2010, Spirit Airlines introduced the Free Spirit World MasterCard.
On June 12, 2010, Spirit grounded its flights when its unionized pilots walked out on strike, stranding thousands of passengers. The ultimately successful pilot strike came after more than four years of inconclusive negotiations between the airline and the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA), which represents Spirit's pilots. On June 15, negotiations between the airline and ALPA resumed, and a tentative agreement was reached late in the evening on June 16. The tentative agreement, which Spirit pilots later ratified by a 74% margin, brought the Spirit pilots' compensation and benefits in line with comparable U.S. Airbus operators. Flights eventually resumed. Of particular note, is that this was the first legal industrial action (strike) by U.S. ALPA represented pilots since 2005 (Polar Air Cargo), and the first passenger airline strike by U.S. ALPA represented pilots since 2001 (Comair).
|This section requires expansion. (July 2013)|
In April 2012, citing the airline's strict refund policy, Spirit Airlines representative Misty Pinson announced that the airline would not issue a refund to dying veteran Jerry Meekins, who had purchased a non-refundable ticket between Florida and Atlantic City. The 76-year-old Vietnam veteran and former Marine tried to get his $197 back after learning his esophageal cancer was terminal and being told by his doctor not to fly. The decision caused outrage among veterans' groups and the general public, some of whom threatened to boycott Spirit unless both a refund and apology were issued. On May 4, Spirit CEO Ben Baldanza apologized for how the situation was handled and personally refunded Meekins' ticket. Additionally, the airline made a $5000 donation to the Wounded Warrior Project in Meekins' name.
In February 2012, Spirit Airlines established a crew and maintenance base at McCarran International Airport in Las Vegas, Nevada. On December 1, 2012, the airline opened a flight attendant and pilot crew base at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport.
On Monday, July 1, 2013, a Spirit Airlines jetliner came within two miles of a skydiving aircraft, but was found by the FAA to be in full regulatory compliance. In August 2013, Spirit reached an agreement on a new five-year deal with Teamsters, who represent the airline's flight dispatchers.
On August 7, 2014, Spirit Airlines began new service out of Kansas City, Missouri to five destinations. In November 2014, Morgan Stanley named Spirit the top growth airline pick for investors.
As an ultra low-cost carrier, the airline gives customers many options for customizing their base ticket price, each of which carries a charge. These includes having an agent print a boarding pass at check-in versus doing it online or at a kiosk, for any large carry-on or checked bags, progressive fees for overweight bags, selected seat assignments, travel insurance, and more.
On April 6, 2010, USA Today reported that Spirit would charge for carry-on bags on flights starting August 1, 2010, purchased after April 6, 2010. Bags that fit under the seat and measure 16"x14"12" are still free but passengers wanting to bring larger bags to put in overhead bins are charged. In October 2011, Spirit reduced the weight limit for checked luggage from 50 pounds per bag to 40 pounds per bag, charging $25 for the first 9 extra pounds, and up to $100 for bags approaching 59 pounds over the 40 pound limit. On June 19, 2014, Spirit Airlines became the first U.S. carrier to temporary increase their checked baggage fees. The airline increased the checked bag fees by $2 in order to encourage passengers to bring fewer checked bags. For tickets purchased between 6/19/14 through 8/18/14, the first checked bag fee at the airport is $47, the second checked bag is $57.
- A Department of Transportation Statistics report concluded that in 2008 Spirit had the highest number of complaints per passenger among U.S. airlines that carry more than 5 million passengers.
- On Thursday September 17, 2009, the Federal Aviation Administration fined Spirit Airlines $375,000 for violating the agency's consumer protection regulations, including not compensating bumped passengers, violating various rules regarding delayed baggage compensation, and not including fees in advertised fares.
- In January 2013, Skytrax Airline Quality Research downgraded Spirit Airlines to a ranking of 2 out of 5 stars.
Spirit currently flies to 52 destinations throughout Central America, the Caribbean, South America, and the United States. It maintains a base in Dallas/Fort Worth, Fort Lauderdale Chicago, Detroit, Atlantic City, and Las Vegas with focus cities in Houston, Myrtle Beach, Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Detroit and Las Vegas.
|1||Fort Lauderdale, FL||51|
|2||Chicago, IL (ORD)||39|
|5||Las Vegas, NV||25|
|8||Myrtle Beach, SC||9|
|9||Atlantic City, NJ||12|
|10||Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN||11|
|11||New York City, NY (LGA)||11|
The Spirit Airlines all-Airbus fleet consists of the following aircraft (as of June 2015):
|Airbus A319-100||29||0||10||135||145||Seats recline. Retirements begin in 2016 through 2021; Spirit will retain 5.|
|Airbus A320-200||42||11||4||174||178||Seats do not recline on aircraft.|
|Airbus A321-200||2||38||4||214||218||Seats do not recline on aircraft.|
The following aircraft no longer operate in the Spirit Airlines fleet:
|McDonnell Douglas DC-9-20||3||2006||Airbus A320 Family|
|McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30||13||2006||Airbus A320 Family|
|McDonnell Douglas DC-9-40||2||2006||Airbus A320 Family|
|McDonnell Douglas MD-81||7||2006||Airbus A320 Family|
|McDonnell Douglas MD-82||14||2006||Airbus A320 Family|
|McDonnell Douglas MD-83||15||2006||Airbus A320 Family|
|McDonnell Douglas MD-87||2||2006||Airbus A320 Family|
Controversial advertising campaigns
Over the years, Spirit has worked to get publicity, good and bad, by advertising using current controversial events.
In 2006, the airline released a “Hunt for Hoffa” advertising campaign with the tagline “Help us find Hoffa with our Hunt for Hoffa game and enjoy fares from just $39 each way.” The point of the game was to dig for Jimmy Hoffa’s body by clicking grids on the airline’s website, and “winners” were taken to another webpage, saying "You found Hoffa!" thanking them for assisting the National Spirit Sale Center find the union leader’s body. Within hours of the campagn debuting, the airline received a large number of complaints. The promotion was quickly taken down and changed to another promotion, simply titled Happy Sale. This promotion was later listed as #8 on CNN Money’s 101 Dumbest Moments in Business that year.
In December 2007, the airline released a sale with the acronym MILF, standing for “Many Islands, Low Fares.” Online and TV media picked up on this and noted that MILF was popularized in the movie American Pie. This controversy was covered on CBS and ABC News, Countdown with Keith Olbermann, and The O'Reilly Factor.
In April 2008, the airline sent an email to its marketing subscription list announcing “We’re having a threesome. Join us in the fun.” Offering "three sales in one," the email repeatedly proposes the "threesome."
On December 2, 2009, shortly after a well publicized car accident involving golfer Tiger Woods, Spirit launched lowered fares in a promotion called the "Eye of the Tiger Sale". Imagery for the campaign featured an SUV crashing into a fire hydrant, with a tiger leaning out the driver's side window.
On February 2, 2010, the airline offered the "Many Unbelievably Fantastic Fares (MUFF) to Diving Destinations" promotion. Many of their prominent Caribbean or Floridian destinations were featured.
On August 12, the airline offered the "Don't Be Blue, Slide Down To Low Fares with Double Fisted Savings". The ad was in reference to a jetBlue flight where a flight attendant deployed an emergency slide and left the aircraft with two bottles of beer. Imagery for the ad featured an opened aircraft door and a flight attendant going down an emergency slide with two beer bottles.
On January 12, the airline offered a promotion entitled "Free at Last! Free at Last! Air travel is Free at Last!", which applied for travel the following weekend, celebrating the birthday of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Spirit made a "Go south" Valentine's Day themed ad showing a woman in a bikini and placed a candy heart with the initial "VD" on her crotch, poking fun at venereal disease.
Shortly afterwards, Spirit made another Valentine's themed ad comparing a diamond ring to vacation packages (while saying "Why not slip her a big package") then showing a gift box directly in front of a man's crotch.
Spirit capitalized on the Summit of the Americas prostitution scandal by featuring an advert with women in pink bikinis, around an agent implying secrecy, and the slogan "More Bang for your Buck" for flights to Cartagena, Colombia – the location of the scandal – as well as other destinations. Colombian officials complained, and Spirit removed the ad after its scheduled 36 hour run.
In November 2013, Spirit advertised flights to the Greater Toronto area (Niagara Falls NY) using an ad reading "Flights to Toronto for $29.99, we're not smoking crack." This campaign was launched following Toronto Mayor Rob Ford's admission to smoking crack cocaine, along with many other behavioral issues that got media attention across Canada and the United States.
In March 2015, Spirit advertised their 69th airplane thusly: "We've been waiting to hit 69 planes for years. It's our favorite number - ever since we were twelve and found that magazine under our brother's bed (the one with the fantastic articles). #69 is perfect: just the right size, with a cockpit that's in your face (because it's bright yellow). Use your mouth to spread the word: Spirit is in an even better position to get you where you're going. We're popping an epic Bare Fare in celebration! $69.00* round trip!" 
Incidents and accidents
- On October 15, 2013, a Spirit Airlines Airbus A319 Flight 165, with service from Dallas-Fort Worth to Atlanta, experienced an engine failure. Passengers report that smoke filled the cabin shortly after takeoff. An NTSB official said it was an uncontained engine failure, causing debris to leave the engine. One day later, the NTSB revised their statement and stated that the failure was in fact fully contained. The aircraft, with 145 passengers, landed safely at DFW Airport.
- On October 24, 2013, a Spirit Airlines Airbus A320 Flight 365, with service from New Orleans to Dallas-Fort Worth, the crew reported smoke coming into the cockpit. The airplane made a safe emergency landing at New Orleans. According to Misty Pinson, spokeswoman for Spirit Airlines, the incident was unrelated to Flight 165's failure.
- On November 25, 2014, a Spirit Airlines Flight 348, with service from Tampa to Atlantic City, experienced a lightning strike, then the plane diverted to Fort Lauderdale and landed safely. However, it caused Flight 596 from Fort Lauderdale to Minneapolis to be cancelled due to a "workload shift" by accommodating the Atlantic City passengers onto another plane.
- "Spirit to Expand Fort Lauderdale, Houston Service". Airchive. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- "Spirit Airlines Fleet Details and History". Planespotters.net. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- "Spirit Airlines Reports Increase in Annual Profits; 40th Consecutive Year Of Profitability". marketwatch.com. Retrieved 2012-02-28.
- Nicas, Jack (May 12, 2012). "A Stingy Spirit Lifts Airline's Profit". The Wall Street Journal. pp. A1, A12.
- "Spirit Airlines History". Spirit Airlines. August 2011. Retrieved 2013-01-09.
- "World Airline Directory." Flight International. March 25–31, 1998. "Spirit Airlines" p. 92. "18121 East 8 Mile Road, Eastpointe, 48021, Michigan, USA"
- Spirit Airlines Honored as 'Good Corporate Citizen of the Year'; Miramar Business Appreciation 2003. Business Wire. February 13, 2003. Retrieved on December 17, 2009.
- Hemlock, Doreen. "Spirit Airlines to Relocate from Detroit Area to South Florida." Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News. March 17, 1999. Retrieved on December 17, 2009.
- "Press Release – FAA Proposes $67,000 Civil Penalty Against Spirit Airlines, Inc.". Federal Aviation Administration. 2000-09-26.
- [dead link]
- New York Business News – Business, Money, Financial & Corporate News Business News | NBC New York. Wnbc.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-21.
- Hugo Martin (21 May 2010). "Are carry-on bag fees hurting Spirit Airlines?". Los Angeles Times (LAtimes.com). Retrieved 2013-01-09.
- "Spirit Airlines World MasterCard® Credit Card". Bank of America. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
- Arnoult, Sandra (14 June 2010). "Shutdown continues after Spirit pilots reject 29% base pay increase". Flightglobal.com. Flight International. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- Ranson, Lori. "Spirit pilots plan to return to work on 18 June". Flightglobal.com. Flight International. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- "Spirit Airlines' final answer to dying Vietnam vet seeking ticket refund: No". Fox News. 30 April 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
- Wednesday, April 7, 2010 as of 11:14 AM ET (2010-04-07). "Spirit Airlines' boss calls industry-high complaint rate 'irrelevant,' says dying veteran should've bought insurance". Fox News. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
- Joshua Rhett Miller (2010-04-07). "Spirit bows to pressure: Airline CEO to refund dying veteran's fare". Fox News. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
- "Spirit Airlines to establish crew, maintenance base in Las Vegas - Business - ReviewJournal.com". Lvrj.com. 2011-11-15. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
- "Spirit opening flight attendant, pilot crew base at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
- "Detroit Spirit Jet, Skydiving Plane's Close Call In The Air Prompts FAA Probe". Huffingtonpost.com. 2013-06-28. Retrieved 2013-07-02.
- "Spirit Airlines will launch KCI service in August". kansascity. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- Tuttle, Brad. "America’s Cheapest Airline Looks to Make Flights Even Cheaper". TIME. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- "Spirit to double fee for agent-printed boarding passes in April". Sun-Sentinel. 2013-03-13.
- "Our optional fees". Spirit Airlines. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
- SpiritAir.com[dead link]
- Spirit Airlines. Spirit.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-21.
- Carey, Susan (22 June 2011). "Spirit Air's New First: Levying Fee for Passes". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
- Jones, Charisse (2010-04-07). "Spirit Airlines to charge a $20–$45 fee for carry-on bags". USA Today. Retrieved 2010-12-13.
- "Spirit Airlines baggage options". Spirit Airlines. 2014-06-19. Retrieved 2014-06-21.
- Segal, David. (2009-03-28) Don’t Come Crying to This Airline – NYTimes.com. Travel.nytimes.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-21.
- Frogameni, Bill. "Spirit Airlines hit with record fine." Atlanta Business Journal. Friday September 18, 2009. Retrieved on September 20, 2009.
- "Spirit Airlines is downgraded to 2-Star Airline status following latest Skytrax Ranking review" Skytrax. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "Flight Stats". anonymous. January 2015.
- "SeatGuru Seat Map Spirit Airbus A319 (319)". seatguru.com. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- 20 June 2013. "Spirit Airlines to grow fleet with largest Airbus single-aisle model" | Airbus News & Events". Airbus.com. Retrieved 2013-06-20.
- Fleet age Spirit Airlines | Airfleets aviation. Airfleets.net. Retrieved on 2011-10-21.
- Spirit Airlines – cheap tickets, cheap flights, discount airfare, cheap hotels, cheap car rentals, cheap travel. Spiritair.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-21.
- Volaris. Volaris. Retrieved on 2011-10-21.
- "Airline scraps online 'Hoffa' game". USA Today. 2006-07-19. Retrieved 2007-04-27.
- Horowitz, Adam; David Jacobson; Tom McNichol; Owen Thomas. "8. Spirit Airlines". 101 Dumbest Moments in Business (CNNMoney.com). Retrieved 2007-04-27.
- "Fort Lauderdale’s Spirit in the sky". anna.aero. 15 August 2008.
- Gorell, Robert (2007-04-01). "Spirit Airlines Proposes a Threesome With Me". Spirit Airlines Proposes a Threesome With Me. Future Now (grokdotcom.com). Retrieved 2008-04-20.
- "Over the Line?". The O'Reilly Factorhttp://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,316578,00.html
|transcripturl=missing title (help). 2007-12-11. Fox News Channel.
- Spirit Airlines[dead link]
- Spirit Airlines' Tiger Woods Ad (PHOTOS). Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-21.
- "Spinning the spill, for fun and profit". Yahoo News. 2010-06-23. Retrieved 2010-06-23.
- Spirit Airlines – cheap tickets, cheap flights, discount airfare, cheap hotels, cheap car rentals, cheap travel. Marketing.spiritair.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-21.
- "Spirit Airlines pulls 'More bang for your buck' ad that spoofed Secret Service". MSNBC. 21 April 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
- "Spirit". spirit.com. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- "Spirit Airlines jet-engine failure serious, NTSB says". Seattle Times. 2013-10-16.
- "More trouble for Spirit Airlines". CNN. 2013-10-25.
- Codd, Carey (25 November 2014). "Plane Struck By Lightning, Diverted To FLL". CBS Miami. WFOR-TV. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
Media related to Spirit Airlines at Wikimedia Commons
- Official website
- Spirit Vacations official website
- "Spirit Airlines on strike" on CNN.com
- "Don't Come Crying to This Airline," N.Y. Times, March 28, 2009