Temporal range: Upper Cretaceous–Recent 
|Spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias|
The Squalidae, also called dogfish sharks or spiny dogfishes, are a family of sharks in the order Squaliformes. They have two dorsal fins, each with smooth spines, but no anal fin, and their skin is generally rough to the touch. Unlike virtually all other shark species, dogfish sharks possess venom which coats their dorsal spines – this venom is mildly toxic to humans.
These sharks are characterized by teeth in upper and lower jaws similar in size; a caudal peduncle with lateral keels; the upper precaudal pit usually is present; and the caudal fin is without a subterminal notch.
They are carnivorous, principally preying upon organisms smaller than themselves.
- Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2011). "Squalidae" in FishBase. February 2011 version.
- Compagno, Dando, & Fowler, Sharks of the World, Princeton University Press, New Jersey 2005 ISBN 0-691-12072-2
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