In philosophy, spiritualism is the notion, shared by a wide variety of systems of thought, that there is an immaterial reality that cannot be perceived by the senses. This includes philosophies that postulate a personal God, the immortality of the soul, or the immortality of the intellect or will, as well as any systems of thought that assume a universal mind or cosmic forces lying beyond the reach of purely materialistic interpretations. Generally, any philosophical position, be it dualism, monism, atheism, theism, pantheism, idealism or any other, is compatible with spiritualism as long as it allows for a reality beyond matter. Theism is an example of a dualist spiritualist philosophy, while pantheism is an example of monist spiritualism.
Notable spiritualist thinkers
- Henri Bergson
- Maine de Biran
- F. H. Bradley
- Victor Cousin
- René Descartes
- Giovanni Gentile
- William Ernest Hocking
- Louis Lavelle
- René Le Senne
- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
- Josiah Royce
- Encyclopædia Britannica, "Spiritualism (in philosophy)", britannica.com
- William James (1977). A pluralistic universe. Harvard University Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-674-67391-5.
- Su-Young Park-Hwang (1998), L'habitude dans le spiritualisme français: Maine de Biran, Ravaisson, Bergson, Presses Universitaires du Septentrion.
- Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida, Taylor & Francis, 1998, p. 10: "Victor Cousin's eclectic spiritualism".
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