Sport communication careers

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Sport communication)

Sports communication is an aspect of communication studies that specializes in the study of communication in a sports setting. The management of communication in sports organizations has changed towards greater professionalization, applying and exploiting technological innovations.[1]

It encompasses the study of interpersonal and organizational communication (both verbal and non-verbal) between participants within a sport (e.g. players, coaches, managers, referees, and trainers), fans, and the media; and the way that sports are represented and communicated in the media. There are a host of careers in the sports industry that are involved in the interpersonal and organizational communication process. These range from technological occupations, such as the media and marketing, to team psychologists who coach cohesion between players. Sports communication is not restricted to professionals only, it is something that happens at different levels of play, ranging from preschool to college level. Communication happens constantly in sports, and recent studies have identified ways in which a team and organization can be the most effective. There is also cultural influence from sport, which create opportunities for teams to interact with communities in unique ways.

Organizational Communication[edit]

Organizational Communication in Sports includes intra- and inter-organizational communication.  Through organizational communication, it is looked at as important for coaches to motivate employees, encourage the involvement from workers, have self motivation, be good at problem solving, has a direct interpersonal style, and be a good listener.[2]

Interpersonal Communication[edit]

Interpersonal communication in sports involves intrapersonal, interpersonal, and small-group communication. One type of interpersonal communication in sport is between players and coaches. The way a coach communicates with their players can have an impact on the performance level of the player. Players can pick up on cues from their coaches when they are stressed, which can negatively affect the players performance and development.[3]


Photo Journalism[edit]

The various occupations that make up the field of sport communication typically involve some aspect of covering, delivering, publicizing, financing, or even shaping sport. Photos are also a big job in the field of sports communication. Photos of athletes are becoming more and more common in the sports communication area. People who love sports like having the picture on their wall, in the background, or even just having them. Photographers will also get live action shots to make people get the real action of the game. Professionals in sport communication craft and send messages in various ways. They may alter their modes of communication depending on the nature of their position and audience needs and desires. Photography projects a feeling for a viewer to control and give an emotion. This focuses on the challenges photojournalists face in this industry. It describes the struggle they face with selective access to sporting because of commercial licensing and image rights.[4] Although positions in sport communication vary in both nature (e.g., management, publicity, writing) and scope (e.g., traditional print, television, radio, online), the various career paths in the field all hinge on the ability to communicate with key audiences. These audiences also vary, depending on the type of sport entity in question, but they generally consist of whatever constituencies are deemed most valuable to the organization. Key audiences may include fans, members of the public, politicians, owners and investors, athletes, and even members of the media. Sports marketers help communicate information about a sports event or help market products through different promotion types. One promotion is social media. People post on social media about games, new players, new coaches, and many of other things related to their team.[5] Education careers in the usage of communication can be found in sports administrative degrees and the professors of those degrees. Sports communication can be considered linguistic, but other communication types, such as body movement and other mannerisms can be formally taught through professors or educators. Administrative communication in the sports area can be considered vital in the success of programs and student progress. Sports administration can often lead to the roles of other professions, such as broadcasting and marketing.

  • Agents and Business Managers of Artists, Performers, and Athletes.
  • Communications Teachers, Postsecondary.

Career Topics

Other fields of sport communication that are easily forgotten or not noticed are fields of entertainment. Careers in the entertainment industry include the following careers: video games, movies, music, and nontraditional aspects.[6]

Some of the best opportunities in sport communication involve behind-the-scenes occupations, many of which exist in the production and operations sides of the industry. Examples include equipment technician, audio engineer, sport videographer, graphic designer, and technical writer. Some sport arena and stadium jobs can be electronic technician, master control operator, public address announcer, and video engineer.[7]

Careers in Entertainment

Movies and TV shows are examples of communication through sports. Sports documentaries show the significance of the historical events in the past. Shows like 30 for 30 by ESPN allow the receiver of the show to connect to the show. The show can inform and empower the audience. Therefore, many different job opportunities in the film can help the audience communicate through sports and to show how we can communicate through sports.

  • Entertainers and Performers, Sports and Related Workers, All Others.
  • Public Relations Specialists.
  • Radio and Television Announcers.
  • Reporters and Correspondents.[8]

Sports Communication Studies[edit]

Sports communication is an aspect of communication studies that specializes in studying communication in a sports setting. Communication has become “a key factor for the efficient management of sports organizations, leading to the implementation of increasingly professionalized communication processes”.[1] The communication offices of sports formations have become more professionalized, allowing them to interact with their target audiences without needing traditional media. Therefore, they have been one of the fastest growing departments, given their work in social networks, internet and institutional event management. Corporate communication allows sport entities to create and disseminate their own identity.[1]

It encompasses the study of interpersonal[9] and organizational[10] communication (both verbal[11] and non-verbal[12]) between participants within a sport (e.g. players, coaches, managers,[13] referees, and trainers), fans, and the media; and the way that sports are represented and communicated in the media.[14] Sports communication is not restricted to professionals only, it is something that happens at different levels of play, ranging from preschool to college level.

One of the most popular arenas of sports communication studies is finding the best way for teams to communicate better and ultimately find greater success. Communication happens constantly in sport, and works best with people who are willing to work well as a team and is vital for the success of a program.[15] Studies have found that communication in sport can be both positive and negative due to evidence supporting a connection between communication and cohesion.[16] Coaches also play an integral role in the communicability of a team. How they interact with their players greatly determines the athletes' responsiveness, motivation, and ability to even learn. When coaches exhibit primarily prosocial relationships with their players, such as confirming positive athlete behavior and addressing their potential, there is greater self-confidence and cohesion amongst the players and coaches. [17] This field of study also examines how coaching strategies can adapt throughout a season or several seasons. For example, research suggests that positive instructional and structured coaching techniques that lead to more autocratic allowance by the end of a season can be highly effective in athlete development. [18]

Another increasingly popular avenue of sports communication study is gender and race equity. This applies to sports communication careers such as the media and organizational positions and representation of minority sports. For example, sports broadcasting has largely been dominated by male broadcasters. Although there has been a significant increase in opportunities for women as broadcasters, they are consistently seen as less authoritative than male reporters. [19] This lends further question and research into gender-role beliefs and stereotype particularly in sport, of which further communication study can provide more insight. Sports communication research has also sought ways to improve opportunities for women and minority groups to reach roles like senior broadcasting and leadership in sport. One of the primary tools suggested is encouraging those with such roles already, and others with the ability to do so, to provide mentorship and sponsorship for those looking to enter the field. [20]

Non-Verbal Communication

An aspect of communication in sports is non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication is when two or more people express communication using anything besides words. This can be facial movements, reading posture, eye contact, or the tone of one's voice.[21] Participants in sports use and examine non-verbal communication when verbal communication cannot be used. Players and teams use non-verbal communication to connect coordination and help share information or upcoming tactics.[22] Effective non-verbal communication uses only needed movement and not excessive movement which can decrease effectiveness of the non-verbal communication and coordination of the team.[23]

former Alabama football player Javier Arenas at a Red Cross volunteer event following Tornado of 2011 in Tuscaloosa, Alabama

Public Interaction[edit]

There are many ways a sports team or athlete, particularly professional sports, interact with the public. The most common is through media coverage and marketing, but a team communicates with a community in other ways. For example, sports create a context for positive communication and pro-social behaviors that often occur off the field or court. For example, many athletes publicly speak to children or act as motivational speakers. In tough situations, such as the aftermath of natural disasters, well-known athletes can lift the moral of an affected community. Sports writer Lars Anderson wrote in his book The Storm and The Tide about how sports helped unite a town after a disastrous tornado. Also, the situation and community coming together affected the college sports team at The University of Alabama. Sports communication theories allow for the prediction of many facets of communication such as gender, race, identity, culture, and politics.[24]

Sports communication varies vastly between individual sports and plays an important role in the success of teams and organizations. A good example of sports communication and its effects on players, organizations, and media was the well-documented conflict involving two players for the Miami Dolphins. Inappropriate, discriminatory, and abusive interactions between Richie Incognito and Jonathan Martin lead to the release of Richie from the team, organizational issues, and an abundance of media coverage both negative and positive. Another example of sport communication is the recent "deflategate" scandal involving the New England Patriots apparently deflating the footballs during half-time of the AFC Championship game against the Indianapolis Colts. Head coach Bill Belichick claims that any wrongdoing was done by the team's equipment manager and ball boy, and no communication had occurred between them two at any point in the game. This reflects sports communication because it is an example of a lack of communication between an inferior member of an organization and the head coach, which eventually led to a widespread and highly publicized scandal that could've jeopardized the Patriots' participation in the Super Bowl. The way an organization is consequently portrayed by the media, whether it be entirely true or not, can greatly alter the way the public perceives them.[25]

Connections Sports communication also focuses on interpersonal communication between coaches, players, referees, athletic trainers, and other people who work for the team. People will ask them questions either about a player, team, or someone who is injured and give a report back to their network for them to publish an article about them.[26] Also photography is growing during this new and upcoming of careers. Most people need photographers to take pictures of players for either magazines, and their social media page. Most of the photographs are also doing their job for people who are fans of sports teams to hang pictures on their wall. They even are on "Rookie Cards" that can be traded for big money.[27]


  1. ^ a b c Ballesteros, C., "Communication management in professional cycling", UniversitasXXI, doi:10.17163/uni.n38.2023.03, S2CID 257250612, retrieved March 12, 2023
  2. ^ Glaser, Susan R.; Eblen, Anna (1986-09-01). "Organizational communication effectiveness: The view of corporate administrators". Journal of Applied Communication Research. 14 (2): 119–132. doi:10.1080/00909888609360309. ISSN 0090-9882.
  3. ^ Izquierdo, Conrad; Anguera, M. Teresa (March 31, 2021). "The Analysis of Interpersonal Communication in Sport From Mixed Methods Strategy: The Integration of Qualitative-Quantitative Elements Using Systematic Observation". Frontiers in Psychology. 12: 637304. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.637304. PMC 8044298. PMID 33868108.
  4. ^ Haynes, Richard; Hadland, Adrian; Lambert, Paul (2017-05-28). "The State Of Sport Photojournalism". Digital Journalism. 5 (5): 636–651. doi:10.1080/21670811.2016.1243453. ISSN 2167-0811. S2CID 59439828.
  5. ^ "What is Sports Communications?". Sports Management Degree Guide. Retrieved 2022-09-27.
  6. ^ "20 Jobs for People With a Sports Communication Degree". Indeed Career Guide. Retrieved 2022-09-26.
  7. ^ Pedersen, Paul Mark (23 June 2020). Strategic sport communication. ISBN 978-1-4925-9450-5. OCLC 1133661742.
  8. ^ "Careers for Sports CommunicationMajors". Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  9. ^ "Interpersonal communication", Wikipedia, 2021-09-28, retrieved 2021-10-10
  10. ^ "Organizational communication", Wikipedia, 2021-08-26, retrieved 2021-10-10
  11. ^ "Defining Verbal Communication | Introduction to Communication". Retrieved 2021-11-01.
  12. ^ "Nonverbal communication", Wikipedia, 2021-10-27, retrieved 2021-11-01
  13. ^ "General manager", Wikipedia, 2021-01-04, retrieved 2021-10-10
  14. ^ Pedersen, Paul Mark (23 June 2020). Strategic sport communication. ISBN 978-1-4925-9450-5. OCLC 1133661742.
  15. ^ "Team", Wikipedia, 2021-09-26, retrieved 2021-10-10
  16. ^ McLaren, Colin D.; Spink, Kevin S. (2021-07-15). "Testing boundary conditions in the communication–cohesion relationship in team sport: The case for psychological safety". Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice. 26: 12–23. doi:10.1037/gdn0000161. ISSN 1930-7802. S2CID 237845957.
  17. ^ Cranmer, Gregory; Ash, Erin; Fontana, Joseph L.; Mikkilineni, SaiDatta (2020-10-19). "Communication for the win: task benefits of coach confirmation in collegiate athletics". Communication Quarterly. 68 (5): 539–559. doi:10.1080/01463373.2020.1850491. ISSN 0146-3373. S2CID 229936161.
  18. ^ Turman, Paul D. (2003-01-01). "Athletic Coaching from an Instructional Communication Perspective: The Influence of Coach Experience on High School Wrestlers' Preferences and Perceptions of Coaching Behaviors Across a Season". Communication Education. 52 (2): 73–86. doi:10.1080/03634520302465. ISSN 0363-4523. S2CID 145091044.
  19. ^ Etling, Laurence; Young, Raymond (2007-05-11). "Sexism and the Authoritativeness of Female Sportscasters". Communication Research Reports. 24 (2): 121–130. doi:10.1080/08824090701304816. ISSN 0882-4096. S2CID 144527056.
  20. ^ Cosentino, Amanda; Weese, W. James; Wells, Janelle E. (2021). "Strategies to Advance Women: Career Insights From Senior Leadership Women in Professional Sport in Canada". Frontiers in Sports and Active Living. 3: 716505. doi:10.3389/fspor.2021.716505. ISSN 2624-9367. PMC 8473729. PMID 34589704.
  21. ^ Furley, Philip (2021). "The nature and culture of nonverbal behavior in sports: Theory, methodology, and a review of the literature". International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology: 1–26. doi:10.1080/1750984x.2021.1894594. S2CID 233848610. Retrieved 2022-03-04.
  22. ^ Durdubas, Deniz; Martin, Luc J.; Koruc, Ziya (2021). "An examination of nonverbal behaviours in successful and unsuccessful professional volleyball teams". International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 19: 120–133. doi:10.1080/1612197x.2019.1623284. S2CID 191831044. Retrieved 2022-03-04.
  23. ^ Evola, Vito; Skubisz, Joanna (2019-12-01). "Coordinated Collaboration and Nonverbal Social Interactions: A Formal and Functional Analysis of Gaze, Gestures, and Other Body Movements in a Contemporary Dance Improvisation Performance". Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. 43 (4): 451–479. doi:10.1007/s10919-019-00313-2. ISSN 1573-3653. PMC 6825024. PMID 31708600.
  24. ^ "Communication and Sport: Surveying the Field". Sage.
  25. ^ Mun, Kwansik; Choi, Moonhoon; Gill, Hyungjin (2021-05-27). "PyeongChang, Pyongyang, or Pyeonghwa (peace in Korean) olympic games? An exploration of partisan media and framing effects". Communication Research Reports. 38 (3): 172–185. doi:10.1080/08824096.2021.1911795. ISSN 0882-4096. S2CID 234837628.
  26. ^ "What is Sports Communications?".
  27. ^ "Sports PhotographySports Networker". Retrieved 2022-11-01.
Further reading

External links[edit]