This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Sports injuries are injuries that occur in athletic activities or exercising. In the United States there are about 30 million teenagers and children alone that participate in some form of organized sport. About 3 million avid sports competitors 14 years of age and under experience sports injuries annually, which causes some loss of time of participation in the sport. The leading cause of death involving sports-related injuries, although rare, is brain injuries. When injured the two main systems affected are the nervous and vascular systems. The origins in the body where numbness and tingling occurs upon sports injuries are usually the first signs of the body telling you that the body was impacted. Thus, when an athlete complains of numbness and especially tingling, the key to a diagnosis is to obtain a detailed history of the athlete’s acquired symptom perception, determine the effect the injury had on the body and its processes, and then establish the prime treatment method. In the process to determine what exactly happened in the body and the standing effects most medical professionals choose a method of technological medical devices to acquire a credible solution to the site of injury. Prevention helps reduce potential sport injuries. It is important to establish participation in warm-ups, stretching, and exercises that focus on main muscle groups commonly used in the sport of interest. Also, creating an injury prevention program as a team, which includes education on rehydration, nutrition, monitoring team members “at risk”, monitoring behavior, skills, and techniques. Season analysis reviews and preseason screenings are also beneficial reviews for preventing player sport injuries. One technique used in the process of preseason screening is the functional movement screen. The functional movement screen can assess movement patterns in athletes in order to find the at risk players. Following various researches about sport injuries shows that levels of anxiety, stress, and depression are elevated. A study in 2010 found that athletes with severe sports injuries would display higher levels of post-traumatic distress and the higher the levels of post-traumatic distress are linked with avoidant coping skills.
- 1 Classification
- 2 Risk Factors
- 3 Sports medicine
- 4 Soft tissue injuries
- 5 Prevention
- 6 Sport Injury Prevention for Kids
- 7 Sports Injury Prevalence in College Women
- 8 Costs
- 9 Sports-Related Emotional Stress
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Traumatic injuries account for most injuries in contact sports such as ice hockey, association football, rugby league, rugby union, Australian rules football, Gaelic football and American and Canadian football because of the dynamic and high collision nature of these sports. Collisions with the ground, objects, and other players are common, and unexpected dynamic forces on limbs and joints can cause sports injuries. Nearly two million people every year suffer sports-related injuries and receive treatment in emergency departments. Fatigue is a contributing factor that results in many sport injuries. As an athlete there are times where you may run on low energy leading to the deterioration in technique or form, which results in a slower reaction time, and finally a loss in stability of muscle joints and an injury.
Traumatic injuries can include:
- Contusion or bruise – damage to small blood vessels which causes bleeding within the tissues.
- Strain – trauma to a muscle due to overstretching and tearing of muscle fibers
- Sprain – an injury in a joint, caused by the ligament being stretched beyond its own capacity
- Wound – abrasion or puncture of the skin
- Bone fracture – break(s) in the bone
- Head injury – concussions or serious brain damage
- Spinal cord injury – damage to the central nervous system or spine
- Cramp – a strong muscle contraction that can be very painful lasting in few minutes but massaging the muscles can relieve the pain
Concussions in sports became a major issue in the United States in the 2000s, as evidence connected repeated concussions and subconcussive hits with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and increased suicide risk. CTE is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain found in people with a history of repetitive brain trauma, including symptomatic concussions as well as subconcussive hits to the head that do not cause symptoms. It is most pronounced in football, and a related ailment (dementia pugilistica) afflicts boxers, but is also seen in other sports, and in females and adolescents. Often, it has been reported post-mortem.
Overuse and repetitive stress injury problems associated with sports include:
Some activities have particular risks; see:
Intrinsic (Personal) Factors:
- Age, weight/body fat, height
- Congenital Irregularities: flat feet, high arch, knocked knees, bow leggedness
- Lack of muscular flexibility, coordination, balance, speed, strength, and endurance
- Malnutrition and lack of sleep
- Sports specific and protective equipment: helmet, mouth guard, goggles, shin guards
- Condition of sports setting: maintenance of floor/field and weather environment
- Insufficient pregame warm up, over-training and fatigue 
Controversy has arisen at times when teams have made decisions that could threaten a player's long-term health for short term gain. Sports medicine is the study and research of injuries in sport in order to prevent or reduce the severity of the injury.
Soft tissue injuries
When soft tissue experiences trauma, the dead and damaged cells release chemicals, which initiate an inflammatory response. Inflammation is characterized by pain, localized swelling, heat, redness and a loss of function. Small blood vessels are damaged and opened up, producing bleeding within the tissue. In the body's normal reaction, a small blood clot is formed in order to stop this bleeding and from this clot special cells (called fibroblasts) begin the healing process by laying down scar tissue.
The inflammatory stage is therefore the first phase of healing. However, too much of an inflammatory response in the early stage can mean that the healing process takes longer and a return to activity is delayed. Sports injury treatments are intended to minimize the inflammatory phase of an injury, so that the overall healing process is accelerated. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors are determinant for the healing process.
Prevention helps reduce potential sport injuries and provides several benefits. Some benefits include a healthier athlete, longer duration of participation in the sport, potential for better performance, and reduced medical costs. Explaining the benefits to participate in sports injury prevention programs to coaches, team trainers, sports teams, and individual athletes will give them a glimpse at the likelihood for success by having the athletes feeling they are healthy, strong, comfortable, and capable to compete.
Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Prevention
Prevention can be broken up into three broad categories of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Primary prevention involves the avoidance of injury. An example is ankle braces being worn as a team, even those with no history of previous ankle injuries. If primary prevention activities were effective, there would be a lesser chance of injuries occurring in the first place. Secondary prevention involves an early diagnosis and treatment should be acquired once an injury has occurred. The goal of obtaining early diagnosis is to ensure that the injury is receiving proper care and recovering correctly, therefore limiting the concern for other medical problems to stem from the initial traumatic event. Lastly, tertiary prevention is solely focused on the rehabilitation to reduce and correct an existing disability resulting from the traumatic event. An example in the case of an athlete who has obtained an ankle injury the rehabilitation would consist of balance exercises to acquire the strength and mobility back as well as wearing an ankle brace, while gradually returning to the sport.
It is most essential to establish participation in warm-ups, stretching, and exercises that focus on main muscle groups commonly used in the sport of interest. Participation in these events decreases the chances for getting muscle cramps, torn muscles, and stress fractures. A season analysis is one of the beneficial reviews for preventing player sport injuries. A season analysis is an attempt to identify risks before they occur by reviewing training methods, the competition schedule, traveling, and past injuries. If injuries have occurred in the past, the season analysis reviews the injury and looks for patterns to see if it may be related to a specific training event or competition program. For example, a stress fracture injury on a soccer team or cross country team may be correlated to a simultaneous increase in running and a change in running environment, like a transition from a soft to hard running surface. A season analysis can be documented as team-based results or individual athlete results. Other key program events that have been correlated to injury incidences are changes in training volume, changes in climate locations, selection for playing time in important matches, and poor sleep due to tight chaotic scheduling. It is important for team program directors and staff to implicate testing in order to ensure healthy, competitive, and confident athletes for their upcoming season.
Another beneficial review for preventing player sport injuries is preseason screenings. A study found that the highest injury rate during practices across fifteen Division I, II, and III NCAA sports was in the preseason compared to in-season or postseason To prepare an athlete for the wide range of activities needed to partake in their sport pre-participation examinations are regularly completed on hundreds of thousands of athletes each year. It is extremely important that the physical exam is done properly in order to limit the risks of injury and also to diagnose early onsets of a possible injury. Preseason screenings consist of testing the mobility of joints (Ankles, wrists, hips, etc.), testing the stability of joints (knees, neck, etc.), testing the strength and power of muscles, and also testing breathing patterns. The objective of a preseason screening is to clear the athlete for participation and verify that there is no sign of injury or illness, which would represent a potential medical risk to the athlete (and risk of liability to the sports organization). Besides the physical examination and the fluidity of the movements of joints the preseason screenings often takes into account a nutrition aspect as well. It is important to maintain normal iron levels, blood pressure levels, fluid balance, adequate total energy intake, and normal glycogen levels. Nutrition can aid in injury prevention and rehabilitation, if one obtains the body's daily intake needs. Obtaining sufficient amount of calories, carbohydrates, fluids, protein, and vitamins and minerals is important for the overall health of the athlete and limits the risk of possible injuries. Iron deficiency, for example, is found in both male and female athletes; however 60 percent of female college athletes are affected by iron deficiency. There are many factors that can contribute to the loss in iron, like menstruation, gastrointestinal bleeding, inadequate iron intake from the diet, general fatigue, weakness, among others. The consequences of iron deficiency, if not solved, can be an impaired athletic performance and a decline in immune and cognitive function.
Functional Movement Screen
One technique used in the process of preseason screening is the Functional Movement Screen (FMS). Functional movement screening is an assessment used to evaluate movement patterns and asymmetries, which can provide insight into mechanical restrictions and potential risk for injury. Functional movement screening contains seven fundamental movement patterns that require a balance of both mobility and stability. These fundamental movement patterns provide an observable performance of basic locomotor, manipulative, and stabilizing movements. The tests place the individual athlete in extreme positions where weaknesses and imbalances become clear if proper stability and mobility is not functioning correctly. The seven fundamental movement patterns are a deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight-leg raise, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability. For example, the deep squat is a test that challenges total body mechanics. It is used to gauge bilateral, symmetrical, and functional mobility of the hips, knees, and ankles. The dowel held overhead gauges bilateral and symmetrical mobility of the shoulders and the thoracic spine. The ability to perform the deep squat technique requires appropriate pelvic rhythm, closed-kinetic chain dorsiflexion of the ankles, flexion of the knees and hips, extension of the thoracic spine, as well as flexion and abduction of the shoulders. There is a scoring system applied to each movement as follows a score of 3 is given to the athlete if they can perform the movement without any compensations, a score of 2 is given to the athlete if they can perform the movement, but operate on poor mechanics and compensatory patterns to achieve the movement, a score of 1 is given to the athlete if they cannot perform the movement pattern even with compensations, and finally, a 0 is given to the athlete if one has pain during any part of the movement or test. Three of the seven fundamental tests including shoulder mobility, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability have a clearance scoring associated with them meaning a pass or fail score. If the athlete fails this part of the test a score of 0 is given as the overall score. Once the scoring is complete the athlete and medical professional can review the documentation together and organize a set prevention program to help target and strengthen the areas of weakness in order to limit the risks of possible injuries.
Sport Injury Prevention for Kids
There are approximately 8,000 children treated in emergency rooms each day for sports-related injures. It is also estimated that there are around 1.35 million kids suffering from sports-related injuries per year worldwide. This is why children need special attention and care when participating in sports.
- Kids attending sports clinics tend to know the basic fundamentals of a particular sport. Injury awareness and prevention can also be learned in sports clinics.
- Warming up improves the blood flow in muscles. This brings more nutrients in different parts of the body, therefore bringing more energy throughout.
- Provide children the right equipment on a particular sport like helmets, shin guards, ankle braces, gloves and others to prevent injuries.
- Kids need to have breaks and drink water as well to keep them hydrated.
- Know certain first aid treatment on injuries to apply when there's an unforeseen accident.
Sports Injury Prevalence in College Women
Soccer seems to be the sport leading to most competitive injuries in NCAA female college athletes. Gymnastics, on the other hand, has the highest injury rate overall. For eight of the 13 major sports many injuries acquired during competition require at least seven days recovery before returning to the sport. In general, more females are injured during practice than in competition.
Interventions targeted at decreasing the incidence of sports injuries can impact health-care costs, as well as family and societal resources. Sports injuries have direct and indirect costs. The direct costs are usually calculated by taking into account the cost of using healthcare resources to prevent, detect and treat injury. There is a need for research about how healthcare is used and the expenses that coincide with it. Included in these expenses are how different injuries may have different prognoses. Indirect costs may be taken into account as well, when an injury prevents an individual from returning to work it may hinder the economic benefit to themselves and others.
Sports-Related Emotional Stress
Sport involvement can initiate both physical and mental demands on athletes. From youth little leagues to competing at a professional level, athletes are forced to learn ways to cope with stressors and frustrations that can arise from competition against others. Conducted research shows that levels of anxiety, stress, and depression are elevated following sports injuries. The pressure athletes experience is extensive; branching from coaches, parents, peers, and audiences. It is astonishing how one individual can endure so much pressure and remain so calm and collected. Positive mental motivation however is not experienced all the time. The pressure to win can cause significant emotional stress for an athlete. Many athletes experience the stressor involving winning as being the most important aspect of the match. If the match is not won, many athletes are punished and criticized for the loss, instead of being commended on their effort, sportsmanship, and hard work. After an occurrence of an injury many athletes display self-esteem issues, athletic identity crises, and high levels of post-traumatic distress, which are linked to avoidant coping skills.
- Doping in sport
- Health issues in athletics
- Health issues in youth sports
- Squatting position
- Physical injuries in Yoga
- "Sports Injury Statistics". Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- Herring, Stanley A.; Akuthota, Venu (2009). Nerve and Vascular Injuries in Sports Medicine. London; New York: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-76599-0. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- Bager, Roald; Engebretsen, Lars (2009). Sports Injury Prevention. Chichester, UK; Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-6244-9. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- O'Connor, John William (2010). "Emotional Trauma in Athletic Injury and the Relationship Among Coping Skills, Injury Severity, and Post Traumatic Stress". ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- Korkmaz, Murat (2014). "Financial Dimension of sports injuries". European Journal of Experimental Biology. 4: 38–46.
- 'Intrinsic and Extrinsic Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Australian Footballers' by John Orchard, Hugh Seward, Jeanne McGivern and Simon Hood
- "Epidemiology of Collegiate Injuries for 15 Sports
- "Nutrition and the Injured Athlete". NCAA. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
- Rowland, Thomas (2012). "Iron Deficiency in Athletes". American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. SAGE Publications. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
- Cook, Gray; Burton, Lee (2006). "Pre-Participation Screening: The Use of Fundamental Movements as an Assessment of Function – Part 1". North American Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 1: 62–72. PMC . PMID 21522216.
- Cook, Gray; Burton, Lee (2006). "The Functional Movement Screen" (PDF). Retrieved 24 April 2016.
- Beardsley, Chris; Contreras, Bret (2014). "The Functional Movement Screen". Strength and Conditioning Journal. ISSN 1524-1602. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
- 'Statistics on Youth Sports Safety by SWATA'
- '1.35 million youths a year have serious sports injuries' by USA Today
- Legislator's Page by At Your Own Risk Retrieved 8 Nov 2016
- Kerr, Zachary Y, PhD; Marshall, Stephen W, PhD; Dompier, Thomas P, PhD; Corlette, Jill, MS; Klossner, David A, PhD; et al. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Atlanta 64.48. (Dec 11, 2015).
- Haider, Adil H.; Saleem, Taimur; Bilaniuk, Jaroslaw W.; Barraco, Robert D. (Nov 2012). "An evidence-based review". Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 73 (5): 1340–1347. doi:10.1097/ta.0b013e318270bbca. PMC . PMID 23117389.
- Öztürk, Selcen. "What is the economic burden of sports injuries?" (PDF). Joint Diseases and Related Surgery. 24 (2): 108–111. doi:10.5606/ehc.2013.24.
- Smith, A.M.; Nippert, A.H. (2008). "Psychologic Stress Related to Injury and Impact on Sport Performance". Department of Kinesiology and Health Sciences. Concordia University- St. Paul, MN. 19: 399–418, x. doi:10.1016/j.pmr.2007.12.003. PMID 18395654.
- Armatas, V.1, Chondrou, E., Yiannakos, A., Galazoulas, Ch., Velkopoulos, C. Physical Training 2007. January 2007. 21 March 2009 <http://ejmas.com/pt/2007pt/ptart_galazoulas_0707.html>.
- Cluett, Jonathan M.D. Medial Collateral Ligament Treatment. 29 May 2006. 16 April 2009 <http://orthopedics.about.com/cs/kneeinjuries/a/mclinjury_2.htm>.
- Doermann, David. Continuum, The Magazine of the University of Utah. Spring 1998. 19 March 2009 <http://www.alumni.utah.edu/continuum/spring98/sidelines.html>.
- Lysaght, Michael J. Knee Injuries and Therapies in Competitive Athletes. 20 March 2009 <http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/BI108/BI108_2004_Groups/Group06/Group6project/Homepage.htm>.
- Selesnick, Harlan. Sports Injuries ESPN. 4 October 2007.
- Videos on Prevention and Management of Sports Injuries
- How to Prevent Sports Injuries
- How to Prevent and Treat the Seven Most Common Sports Injuries
- The Influence of Age on the Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training to Reduce Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Female Athletes A Meta-Analysis
- Causes, Symptoms and Treatments for Sports Injuries
- Soligard T, Myklebust G, Steffen K; et al. (2008). "Comprehensive warm-up programme to prevent injuries in young female footballers: cluster randomised controlled trial". BMJ. 337: a2469. doi:10.1136/bmj.a2469. PMC . PMID 19066253.