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Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Platyhelminthes
Class: Trematoda
Subclass: Digenea
Order: Strigeidida
Suborder: Strigeata
Superfamily: Schistosomatoidea
Family: Spirorchiidae
Rao, 1933

Spirorchiidae is a family of digenetic trematodes. Infestation by these trematodes leads to the disease state commonly called spirorchiidiosis. Spirorchiids are parasites of turtles.[1][2]


Genera in the family Spirorchiidae include:


Some species of spirochiids are parasites of the freshwater snail Indoplanorbis exustus.[4]

The cardiovascular parasites Learedius learedi, Hapalotrema postorchis, Monticellius indicum and Amphiorchis solus have been found in the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas).[5]

Spirhapalum siamensis is a parasite found in the heart of the Amboina box turtle (Cuora amboinensis).[3]


  1. ^ Snyder, S. D. (2004). Phylogeny and paraphyly among tetrapod blood flukes (Digenea: Schistosomatidae and Spirorchiidae). International Journal for Parasitology 34(12), 1385-92.
  2. ^ Roberts, Jackson R.; Orelis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Halanych, Kenneth M.; Arias, Cova R.; Bullard, Stephen A. (2016). "A new species of Spirorchis MacCallum, 1918 (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) and Spirorchis cf. scripta from chicken turtle, Deirochelys reticularia (Emydidae), with an emendation and molecular phylogeny of Spirorchis". Folia Parasitologica. 63. doi:10.14411/fp.2016.041. ISSN 0015-5683.  open access publication – free to read
  3. ^ a b Tkach, V. V.; Snyder, S. D.; Vaughan, J. A. (2009). "A New Species of Blood Fluke (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) from the Malayan Box Turtle, Cuora amboinensis (Cryptodira: Geomydidae) in Thailand". Journal of Parasitology. 95 (3): 743–746. doi:10.1645/GE-1858.1. PMID 19093710. .
  4. ^ Liu, L.; Mondal, M. M.; Idris, M. A.; Lokman, H. S.; Rajapakse, P. V. J.; Satrija, F.; Diaz, J. L.; Upatham, E. S.; Attwood, S. W. (2010). "The phylogeography of Indoplanorbis exustus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in Asia". Parasites & Vectors. 3: 57. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-3-57. .
  5. ^ Santoro, M.; Morales, J. A.; Rodríguez-Ortíz, B. (2007). "Spirorchiidiosis (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) and lesions associated with parasites in Caribbean green turtles (Chelonia mydas)". The Veterinary record. 161 (14): 482–486. PMID 17921440. .