Spitting

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A cartoon of Charlie Chaplin spitting on the ground

Spitting is the act of forcibly ejecting saliva or other substances from the mouth. The act is often done to get rid of unwanted or foul-tasting substances in the mouth, or to get rid of a large buildup of mucus. Spitting of small saliva droplets can also happen unintentionally during talking, especially when articulating ejective and implosive consonants.

Spitting in public is currently considered rude and a social taboo in many parts of the world including the West, while in some other parts of the world it is considered more socially acceptable.

Spitting upon another person, especially onto the face, is a global sign of anger, hatred, disrespect or contempt. It can represent a "symbolical regurgitation" or an act of intentional contamination.[1]

In the Western world[edit]

Social attitudes towards spitting have changed greatly in Western Europe since the Middle Ages. Then, frequent spitting was part of everyday life, and at all levels of society, it was thought ill-mannered to suck back saliva to avoid spitting.[citation needed] By the early 1700s, spitting had become seen as something which should be concealed, and by 1859 it had progressed to being described by at least one etiquette guide as "at all times a disgusting habit." Sentiments against spitting gradually transitioned from being included in adult conduct books to so obvious as to only appear in guides for children to not be included in conduct literature even for children "because most [Western] children have the spitting ban internalized well before learning how to read."[2]

Advisory on the wall of a building in New Orleans

Spittoons were used openly during the 19th century to provide an acceptable outlet for spitters. Spittoons became far less common after the influenza epidemic of 1918, and their use has since virtually disappeared, though each justice of the Supreme Court of the United States continues to be provided with a personal cuspidor.[3]

In the first half of the 20th century the National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis, the precursor to the American Lung Association, and state affiliates had educational campaigns against spitting to reduce the chance of spreading tuberculosis.[4] According to the World Health Organization coughing, sneezing, or spitting, can spread tuberculosis.[5] The chance of catching a contagious disease by being spit on is low.[6]

After coffee cupping, tea tasting, and wine tasting, the sample is spit into a 'spit bucket' or spittoon.

There have been instances of spitting reported in the US, particularly from American men.[7] In Minnesota, instances have been reported from some young people.[8][9] In Canada, spitting has been reported for cities such as Ottawa and Winnipeg.[10][11]

In other regions[edit]

Spitting has been attributed to some people[further explanation needed] from Asia-Pacific countries such as Bangladesh,[12] China,[13][14][15] India,[16][17] Indonesia,[18] Myanmar,[19][20][21] Papua New Guinea,[22] Philippines,[23][24][25] South Korea,[26][27] United Arab Emirates,[28][29] and Vietnam.[30][31][32] The practice is often linked to betel chewing in many of those regions.[33] Spitting has also been reported in some parts of Africa, such as Ghana.[34]

Competitions[edit]

There are some places where spitting is a competitive sport, with or without a projectile in the mouth. For example, there is a Guinness World Record for cherry pit spitting and cricket spitting, and there are world championships in Kudu dung spitting.

Spitting as a protection against evil[edit]

In rural parts of North India, it was customary in olden days for mothers to lightly spit at their children (usually to the side of the children rather than directly at them) to imply a sense of disparagement and imperfection that protects them from evil eye (or nazar).[35] Excessive admiration, even from well-meaning people, is believed to attract the evil eye, so this is believed to protect children from nazar that could be caused by their own mothers' "excessive" love of them.[35] However, because of hygiene, transmission of disease and social taboos, this practice has waned and instead a black mark of kohl or kajal is put on the forehead or cheek of the child to ward off the evil eye. Adults use an amulet containing alum or chillies and worn on the body for this purpose. Sometimes, this is also done with brides and others by their loved ones to protect them from nazar.

Shopkeepers in the region used to sometimes make a spitting gesture on the cash proceeds from the first sale of the day (called bohni), which is a custom believed to ward-off nazar from the business.[36]

Such a habit also existed in some Eastern European countries like Romania, and Moldova, although it is no longer widely practiced. People would gently spit in the face of younger people (often younger relatives such as grandchildren or nephews) they admire in order to avoid deochi,[37] an involuntary curse on the individual being admired or "strangely looked upon",[37] which is claimed to be the cause of bad fortune and sometimes malaise or various illnesses.[38] In Greece, it is customary to "spit" three times after making a compliment to someone, the spitting is done to protect from the evil eye.[39] This applies to all people, it is not just between mothers and children. The spitting is light and from a distance, so it is not actual spitting on the face et

A similar-sounding expression for verbal spitting occurs in modern Hebrew as "Tfu, tfu" (here, only twice), which some say that Hebrew-speakers borrowed from Russian.[40]

Anti-spitting hoods[edit]

When a suspect in a criminal case is arrested, they will sometimes try to spit at their captors, which often causes a fear of infection by Hepatitis C and other diseases. Spit hoods are meant to prevent this.

Gleeking[edit]

Gleeking is the projection of saliva from the submandibular gland. It may happen deliberately or accidentally, particularly when yawning. If done deliberately, it can be regarded as a form of spitting.

In animals[edit]

See also[edit]

Use of spitting word in  Navigation: 

"In the days of the tall ships any sailor who had sailed around Cape Horn was entitled to spit to windward; otherwise, it was a serious infraction of nautical rules of conduct. Thus, the permissible practice of spitting to windward was called 'round the horn.' (Ref: https://www.phrases.org.uk/bulletin_board/11/messages/766.html)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Civic Sense. Excel Books India. pp. 116–. ISBN 978-93-5062-032-8.
  2. ^ Arthur, Robert (2012). You Will Die: The Burden of Modern Taboos. Feral House. ISBN 978-1-936239-46-7. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  3. ^ Joan Biskupic (2007-03-19). "Supreme Court holds to tradition". USA Today.
  4. ^ The American Lung Association Crusade, University of Virginia Claude Moore Health Sciences Library, retrieved 2014-12-16
  5. ^ "Tuberculosis".
  6. ^ "Why is spitting so bad?". BBC News. 12 March 2018.
  7. ^ John Metcalfe (2012-01-25). "Are Cities Right to Criminalize Public Spitting?". Bloomberg.
  8. ^ Brandt Williams (2015). "Are Mpls. laws that ban spitting, 'lurking' racist?". Minnesota Public Radio.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  9. ^ Charles Hallman (June 4, 2015). "Mpls city council considers repeal of lurking, spitting laws". Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  10. ^ Jo Holness (September 2, 2015). "A letter to those spitting on Winnipeg's streets, just stop already". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
  11. ^ Bruce Deachman (2009). "Spit happens". The Ottawa Citizen.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  12. ^ Emily Manthei (March 13, 2018). "What Are Things to Do in Bangladesh?". USA Today.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  13. ^ AGNESS WALEWINDER (2014-05-05). "What Chinese locals are really like". News.com.au.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  14. ^ ONSIRI PRAVATTIYAGUL (2014). "Tourism troubles". Bangkok Post.
  15. ^ "Chinese tourists overtake Americans as richest and most annoying". The World (radio program). May 28, 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  16. ^ RAKHI BOSE (2019-04-15). "UK City Puts Up Sign in Gujarati and Announces Rs 13,000 Fine to Stop Indians From Spitting Paan". News18.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  17. ^ Jason Overdorf (April 29, 2010). "India health: Spit and polish?". The World (radio program).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  18. ^ KALPANA SUNDER (2021). "A woman leads campaign to make spitting in public illegal in India". TRT World.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  19. ^ Dave Grunebaum (February 3, 2020). "In Myanmar, Betel Quid Chewing Remains Popular Despite Risks". Voice of America.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  20. ^ "Red betel nut stains cause alarm in South Korea | Coconuts Yangon". Coconuts. 2019-03-14.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  21. ^ ITN (2012-12-20). "Burma's politicians call for spitting ban - video". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077.
  22. ^ "'Scared to chew': How a betel nut chewing habit nearly cost an ARIA-award winning singer his gift". ABC News (Australia). 2018-07-21.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  23. ^ PATERNO R. ESMAQUEL II (2012). "Punish spitting, says solon; but how?". Rappler.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  24. ^ "No Spitting of Moma in Philippines". Lonely Planet.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  25. ^ Dumlao, Artemio (August 13, 2021). "Betel woes: Barangay suspends 'freedom of spit'". The Philippine Star.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  26. ^ Aparna Yeluru (2016-07-21). "No more spitting, please". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X.
  27. ^ He-rim, Jo (2018-11-26). "[Feature] Why do people spit on streets in Korea?". The Korea Herald.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  28. ^ Mohammad Ejaz Ahmad (February 4, 2018). "Banned betel leaves still causing trouble". Gulf News.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  29. ^ Anwar ahmad (February 12, 2017). "Almost 200 in Abu Dhabi fined in 2016 for spitting on streets". The National (Abu Dhabi).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  30. ^ "Expats name annoying habits in Vietnam". Tuoi Tre News. 2018-10-28.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  31. ^ "Vietnamese travelers told to show a little decorum". VnExpress. April 1, 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  32. ^ "Beware! You may get spit in your face while driving in Vietnam". Tuoi Tre News. 2015-05-10.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  33. ^ Johan Nylander (2016-09-06). "Taiwan tries to kick deadly addiction to betel nuts". CNN.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  34. ^ Mabel Delassie Awuku (2020). "Stop The Haphazard Spitting – It's Covid-Friendly". ModernGhana.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  35. ^ a b John Abbott (1984), Indian ritual and belief: the keys of power, Usha, 1984, ... A woman spits on a child to avert from it her own evil-eye ...
  36. ^ S.W. Fallon (1879), A new Hindustani-English dictionary: with illustrations from Hindustani literature and folk-lore, Medical Hall Press, ... bohni ... the first money received during the day, or the first ready-money sale ... no credit being given as a rule for the article first sold ... many superstitious people will spit on ... bohni thoni, rad bala ...
  37. ^ a b "Ptiu să nu te deochi" - an article about spitting against "deochi" in a Romanian newspaper
  38. ^ Revista de Superstitii si Obiceiuri Populare | Deochiul - superstitie sau adevar? (Deochi - superstition or truth?) Archived 2013-10-14 at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ greekembassy.org Archived 2011-06-09 at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ "Word of the Day / Jook ג׳וק A grisly load from Russian". Haaretz. Haaretz online, 18 August 2013.

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Spitting at Wikimedia Commons