A split vote is normally used synonymously with "deadlocked", "hung", or "evenly split" vote.
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It is this case it indicates a vote in which no decision can be made, as neither side has the majority. The term can be used to indicate dissent by as little as a single vote, if a unanimous vote is required. If a casting vote is available, this may be used to break the deadlock. In other cases it may result in situations such as hung juries or hung parliaments.
The term may also refer to vote splitting, which occurs in an election when the existence of two or more similar candidates reduces the votes received by each of them, reducing the chances of any one of them winning against another, significantly different, candidate. This can lead to a victory for a minority candidate.
In the European Parliament split voting may be requested by a political group or at least 40 Members, when "the text to be put to the vote contains two or more provisions or references to two or more points[...]". The members of parliament will consequently vote on each provision separately.