Spirulina (dietary supplement)
Arthrospira is cultivated worldwide; used as a dietary supplement as well as a whole food; and is also available in tablet, flake and powder form. It is also used as a feed supplement in the aquaculture, aquarium and poultry industries.
- 1 Nutrient and vitamin content
- 2 Risks
- 3 Etymology and ecology
- 4 Historical use
- 5 Research
- 6 Advocates
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Nutrient and vitamin content
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||1,213 kJ (290 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||3.6 g|
|Aspartic acid||5.793 g|
|Glutamic acid||8.386 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.||
|Pantothenic acid (B5)||
|Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Dried spirulina contains about 60% (51–71%) protein. It is a complete protein containing all essential amino acids, with slightly lower amounts of methionine, cysteine, and lysine compared to certain animal-derived products. From a nutritional point of view, spirulina is no better than other protein sources, but is more expensive gram-for-gram and may have adverse interactions when taken with prescribed drugs.
Provided in its typical supplement form as a dried powder having 5% water (table), a 100 gram amount of spirulina supplies 290 Calories and is an excellent source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of numerous nutrients, particularly B vitamins (thiamin and riboflavin, 207% and 306% DV, respectively) and dietary minerals, such as iron (219% DV) and manganese (90% DV) (table).
Spirulina's lipid content is 8% by weight (table) providing gamma-linolenic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, stearidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid.
Vitamin B12 controversy
Spirulina does not contain vitamin B12 naturally (see table), and spirulina supplements are not considered to be a reliable source of vitamin B12, as they contain predominantly pseudovitamin B12, which is biologically inactive in humans. Companies that grow and market spirulina have claimed it to be a significant source of B12 on the basis of alternative, unpublished assays, although their claims are not accepted by independent scientific organizations. The American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada in their position paper on vegetarian diets state that spirulina cannot be counted on as a reliable source of active vitamin B12. The medical literature similarly advises that spirulina is unsuitable as a source of B12.
Spirulina is a form of cyanobacterium, some of which are known to produce toxins such as microcystins, BMAA, and others. Some spirulina supplements have been found to be contaminated with microcystins, albeit at levels below the limit set by the Oregon Health Department. Microcystins can cause gastrointestinal disturbances and, in the long term, liver damage. The effects of chronic exposure to even very low levels of microcystins are of concern, because of the potential risk of toxicity to several organ systems and possibly cancer.
These toxic compounds are not produced by spirulina itself, but may occur as a result of contamination of spirulina batches with other toxin-producing blue-green algae. Because spirulina is considered a dietary supplement in the U.S., no active, industry-wide regulation of its production occurs and no enforced safety standards exist for its production or purity. The U.S. National Institutes of Health describes spirulina supplements as "possibly safe", provided they are free of microcystin contamination, but "likely unsafe" (especially for children) if contaminated. Given the lack of regulatory standards in the U.S., some public-health researchers have raised the concern that consumers cannot be certain that spirulina and other blue-green algae supplements are free of contamination.
Heavy-metal contamination of spirulina supplements has also raised concern. The Chinese State Food and Drug Administration reported that lead, mercury, and arsenic contamination was widespread in spirulina supplements marketed in China. One study reported the presence of lead up to 5.1 ppm in a sample from a commercial supplement.
Safety issues for certain target groups
Like all protein-rich foods, spirulina contains the essential amino acid phenylalanine (2.6-4.1 g/100 g), which should be avoided by people who have phenylketonuria, a rare genetic disorder that prevents the body from metabolizing phenylalanine, which then builds up in the brain, causing damage.
Animals and aquaculture
Various studies on spirulina as an alternative feed for animal and aquaculture were done. Spirulina can be fed up to 10% for poultry  and less than 4% for Quail. Increase in the Spirulina content up to 40g/kg for 16 days in 21-day-old broiler male chicks, resulted in yellow and red coloration of flesh and this may be due to the accumulation of the yellow pigment, zeaxanthin. Pigs, rabbits and lambs can receive up to 10% of the feed and increase in the Spirulina content in cattle resulted in increase in milk yield and weight. Spirulina as an alternative feedstock and immune booster for big mouth buffalo, milk fish, cultured striped jack, carp, red sea bream, tilapia, catfish, yellow tail, zebrafish, shrimps and abalone was established and up to 2% Spirulina per day in aquaculture feed can be safely recommended.
Toxicological studies of the effects of spirulina consumption on humans and animals, including feeding as much as 800 mg/kg, and replacing up to 60% of protein intake with Spirulina, have shown no toxic effects. Fertility, teratogenicity, peri- and postnatal, and multigenerational studies on animals also have found no adverse effects from Spirulina consumption.
Etymology and ecology
The maxima and plaetensis species were once classified in the genus Spirulina. The common name, Spirulina, refers to the dried biomass of Arthrospira platensis, which belongs to the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria that cover the groups Cyanobacteria and Prochlorales. These photosynthetic organisms, Cyanobacteria, were first considered as algae until 1962 and for the first time, these blue green algae were added to prokaryote kingdom and proposed to call these microorganisms as Cyanobacteria  where algae is considered to be a very large and diverse group of eukaryotic organisms. This designation was accepted and published in 1974 by the Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Scientifically, there is a quite distinction between Spirulina and Arthrospira genus. Stizenberger, in 1852 gave the name Arthrospira based on the septa presence, helical form and multicellular structure and Gomont in 1892, confirmed aseptate form of the Spirulina genus. Geitler in 1932, reunified both members designating them as Spirulina without considering the septum. The worldwide research on microalgae was carried out in the name of Spirulina, but the original species exploited as food with excellent health properties belongs to genus Arthrospira. This common difference between scientists and customers is difficult to change. These Arthrospira genus, constitute a helical trichomes of varying size and with various degree of coiling including tightly coiled morphology to even straight uncoiled form. The filaments are solitary and reproduce by binary fission and the cells of the trichomes vary from 2 μm to 12 μm and can sometime reach up to 16 μm. Species of the genus Arthrospira have been isolated from alkaline brackish and saline waters in tropical and subtropical regions. Among the various species included in the genus Arthrospira, A. platensis is the most widely distributed and is mainly found in Africa but also in Asia. Arthrospira maxima is believed to be found in California and Mexico. They are now agreed to be in fact Arthrospira; nevertheless, and somewhat confusingly, the older term Spirulina remains in use for historical reasons.
Arthrospira species are free-floating filamentous cyanobacteria characterized by cylindrical, multicellular trichomes in an open left-hand helix. They occur naturally in tropical and subtropical lakes with high pH and high concentrations of carbonate and bicarbonate. A. platensis occurs in Africa, Asia, and South America, whereas A. maxima is confined to Central America. Most cultivated spirulina is produced in open channel raceway ponds, with paddle-wheels used to agitate the water. The largest commercial producers of spirulina are located in the United States, Thailand, India, Taiwan, China, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Burma (Myanmar), Greece, and Chile.
Spirulina thrives at a pH around 8.5 and above, which will get more alkaline, and a temperature around 30 °C (86 °F). They are able to make their own food, and do not need a living energy or organic carbon source. In addition, spirulina has to have an ensemble of nutrients to thrive in a home aquarium or pond. A simple nutrient feed for growing it is:
- Baking soda- 16 g/L (61 g/US gal)
- Potassium nitrate- 2 g/L (7.6 g/US gal)
- Sea salt- 1 g/L (3.8 g/US gal)
- Potassium phosphate- 0.1 g/L (0.38 g/US gal)
- Iron sulphate- 0.0378 g/L (0.143 g/US gal)
which can all be found in aquarium or else in the agricultural division, all commonly occurring compounds except for the iron sulphate. The algae has actually been tested and successfully grown in human urine at 1:180 parts. After 7days, 97% of NH4+-N, 96.5% of total phosphorus (TP) and 85–98% of urea in the urine (about 120-diluted) were removed by the microalgae under autotrophic culture (30 °C).
Spirulina was a food source for the Aztecs and other Mesoamericans until the 16th century; the harvest from Lake Texcoco and subsequent sale as cakes were described by one of Cortés' soldiers. The Aztecs called it "tecuitlatl".
Spirulina was found in abundance at Lake Texcoco by French researchers in the 1960s, but no reference to its use was made by the Aztecs as a daily food source after the 16th century, probably due to the draining of the surrounding lakes for agricultural and urban development. The topic of the Tecuitlalt, which was earlier discovered in 1520, was not mentioned again until 1940, the French phycologist Pierre Dangeard mentioned about a cake called “dihe”, consumed by Kanembu tribe, African Lake Chad, Kanem (Chad, Africa). Dangeard studied the “dihe” samples and found that it is like a puree of spring form blue algae. Spirulina has also been traditionally harvested in Chad. It is dried into dihé, which are used to make broths for meals, and also sold in markets. The spirulina is harvested from small lakes and ponds around Lake Chad.
During 1964 and 1965, the botanist Jean Leonard, during his Belgian Trans-Saharan Expedition, confirmed that dihe is made up of Spirulina and thus chemical analysis was started on Spirulina. During that time, Léonard received a request from Sosa-Texcoco Ltd, Mexico to study a bloom of algae in their sodium hydroxide production facility. As a result, the first systematic and detailed study of the growth requirements and physiology of Spirulina was performed. This study, which was a part of Ph.D. thesis by Zarrouk (1966)  was the basis for establishing the first large-scale production plant of Spirulina. Spirulina, in 1967 was established as a “wonderful food source” by the International Association of Applied Microbiology.
The first large-scale spirulina production plant, run by Sosa Texcoco, was established there in the early 1970s.
At present, research is preliminary. According to the U.S. National Institutes of Health, scientific evidence is insufficient to recommend spirulina supplementation for any human condition, and more research is needed to clarify its benefits, if any.
Administration of spirulina has been investigated as a way to control glucose in people with diabetes, but the EFSA rejected those claims in 2013. Live cultures of Spirulina (Arthospira) sp grown in open raceway ponds were used for removal of lead from waste water.
In 1974, the World Health Organization described spirulina as "an interesting food for multiple reasons, rich in iron and protein, and is able to be administered to children without any risk," considering it "a very suitable food."  The United Nations established the Intergovernmental Institution for the use of Micro-algae Spirulina Against Malnutrition in 2003.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Spirulina.|
- Vonshak, A. (ed.). Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira): Physiology, Cell-biology and Biotechnology. London: Taylor & Francis, 1997.
- Khan, Z; Bhadouria, P; Bisen, PS (October 2005). "Nutritional and therapeutic potential of Spirulina.". Current pharmaceutical biotechnology. 6 (5): 373–9. doi:10.2174/138920105774370607. PMID 16248810.
- Campanella, L; Russo, MV; Avino, P (April 2002). "Free and total amino acid composition in blue-green algae.". Annali di Chimica. 92 (4): 343–52. PMID 12073880.
- Ciferri, O (December 1983). "Spirulina, the edible microorganism". Microbiol. Rev. 47 (4): 551–78. PMC . PMID 6420655.
- "Blue-green algae". Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. MedlinePlus, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. 2016. Retrieved April 15, 2011.
- Colla, LM; Bertolin, TE; Costa, JA (2003). "Fatty acids profile of Spirulina platensis grown under different temperatures and nitrogen concentrations.". Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C. 59 (1-2): 55–9. doi:10.1515/znc-2004-1-212. PMID 15018053.
- Golmakani, Mohammad-Taghi; Rezaei, Karamatollah; Mazidi, Sara; Razavi, Seyyed Hadi (March 2012). "γ-Linolenic acid production by Arthrospira platensis using different carbon sources". European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 114 (3): 306–314. doi:10.1002/ejlt.201100264.
- Jubie, S; Ramesh, PN; Dhanabal, P; Kalirajan, R; Muruganantham, N; Antony, AS (August 2012). "Synthesis, antidepressant and antimicrobial activities of some novel stearic acid analogues.". European journal of medicinal chemistry. 54: 931–5. doi:10.1016/j.ejmech.2012.06.025. PMID 22770606.
- Tokusoglu, O.; Unal, M.K. "Biomass Nutrient Profiles of Three Microalgae: Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris, and Isochrisis galbana". Journal of Food Science. 68 (4): 2003. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2003.tb09615.x.
- Watanabe, F (2007). "Vitamin B12 sources and bioavailability.". Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood). 232 (10): 1266–74. doi:10.3181/0703-MR-67. PMID 17959839.
Most of the edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) used for human supplements predominantly contain pseudovitamin B(12), which is inactive in humans. The edible cyanobacteria are not suitable for use as vitamin B(12) sources, especially in vegans.
- American Dietetic, Association; Dietitians of, Canada (June 2003). "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets.". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 103 (6): 748–65. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142. PMID 12778049.
- Watanabe, F; Katsura, H; Takenaka, S; et al. (1999). "Pseudovitamin B(12) is the predominant cobamide of an algal health food, spirulina tablets.". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 47 (11): 4736–41. doi:10.1021/jf990541b. PMID 10552882.
The results presented here strongly suggest that spirulina tablet algal health food is not suitable for use as a B12 source, especially in vegetarians.
- Gilroy, D.; Kauffman, K.; Hall, D.; et al. (2000). "Assessing potential health risks from microcystin toxins in blue-green algae dietary supplements". Environmental Health Perspectives. 108 (5): 435–439. doi:10.2307/3454384. JSTOR 3454384. PMC . PMID 10811570.
- Belay, Amha (2008). "Spirulina (Arthrospira): Production and Quality Assurance". Spirulina in Human Nutrition and Health, CRC Press: 1–25.
- "China's drug agency rejects state media claims of cover-up in lead found in health supplement". Washington Post. April 10, 2012. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
- Siva Kiran RR, Madhu GM, Satyanarayana SV (2015). "Spirulina in combating Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) and Protein Energy Wasting (PEW) - A review". Journal of Nutrition Research. 3 (1): 62–79.
- Habib, M. Ahsan B.; Parvin, Mashuda; Huntington, Tim C.; Hasan, Mohammad R. (2008). "A Review on Culture, Production and Use of Spirulina as Food dor Humans and Feeds for Domestic Animals and Fish" (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- Robb-Nicholson, C. (2006). "By the way, doctor". Harvard Women's Health Watch. 8.
- Heussner AH, Mazija L, Fastner J, Dietrich DR (2012). "Toxin content and cytotoxicity of algal dietary supplements". Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 265 (2): 263–71. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2012.10.005. PMID 23064102.
- Ross, Ernest; Dominy, Warren (1990). "The nutritional value of dehydrated, blue-green algae (spirulina plantensis) for poultry". Poultry Science. 69: 794–800. doi:10.3382/ps.0690794. PMID 2114613.
- Ross, E.; Puapong, D. P.; Cepeda, F. P.; Patterson, P. H. (1994). "Comparison of freeze-dried and extruded Spirulina platensis as yolk pigmenting agents". Poultry science. 73: 1282–9. doi:10.3382/ps.0731282. PMID 7971672.
- Toyomizu, M; Sato, K.; Taroda, H.; Kato, T.; Akiba, Y. (2001). "Effects of dietary Spirulina on meat colour in muscle of broiler chickens.". British Poultry Science. 42: 197–202. doi:10.1080/00071660120048447. PMID 11421328. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
- Nedeva, R.; Jordanova, G.; Kistanova, E.; Shumkov, K.; Georgiev, B.; Abadgieva, D.; Kacheva, D.; Shimkus, A.; Shimkine, A. (2014). "Effect of the addition of Spirulina platensis on the productivity and some blood parameters on growing pigs" (PDF). Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
- Peiretti, P. G.; Meineri, G. (2008). "Effects of diets with increasing levels of Spirulina platensis on the performance and apparent digestibility in growing rabbits.". Livestock Science. 118 (1): 173–177. doi:10.1016/j.livsci.2008.04.017. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
- Holman, B. W. B.; Kashani, A.; Malau-Aduli, A. E. O. (2012). "Growth and body conformation responses of genetically divergent Australian sheep to Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) supplementation". American Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 2 (2): 160–173. doi:10.9734/AJEA/2012/992. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
- Stanley, Jon G.; Jones, Jack B. (1976). "Feeding algae to fish". Aquaculture. 7 (3): 219–223. doi:10.1016/0044-8486(76)90140-X.
- Kulpys, J.; Paulauskas, E.; Pilipavičius, V.; Stankevičius, R. (2009). "Influence of cyanobacteria Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis biomass additive towards the body condition of lactation cows and biochemical milk indexes". Agron. Res. 7: 823–835.
- Heidarpour, Aram; Fourouzandeh-Shahraki, Amir-Davar; Eghbalsaied, Shahin (2011). "Effects of Spirulina platensis on performance, digestibility and serum biochemical parameters of Holstein calves". African Journal of Agricultural Research. 6 (22): 5061–5065.
- Santiago, Corazon B.; Pantastico, Julia B.; Baldia, Susana F.; Reyes, Ofelia S. (April 1989). "Milkfish (Chanos chanos) fingerling production in freshwater ponds with the use of natural and artificial feeds". Aquaculture. 77 (4): 307–318. doi:10.1016/0044-8486(89)90215-9.
- Shigeru, Okada; Wen-Liang Liao; Tetsu Mori; et al. (1991). "Pigmentation of Cultured Striped Jack Reared on Diets Supplemented with the Blue-Green Alga Spirulina maxima". NIPPON SUISAN GAKKAISHI. 57 (7): 1403–1406. doi:10.2331/suisan.57.1403.
- Ayyappan, S. (1992). "Potential of Spirulina as a feed supplement for carp fry". In Seshadri, C. V.; Jeeji Bai, N. Spirulina Ecology, Taxonomy, Technology, and Applications. National Symposium, Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre,. pp. 171–172.
- Ramakrishnan, C. Muthu; Haniffa, M. A.; Manohar, M.; et al. (2008). "Effects of probiotics and spirulina on survival and growth of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio)" (PDF). The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture – Bamidgeh. 60 (2): 128–133. hdl:10524/19247.
- Mustafa, Md. G.; Umino, T.; Nakagawa, H. (1994). "The effect of Spirulina feeding on muscle protein deposition in red sea bream, Pagrus major". Journal of applied ichthyology. 10 (2-3): 141–145. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0426.1994.tb00153.x.
- Olvera‐Novoa, M. A.; Dominguez‐Cen, L. J.; Olivera‐Castillo, L.; Martínez‐Palacios, Carlos A. (1998). "Effect of the use of the microalga Spirulina maxima as fish meal replacement in diets for tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters), fry.". Aquaculture research. 29 (10): 709–715. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2109.1998.29100709.x.
- Promya, Jongkon; Chitmanat, Chanagun (2011). "The effects of Spirulina platensis and Cladophora algae on the growth performance, meat quality and immunity stimulating capacity of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus)" (PDF). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 13 (1): 77–82.
- Ali, Md. Shawkat (2014). "Evaluation of the effects of feed attractants (Spirulina and ekangi) on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of fingerlings of stinging cat fish Heteropneustes fossilis".
- Güroy, B, Şahin İ, Mantoğlu S, Kayalı S (2012). "Spirulina as a natural carotenoid source on growth, pigmentation and reproductive performance of yellow tail cichlid Pseudotropheus acei". Aquaculture International. 20 (5): 869–878. doi:10.1007/s10499-012-9512-x.
- Geffroy, Benjamin; Simon, Olivier (2013). "Effects of a Spirulina platensis-based diet on zebrafish female reproductive performance and larval survival rate" (PDF). Cybium. 37 (1-2): 31–38.
- Cuzon, Gérard; Santos, Rossana Dos; Hew, Meng; Poullaouec, Gilles (1981). "Use of Spirulina in Shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) diet". J World Mariculture Society. 12 (2): 282–291. doi:10.1111/j.1749-7345.1981.tb00302.x.
- Tayag, Carina Miranda; Lin, Yong-Chin; Li, Chang-Che; Liou, Chyng-Hwa; Chen, Jiann-Chu (2010). "Administration of the hot-water extract of Spirulina platensis enhanced the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus". Fish & shellfish immunology. 28 (5): 764–773. doi:10.1016/j.fsi.2010.01.023.
- Britz, Peter J. (1996). "The suitability of selected protein sources for inclusion in formulated diets for the South African abalone, Haliotis midae". Aquaculture. 140 (1): 63–73. doi:10.1016/0044-8486(95)01197-8.
- Krishnakumari, M.K.; Ramesh, H.P.; Venkataraman, L.V. (1981). "Food Safety Evaluation: acute oral and dermal effects of the algae Scenedesmus acutus and Spirulina platensis on albino rats". J. Food Protect. 44 (934).
- Bizzi, A.; et al. (1980). Materassi, R., ed. "Trattamenti prolungati nel ratto con diete conntenenti proteine di Spirulina. Aspetti biochimici, morfologici e tossicologici" [Extended Treatment of Rats with Diets Containing Spirulina. Biochemical, morphological, and toxicological aspects.]. Prospettive della coltura di Spirulina in Italia (in Italian). Accademia dei Geo rgofili, Firence. 205.
- Salazar, M; Martínez, E; Madrigal, E; et al. (October 1998). "Subchronic toxicity study in mice fed Spirulina maxima". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 62 (3): 235–41. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00080-4. PMID 9849634.
- Chamorro-Cevallos, G.; Barron, B.L.; Vasquez-Sanchez, J. (2008). Gershwin, M.E., ed. "Toxicologic Studies and Antitoxic Properties of Spirulina". Spirulina in Human Nutrition and Health. CRC Press.
- Gershwin, ME; Belay, A (2007). Spirulina in human nutrition and health. CRC Press, USA.
- Stanier, RY; Van Niel, Y (January 1962). "The concept of a bacterium". Arch Mikrobiol. 42: 17–35. doi:10.1007/bf00425185. PMID 13916221.
- Sánchez, Bernal-Castillo; Van Niel, J; Rozo, C; Rodríguez, I (2003). "Spirulina (arthrospira): an edible microorganism: a review". Universitas Scientiarum. 8 (1): 7–24.
- Feng, DL; Wu, ZC (January 2006). "Culture of Spirulina platensis in human urine for biomass production and O(2) evolution". Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. 7 (1): 34–7. doi:10.1631/jzus.2006.B0034. PMC . PMID 16365923.
- Chang, Yuanyuan, et al. "Cultivation of Spirulina platensis for biomass production and nutrient removal from synthetic human urine." Applied Energy 102 (2013) C 427-431. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.07.024
- Diaz Del Castillo, B. The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico, 1517–1521. London: Routledge, 1928, p. 300.
- Osborne, Ken; Kahn, Charles N. (2005). World History: Societies of the Past. Winnipeg: Portage & Main Press. ISBN 1-55379-045-6.
- Abdulqader, G., Barsanti, L., Tredici, M. "Harvest of Arthrospira platensis from Lake Kossorom (Chad) and its household usage among the Kanembu." Journal of Applied Phycology. 12: 493-498. 2000.
- Zarrouk, C. (1966). "Influence de divers facteurs physiques et chimiques sur la croissance et photosynthese de Spirulina maxima" [Influence of various physical and chemical factors on the growth and photosynthesis of Spirulina maxima]. University of Paris, France (in French).
- Buono, S; Langellotti, AL; Martello, A; Rinna, F; Fogliano, V (August 2014). "Functional ingredients from microalgae.". Food & Function. 5 (8): 1669–85. doi:10.1039/c4fo00125g. PMID 24957182.
- "What the United Nations says about Spirulina" (PDF). Spirulina and the Millennium Development Goals. Intergovernmental Institution for the use of Micro-algae Spirulina Against Malnutrition. December 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- "Charter" (PDF). Intergovernmental Institution for the use of Micro-algae Spirulina Against Malnutrition. 5 March 2003. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- Characterization of Spirulina biomass for CELSS diet potential. Normal, Al.: Alabama A&M University, 1988.
- Cornet J.F., Dubertret G. "The cyanobacterium Spirulina in the photosynthetic compartment of the MELISSA artificial ecosystem." Workshop on artificial ecological systems, DARA-CNES, Marseille, France, October 24–26, 1990