Sport utility vehicle
Sport utility vehicle (SUV) is a category of motor vehicles that combine elements of road-going passenger cars with features from off-road vehicles, such as raised ground clearance and four-wheel drive.
There is no commonly agreed definition of an SUV, and usage varies between countries. Some definitions claim that an SUV must be built on a light truck chassis; however, broader definitions consider any vehicle with off-road design features to be an SUV. A crossover SUV is defined as an SUV built with a unibody construction (as per passenger cars), however in many cases crossovers are simply referred to as SUVs. In some countries—such as the United States—SUVs have been classified as "light trucks", resulting in more lenient regulations compared to passenger cars.
The predecessors to SUVs date back to military and low-volume models from the late 1930s, and the four-wheel drive station wagons and carryalls that began to be introduced in 1949. The 1984 Jeep Cherokee (XJ) is considered to be the first SUV in the modern style. Most SUVs produced today use unibody construction (as per passenger cars); however, in the past many SUVs used body-on-frame construction.
During the late 1990s and early 2000s, the popularity of SUVs greatly increased, often at the expense of the popularity of large sedans and station wagons. More recently, smaller SUVs, mid-size and crossovers have become increasingly popular. SUVs are currently the world's largest automotive segment and accounted for 36.8% of the world's passenger car market in 2017.
SUVs are criticised for their impact on other road users and the environment. Elements of their design introduce safety risks both to their drivers and to others, and they are considered a leading cause of the increase in pedestrian deaths in the United States over the past decade. They are typically less fuel efficient than smaller vehicles, thus contributing more to global warming. 
There is no universally accepted definition of the sport utility vehicle. Dictionaries, automotive experts, and journalists use varying wordings and defining characteristics, in addition to which there are regional variations of the use by both the media and the general public. The auto industry has not settled on one definition of the SUV either.
The actual term "Sport Utility Vehicle" did not come into wide popular usage until the late 1980s — prior to then, such vehicles were marketed during their era as four-wheel drives, jeeps, station wagons, or other monikers.
Automotive websites descriptions of SUVs range from specifically "combining car-like appointments and wagon practicality with steadfast off-road capability" with "chair-height seats and picture-window visibility" to the more general "nearly anything with available all-wheel drive and raised ground clearance". It is also suggested that the term SUV has replaced "jeep" as a general term for off-road vehicle.
American dictionary definitions for SUVs include:
- "rugged automotive vehicle similar to a station wagon but built on a light-truck chassis"
- "automobile similar to a station wagon but built on a light truck frame"
- "large vehicle that is designed to be used on rough surfaces but that is often used on city roads or highways"
- "passenger vehicle similar to a station wagon but with the chassis of a small truck and, usually, four-wheel drive"
In Europe, the term SUV is generally used for road-oriented vehicles, "four-by-four" or the brand name of the vehicle are typically used for off-road oriented vehicles. Similarly, in New Zealand, vehicles designed for off-road use are typically referred to as "four-wheel drives" instead of SUVs.
In Europe, SUV might also be considered as G/J-segment.
|Small SUV||Renault Captur||186 220|
|Mid-size SUV||Nissan Qashqai||206 636|
|Large SUV||Peugeot 5008||67 913|
|Small premium SUV||BMW X1||93 164|
|Mid-size premium SUV||Mercedes-Benz GLC-Class||108 323|
|Large premium SUV||BMW X5||26 733|
In the United States, many government regulations simply have categories for "off-highway vehicles" which are loosely defined and often result in SUVs (along with pick-up trucks and minivans) being classified as light trucks. For example, Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations previously included "permit greater cargo-carrying capacity than passenger carrying volume" in the definition for trucks, resulting in SUVs being classified as light trucks.
This classification as trucks allowed SUVs to be regulated less strictly than passenger cars under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act for fuel economy, and the Clean Air Act for emissions. However, from 2004 onwards, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began to hold sport utility vehicles to the same tailpipe emissions standards as cars. In 2011 the CAFE regulations were changed to classify small, two-wheel drive SUVs as passenger cars.
However the licensing and traffic enforcement regulations in the United States vary from state to state, and an SUV may be classified as a car in some states but as a truck in others. For industry production statistics, SUVs are counted in the light truck product segment.
In India, all SUVs are classified in the "Utility Vehicle" category per the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) definitions and carry a 27% excise tax. Those that are 4 metres (157 inches) long, have a 1,500 cc (92 cu in) engine or larger, along with 170 mm (6.7 in) of ground clearance, are subject to a 30% excise duty.
Many years after most passenger cars had transitioned to a unibody construction, most SUVs continued to use a separate body-on-frame method, due to being based on the chassis from a light truck, commercial vehicle, pickup truck, or off-road vehicle.
The first mass-produced unibody four-wheel drive passenger car was the 1955 GAZ-M20 Pobeda M-72. The 1977 Lada Niva was the first off-road vehicle to use both a unibody construction and a coil-sprung independent front suspension. The relatively compact Niva is considered a predecessor to the crossover SUV and combines a hatchback-like passenger car body with full-time four-wheel drive, low-range gearing and lockable center differential.
Nonetheless, unibody SUVs remained rare until the 1984 Jeep Cherokee (XJ) was introduced and became a sales success. The introduction of the 1993 Jeep Grand Cherokee resulted in all Jeep SUV models using unibody construction, with many other brands following suit since the mid-1990s. Today, most SUVs in production use a unibody construction and relatively few models continue to use a body-on-frame construction.
SUVs are typically of a two-box design similar to a station wagon. The engine compartment is up front, followed by a combined passenger/cargo area (unlike a sedan, which has a separate trunk/boot compartment).
Up until approximately 2010, many SUV models were available in 2-door body styles. Since then, manufacturers began to discontinue the 2-door models as 4-door models became more popular. Only a few 2-door SUVs remain today, such as the body-on-frame Suzuki Jimny and Jeep Wrangler, and the Range Rover Evoque crossover SUV.
SUVs typically have high ground clearance and a tall body. Unless the SUV is powered by a battery in the floor, this results in a high centre of mass, which makes gasoline powered SUVs more prone to roll-over accidents. In 2003, SUVs were quoted as 2.5 times more likely to roll over in a crash than regular cars and that SUV roofs are more likely to cave in on passengers than in other cars, resulting in increased harm to passengers.
Between 1991 and 2001, the United States saw a 150% increase in sport-utility vehicle rollover deaths. In 2001, though roll-overs constituted just 3% of vehicle crashes overall, they caused over 30% of occupant fatalities in crashes; and in crashes where the vehicle does roll over, SUV occupants in the early 2000s were nearly three times as likely to be killed as other car passengers.
The increasing popularity of SUVs in the 1990s and early 2000s was partly due to buyers perceiving that SUVs provide greater safety for occupants, due to their larger size and raised ride height. Regarding the safety to other road users, SUVs are exempted from the regulation[where?] that a passenger car bumper must protect the area between 16 to 20 inches (41 to 51 cm) above the ground. This often increases the damage to the other car in a collision with an SUV, because the impact occurs at a higher location on the other car. In 2000-2001, 60% of fatal side-impact collisions were where the other vehicle was an SUV, an increase from 30% in 1980-1981.
The high danger for cyclists and pedestrians of being seriously injured or even killed by SUV drivers who by age, fatigue or drugs aren't carefully observing the street situation has caused some public protests against SUVs in urban areas.
SUVs generally have poorer fuel efficiency than smaller cars, and thus contribute more to environmental degradation and global warming. SUVs emit about 700 megatonnes of carbon dioxide per year, which causes global warming. According to the International Energy Agency, from 2010 SUVS have been the second-largest contributor to the increase in global CO2 emissions, second only to the power sector.
In fact, SUVs were responsible for all of the 3.3 million barrels a day growth in oil demand from passenger cars between 2010 and 2018, whereas efficiency improvements in smaller cars saved over 2 million barrels a day, with electric cars reducing oil demand by under 100,000 barrels a day.
Whereas SUVs can be electrified, or converted to run on a variety of alternative fuels, including hydrogen, their (manufacturing) emissions will always be larger than smaller electric cars. On average, SUVs consume about a quarter more energy than medium-size cars. Furthermore, vast majority of these vehicles are not converted to use alternative fuels.
Types of SUV
The 'crossover SUV' segment (also known as 'CUV' or simply 'crossover') has become increasingly popular since around 2010. Crossovers are often based on a platform shared with a passenger car, as a result they typically have better comfort and fuel economy, but less off-road capability (many crossovers are sold without all-wheel drive) than pickup truck-based SUVs.
The difference between crossovers and other SUVs is sometimes defined as a crossover being built using a unibody platform (the type used by most passenger cars), while an SUV is built using a body-on-frame platform (the type used by off-road vehicles and light trucks). However, these definitions are often blurred in practice, since unibody vehicles are also often referred to as SUVs. Also, crossover is a relatively recent term and early unibody SUVs (such as the 1984 Jeep Cherokee) are rarely called crossovers. Due to these inconsistencies, the term SUV is often used as a catch-all for both crossovers and SUVs.
Outside of the United States, the term crossover tends to be used for C-segment (compact) or smaller vehicles, with large unibody vehicles— such as the Audi Q7, BMW X7 and Volkswagen Touareg— are usually called SUVs rather than crossovers. In the United Kingdom, a crossover is sometimes defined as a hatchback model with raised ride height and SUV-like styling features.
- Examples: Category:Crossover sport utility vehicles ( 391 )
Mazda CX-3 (2016—present)
Nissan X-Trail (2013—present)
Toyota Highlander (2013—2019)
Chevrolet Traverse (2009—2017)
Many recent vehicles labelled as mini SUVs are technically subcompact crossovers and are built on the platform of a subcompact (also called supermini or B-segment) passenger car.
- Examples: Category:Mini sport utility vehicles ( 101 )
Compact SUV is the next bigger size class after mini SUVs.
Many recent vehicles labelled as compact SUVs are technically compact crossovers and are built on the platform of a compact (C-segment) passenger car.
- Examples: Category:Compact sport utility vehicles ( 202 )
The next larger size is 'mid-size SUV'. Outside of North America, this term is not commonly used, with mid-size SUVs being grouped together with full-size SUVs. Some mid-size SUVs are based on platforms shared with passenger cars and are therefore crossovers. Other mid-size SUVs are based on compact or mid-size pickups.
- Examples: Category:Mid-size sport utility vehicles ( 141 )
Full-size SUVs are the largest size of commonly produced SUVs. Some are marketed for their off-road capabilities, while others are marketed as luxury vehicles. A few full-size SUVs are built on dedicated platforms; most share their platforms with full-sized pickups.
- Examples: Category:Full-size sport utility vehicles ( 65 )
Some North American SUVs are available as a long-wheelbase version of a full-size SUV, which is called an 'extended-length SUV'. The additional length is used to provide extra space for rear passengers or cargo. As per the full-size SUVs they are based on, most extended-length SUVs are built on dedicated platforms, full-sized pickups or heavy-duty pickups.
Extended-length SUVs are mostly sold in North America, South America, the Middle East, and The Philippines.
- Examples: Category:Expanded length sport utility vehicles ( 14 )
1930s to 1948: Early models and military vehicles
Just before and during World War II, around the world, prototypes and low-volume production examples began to appear of cars with sedan or station-wagon type bodies on rugged, off-road capable four-wheel drive chassis, such as the 1936 Kurogane Type 95 from Japan, the 1938 GAZ-61 from Russia, the 1941 Volkswagen Kommandeurswagen and the 1936 Opel Geländesportwagen from Germany. An early predecessor to the design of modern SUVs, was the 1940 Humber Heavy Utility, a four-wheel drive off-road vehicle built on the chassis of the Humber Super Snipe passenger car.
One of the most prohibitive initial factors to the potential civilian market popularity of an SUV-like car lay in its costs, and availability of certain critical parts. Before the war, adding four-wheel drive to a car almost doubled its cost, Compared to a common, rear-wheel drive vehicle, any 4WD needed a number of essential extra components, like a transfer case, and a second differential and constant-velocity joints for the driven front axle — all expensive components, because of the precision involved in manufacturing gears and such. In America these were produced up to the war only by a few specialized firms with limited capacity, but due to the war's necessity, from spring 1942 Ford, Dodge and Chevrolet joined in fabricating these parts in mass quantity, boosting their production more than 100-fold.
1949 to 1970s: Carryalls, station wagons and luxury 4WDs
Several models of carryall wagons began to be offered with four-wheel drive, beginning in 1949 when the Willys Jeep Station Wagon introduced the option of four-wheel drive. Four-wheel drive versions of the Chevrolet Suburban were introduced for 1955, followed by the International Harvester Travelall in 1956 (credited as being the first full-size SUV) and the Power Wagon Town Wagon in 1957.
Developed as a competitor to the Jeep CJ, the compact International Harvester Scout was introduced in 1961 offering either two- or four-wheel drive and variety of engine options as well as many options designed to appeal to a wide range of customers for numerous uses. The 1963 Jeep Wagoneer (SJ) introduced a sophisticated station wagon body design that was more carlike than any other 4x4 on the market. The 1967 Toyota Land Cruiser FJ55 station wagon was the first comfort-oriented version of the Land Cruiser off-road vehicle. The two-door Chevrolet K5 Blazer (and related GMC K5 Jimmy) were introduced for 1969 and the two-door International Harvester Scout II was introduced in 1971. The first European luxury off-road vehicle was the 1970 Range Rover Classic, which was marketed as a luxury car for both on-road and off-road usage.
The first relevant usage of the term SUV was advertising brochures for the full-sized 1974 Jeep Cherokee (SJ), which used the wording "sport(s) utility vehicle" as a description for the vehicle. The 1966 Ford Bronco included a "sport utility" model, however in this case it was used for the two-door pickup truck version.
The AMC Eagle introduced in 1979 is considered to be the first mass market "crossover" although that term had not been coined at that time. In contrast to truck or utility-vehicle based designs, American Motors Corporation (AMC) utilized a long-serving existing car platform and designed a new automatic full-time AWD system. The AMC Eagle was developed as a passenger car offering numerous comfort, luxury, and convenience features in sedan, coupe, and station wagon body styles. Four Wheeler magazine described the AMC Eagle was "the beginning of a new generation of cars."
1980s to 1990s: Birth of the modern SUV
The compact-sized 1984 Jeep Cherokee (XJ) is often credited as the first SUV in the modern understanding of the term. The use of unibody construction was unique at the time for a four-wheel drive, and reduced the weight of the new Cherokee. It also appealed to urban families due to having a more compact size (compared to the full-size Wagoneer and previous generation Cherokee SJ models) as well as a plush interior resembling a station wagon. As the new Cherokee became a major sales success, the term "sport utility vehicle" began to be used in the national press for the first time. "The advent and immediate success of AMC/Jeep's compact four-door Cherokee turned the truck industry upside down."
The corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard that was introduced in 1975 with the aim of reducing fuel usage included relaxed regulations for "light trucks", to avoid business paying extra taxes for work vehicles. This created a loophole which manufacturers increasingly exploited since the 1980s, whereby SUVs were designed to be classified as light trucks (despite their primary use as passenger vehicles) to receive tax concessions and less stringent fuel economy requirements. For example, the United States Environmental Protection Agency agreed to classify the new Jeep Cherokee as a light truck following lobbying from its manufacturer; the Cherokee was then marketed by the company as a passenger vehicle. This increased the SUV boom as other manufacturers introduced their own SUVs in response to the compact Cherokee taking sales from their regular cars.
SUVs increased in popularity throughout the 1990s and by 1999 the U.S. sales of SUVs and light trucks for the first time exceeded sales of regular passenger cars.
2000s: Market dominance
By 2003 there were 76 million SUVs and light trucks on U.S. roads, representing approximately 35% of the vehicles on the road.
Car manufacturers were keen to promote SUV sales over other types of cars due to higher profits in the segment. An SUV could be sold with a profit margin of US$10,000 or more (US$18,000 per SUV in the case of the Ford Excursion), while compact cars were often sold at a loss of a few hundred dollars per car. As a result, several manufacturing plants were converted from car production to SUV production (such as the General Motors Arlington, Texas plant in 1996) and many long-running U.S. sedan models were discontinued.
From the mid-2000s until 2010, U.S. sales of SUVs and other light trucks experienced a dip, due increasing fuel prices and a declining economy. From 2008 to 2010, General Motors closed four assembly plants that were producing SUVs and trucks. Sales of SUVs and light trucks sales began to recover in 2010, as fuel prices decreased and the North American economy improved.
2010s: Increasing popularity of smaller SUVs, mid-size and crossovers
In 2019, the International Energy Agency (IEA) reported that the global number of SUVs and crossovers on the road multiplied by six since 2010 — from 35 million to 200 million vehicles, and their market share has grown to 40 percent of worldwide new light vehicle sales at the end of the decade.
By 2013, small and compact SUVs had increased to become the third largest market segment. Since the early 2000s, new styles of SUV have been introduced to appeal to a wider audience, such as crossovers and other small SUVs. Larger SUVs also remained popular, with sales of General Motors' large SUV models increasing significantly in 2013.
In 2015, global sales of SUVs overtook the "lower medium car" segment, to become the largest market segment, accounting for 22.9% of "light vehicle" sales in 2015. The following year, worldwide SUV sales experienced further growth of 22%. The world's fastest growing SUV markets in 2014-2015 were: China (+ 47.9%), Italy (+ 48.6%), Spain (+ 42%), Portugal (+ 54.8 %), and Thailand (+ 56.4%). The SUV segment further grew to 26% of the global passenger car market in 2016, then to 36.8% of the market in Q1–Q3 of 2017.
In the US, at the end of 2016, sales of SUVs and light duty trucks had surpassed traditional car sales for the year by over 3 million units. Manufacturers continued to phase out production of sedan models, replacing them with new models of SUVs.
Luxury brands have increasingly introduced SUV or crossover models in the 2010s, such as the seven models of SUVs (X1 through X7) sold by BMW, the Rolls-Royce Cullinan, Bentley Bentayga, and Lamborghini Urus. Ferrari have announced that they will release an SUV model in 2022.
SUVs have competed in various off-road racing competitions, such as the Dakar Rally, Baja 1000, FIA Cross-Country Rally World Cup, King of the Hammers, and Australasian Safari. SUVs have also competed in the Trophee Andros ice-racing series.
Several derogatory/pejorative terms for SUVs are based on the combination of an affluent suburb name and "tractor", particularly for expensive vehicles from luxury brands. Examples include "Toorak Tractor" (Melbourne, Australia), "Chelsea Tractor" (London, England) and "Remuera Tractor" (Auckland, New Zealand). These terms relate to the theory that four-wheel drive capabilities are not required by affluent SUV owners and that the SUV is purchased as a status symbol rather than for practical reasons.
In Norway, the term "Børstraktor" (Stock Exchange Tractor) serves a similar purpose. In the Netherlands, SUVs are sometimes called "P.C. Hooft-tractors" after the exclusive P.C. Hooftstraat Amsterdam shopping street.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Category:SUVs.|
- Eric D. Lawrence, Nathan Bomey and Kristi Tanner (1 July 2018). "Death on foot: America's love of SUVs is killing pedestrians". www.freep.com. Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
- Cozzi, Laura; Petropoulos, Apostolos; International Energy Agency. "Growing preference for SUVs challenges emissions reductions in passenger car market". International Energy Agency. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
On average, SUVs consume about a quarter more energy than medium-size cars. As a result, global fuel economy worsened caused in part by the rising SUV demand since the beginning of the decade, even though efficiency improvements in smaller cars saved over 2 million barrels a day, and electric cars displaced less than 100,000 barrels a day. In fact, SUVs were responsible for all of the 3.3 million barrels a day growth in oil demand from passenger cars between 2010 and 2018, while oil use from other type of cars (excluding SUVs) declined slightly.
- Bradsher, Keith (2002). High and Mighty: SUVs—The World's Most Dangerous Vehicles and How They Got That Way. PublicAffairs. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-58648-203-9.
- Bumbeck, Mike (August 2013). "Utility in Style - 1972 Jeep Wagoneer The 1972 Jeep Wagoneer blends an iconic design with modern driveability". Hemmings Classic Car. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
- DeMuro, Doug (October 2013). "SUV vs. Crossover: What's the Difference?". Autotrader. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
- Glucksberg, Sam (2001). Understanding Figurative Language: From Metaphor to Idioms. Oxford University Press. p. 112. ISBN 9780198027126. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
- "Definition of SUV". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- "Definition of Sport-utility Vehicle". www.merriam-webster.com. 3 January 2018. Archived from the original on 8 December 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
an automobile similar to a station wagon but built on a light truck frame
- "Definition of SUV". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 5 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
- Webster’s New World College Dictionary, 4th Edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
- "Search Chambers: four-by-four". www.chambers.co.uk. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
- "Search Chambers: jeep". www.chambers.co.uk. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
- "Search Chambers: off-road vehicle". www.chambers.co.uk. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
- Collins Cobuild Advanced English Dictionary. HarperCollins Publishers. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
- Morgan, Tom (5 December 2018). "2018's most popular cars in Europe by market segment". Autocar. UK. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- Davis, Stacy C.; Williams, Susan E.; Boundy, Robert G. (2016). "Transportation Energy Data Book" (PDF) (35th ed.). US: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. pp. 3–5. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- Fuhs, Allen (2008). Hybrid Vehicles: and the Future of Personal Transportation. CRC Press. p. 263. ISBN 9781420075342. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
- Yacobucci, Brent D. (17 April 2003). "Sport Utility Vehicles, Mini-Vans, and Light Trucks: An Overview of Fuel Economy and Emissions Standards" (PDF). CRS Report for Congress. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- "The Plain English Guide to the CleanAirAct" (PDF). United States Environmental Protection Agency. April 2007. p. 8. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- "Fact #726: SUVs: Are They Cars or Trucks?". Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE). U.S. Department of Energy. 7 May 2012. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- Fuhs, Allen (2008). Hybrid Vehicles: and the Future of Personal Transportation. CRC Press. p. 7. ISBN 9781420075342. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- "Production of Small and Compact SUVs Shifts to Top Gear in North America, Finds Frost & Sullivan". prnewswire.com. 14 January 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- Bhattacharya, Sindhu (20 December 2013). "Budget 2013: Why SUV found special mention this budget day". Firstpost. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- Press Trust of India (2 May 2013). "SUV tax creating uneven playing field: Mahindra". NDTV. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- "Tariff reduction will soften price rises". Blog.autopeople.com.au. 18 November 2008. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
- "Matters of great import". Carpoint.com.au. 6 January 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
- "M-72 all-terrain vehicle". www.spb.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 13 April 2019.
- Thompson, Andy (2008). Cars of the Soviet Union. Somerset, UK: Haynes Publishing. p. 57.
- "Jeep Grand Cherokee Review". Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- DeMuro, Doug (1 April 2013). "Attention Automakers: Please Stop Selling Two-Door SUVs". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
- DeMuro, Doug (June 2017). "Every Single Two-Door SUV Has Failed". Autotrader. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
- "Toyota Sharpens Best-Selling Prado Range" (Press release). Australia: Toyota. 14 October 2013. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Lee, Christian (2007). High-Performance Jeep Wrangler TJ Builder's Guide. CarTech. p. 14. ISBN 9781932494266. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
- SUV safety: issues relating to the safety and design of sport utility vehicles : hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, One Hundred Eighth Congress, first session. DIANE Publishing. 26 February 2003. p. 2. ISBN 9781422334188.
- Business, Peter Valdes-Dapena, CNN. "Volvo's first fully electric car will also be one of its safest cars ever". CNN. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
- Penenberg, Adam (2003). Tragic Indifference: One Man's Battle with the Auto Industry over the Dangers of SUVs. HarperBusiness. p. 12. ISBN 0-06-009058-8.
- SUV safety : issues relating to the safety and design of sport utility vehicles : hearing before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, One Hundred Eighth Congress, first session. DIANE Publishing. 26 February 2003. p. 18. ISBN 9781422334188.
- Bradsher, 2001
- "The 50 Worst Cars Of All Time". Time. 7 September 2007. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- Croft, Robin (2006). "Folklore, families and fear: understanding consumption decisions through the oral tradition". Journal of Marketing Management. 22 (9/10): 1053–1076. doi:10.1362/026725706778935574. ISSN 0267-257X.
- "When cars and SUVs crash: Bumper mismatch boosts costs - Dec. 2, 2010". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
- "Q&As – Vehicle size and weight". US: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. April 2018. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "Side-impact crash test program". Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Archived from the original on 30 December 2010.
- "Berliners call for SUV ban after four people killed in collision". The Guardian.
- "Source The Auto Channel". Theautochannel.com. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
- "Kreisel Electric and Arnold Schwarzenegger present the world's first electrified Hummer H1". Austria: Kreisel. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- Lianos, Miguel (23 June 2004). "Hydrogen cars ready to roll - for a price". US: NBC. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- Tobert, Andrew (7 September 2019). "Bigger is not better – how SUVs are killing the climate". Greenpeace International. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- "Smart Buying Essentials What is a Crossover Vehicle?". Intellichoice. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- Isidore, Chris (9 January 2006). "GM and Ford's New Cross to Bear". CNN Money. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- "Crossover 101". www.aol.com. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016.
- "Difference between a crossover vehicle and SUV?". www.hertzcarsales.co.uk. 30 January 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- "What is the Difference Between Crossovers and SUVs? « Harbin Automotive". www.harbinautomotive.com. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- "What's the Difference Between an SUV, a Crossover, & a CUV?". www.thenewswheel.com. 30 March 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- "SUV vs. Crossover: What's the Difference?". www.autotrader.com. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- "SUVs vs. Crossovers: What's the Difference?". www.usnews.com. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- "The Difference Between SUVs and Crossover Cars". www.carwriteups.co.uk. 9 April 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- "What's the difference between a crossover, SUV and 4x4?". www.carbuyer.co.uk. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- "SUV vs Crossover: What are the Differences and Similarities?". www.leasefetcher.co.uk. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- Carlsson, Mårten (26 June 2018). "Opel Terrängsportbil" [Opel Off-Road Car]. Klassiker (in Swedish). Sweden. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
- "10 Strange Military Vehicles of World War II". www.wonderslist.com. 30 January 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- Allen, Jim (10 January 2016). "Origins Of The Jeep: Birthing A 75-Year Legend". Four Wheeler Network. US. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- Thomson, Harry C.; Mayo, Lida (2003). The Ordnance Department: procurement and supply. Washington, D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History (Originally published: 1960, Washington, D.C., Office of the Chief of Military History, Dept. of the Army). p. 274.
- "History 101: The Crosley Automobile". Daily KOS. US. 26 May 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- "Details on Crosley CC Models 1946 - 1948". Crosley Automobile Club. US. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- "Crosley 1948". Archived from the original on 23 February 2018 – via Classic Car Catalogue.
- "1960 Willys Four-Wheel-Drive Station Wagon: Your (Great-) Grandfather's SUV". Autoweek. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
- Greg. "The Very First Sport Utility Vehicle: The Jeep Station Wagon". autoroundup. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- Allen, Jim (1 November 2012). "1959 International Harvester B-120 Travelall – Four Wheeler Magazine". Four Wheeler Network. Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- "The 1958 Station Wagons". Changing Times: The Kiplinger Magazine. 12 (2): 22. February 1958. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
- "Why We Love Them: International Harvester Scout". bringatrailer.com. 27 May 2018. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- Lewin, Tony; Borroff, Ryan (2003). How to Design Cars Like a Pro: A Comprehensive Guide to Car Design from the Top Professionals. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing. p. 191. ISBN 9780760316412.
- "1970 range rover advert". www.youtube.com. 11 February 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
- "Old Range Rover ad". www.youtube.com. 13 June 2009. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
- "1974 model year Jeep brochure picture – Cherokee page". US: Jeep. 1973. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "1974 model year Jeep Cherokee brochure – front". US: Jeep. 1973. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "1966 Ford Bronco U-100 4-Wheel Drive models & features brochure". US: Ford. 1965. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
- "Who coined the term 'crossover vehicle?'". www.howstuffworks.com. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- Gold, Aaron. "AMC Eagle: No, Seriously, This Was the First Crossover SUV". www.autotrader.com. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
- Appel, Tom (9 May 2019). "Review Flashback! 1980 AMC Eagle". The Daily Drive by Consumer Guide. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
- "AMC Eagle: American 4x4 Pioneer". Allpar. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
- Brubaker, Ken (27 December 2018). "Firing Order: That Time I Bought an AMC Eagle". Four Wheeler. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
- Bradsher, p. 40.
- Ludel, Moses (1995). Toyota truck & Land Cruiser owner's bible. Robert Bentley. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-8376-0159-5. Retrieved 24 June 2011.
- "From the Battlefield to the Soccer Field". Traffic Safety Center Online Newsletter. Summer 2005. Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- Bradsher, Keith (2002). High and Mighty: SUVs—The World's Most Dangerous Vehicles and How They Got That Way. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-203-9.
high and mighty bradsher.
- Bradsher, p. 41.
- Schoenberger, Robert (6 June 2008). "As buyers shun SUVs, expect to pay more for that small car". Cleveland Business News. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
- "Ford idle, for now". USA Today. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- White, Jerry (27 May 2000). "GM, Ford idle 1,365 workers-auto industry layoffs signal coming downturn in US economy". Wsws.org. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
- Maynard, Micheline (28 October 2006). "End of the Line for Ford Taurus". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
- Final Ford Taurus interview. ABC News. 26 July 2007.
- "So long, friend. Ford producing last Taurus next week". Autoblog. Retrieved 26 July 2007.
- Van Praet, Nicolas (4 June 2008). "Caw Girds For War". Financial Post. US. Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- Healey, James (30 July 2010). "Surprise: Sales of big SUVs surging faster than small cars". USA Today. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- Webster, Ben (14 November 2019). "Soaring demand for SUVs exacerbates climate crisis". The Times. UK. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
- "SUVs Become the Largest and Fastest-Growing Automotive Segment in 2015". Euromonitor International. 8 September 2016. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
- Wayland, Michael (14 September 2013). "2015 GMC Yukon and Chevy Suburban, Tahoe: GM expects new SUVs to continue industry dominance". MLive. US. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- "World Best Selling SUV 2016". Focus2Move. 25 January 2017. Archived from the original on 29 January 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
- "World Best Selling SUV 2017". Focus2Move. 29 November 2017. Archived from the original on 6 January 2018. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
- "Auto Sales December 2016 compared to 2015". Wall Street Journal. 4 January 2017. Archived from the original on 5 January 2017.
- "Hyundai Trims Fat, Looks to Add More SUVs to Lineup". suvs.com. 17 January 2017.
- "BMW X Models". UK: BMW. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
- Burn, Jonathan (19 March 2018). "Ferrari SUV confirmed fastest SUV crown targeted". Auto Express. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
- "The Australian travel slang dictionary". Australian Traveller. Australia. 9 June 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- "The evolution of the SUV". eMotor. 3 January 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- Campbell, Denis (26 September 2004). "Terminator guns for the Chelsea Tractor". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
- Sæter, Embret (26 November 2009). "Bloddopet børstraktor" (in Norwegian). DN.no. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- Nizet, Rik (14 January 2014). "Lamborghini lanceert ook PC Hooft-tractor" [Lamborghini also launches a PC Hooft-tractor]. De Ondernemer (The Entrepreneur) (in Dutch). De Persgroep. Retrieved 17 February 2018.