Squash mosaic virus

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Squash mosaic virus (SqMV)
Squash mosaic virus Leaves.jpg
Effect of squash mosaic virus on squash leaves
Virus classification
Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Squash mosaic virus

Squash mosaic virus (SqMV) is a mosaic virus disease common in squash plants and other plants, including melons, of the family Cucurbitaceae.[1] It occurs worldwide.[1] It is transmitted primarily by beetles, including the leaf beetle (Acalymma trivittata), spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata),[2][3] and 28-spotted ladybird beetle (Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata),[1] as well as some other beetles.[4] Plants are infected by the saliva expelled by the beetles as they feed upon the plant.[4] The beetles acquire the virus by feeding upon an infected plant and can retain the virus in their bodies for up to 20 days.[5] Unlike some other mosaic viruses that infect squashes, SqMV is not spread by aphids.[2] In melons it can be spread by seeds. The results are dark green mosaic, blistering, vein clearing, yellowing of leaves, and hardening. Symptoms include "pronounced chlorotic mottle, green veinbanding, and distortion of leaves".[6] Fruits of infected plants are also affected, becoming mottled and misshaped.[1][4] There are two strains of this virus: strain 1 has a greater effect on melons than squash while the opposite is true of strain 2.[7][8]

SqMV affects all cucurbits (family Cucurbitaceae) and some genera of Hydrophyllaceae, Leguminosae, and Umbelliferae,[9] except that most isolates do not affect watermelons.[4] SqMV and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) are the most common viruses among cucurbits, with CMV being the more common of the two.[4][10][11] Kendrick is credited with discovering SqMV in 1934, though McClintock may have discovered it in 1916 when he described a highly similar virus, calling it "cucumber virus".[9]


  1. ^ a b c d "Virus Diseases of Cucurbit Crops" (PDF). Department of Agriculture, Government of Western Australia. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
  2. ^ a b Freitag, J. H. (1956). "Beetle Transmission, Host Range, and Properties of Squash Mosaic Virus". Phytopathology. 46 (2): 73–81. ISSN 0031-949X.
  3. ^ Brown, James E.; Dangler, James M.; Woods, Floyd M.; Tilt, Ken M.; Henshaw, Michael D.; Griffey, Wallace A.; West, Mark S. (September 1993). "Delay in Mosaic Virus Onset and Aphid Vector Reduction in Summer Squash Grown on Reflective Mulches" (PDF). HortScience. 28 (9): 865–896. ISSN 2327-9834.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Mosaic Diseases of Cucurbits" (PDF). University of Illinois. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
  5. ^ "Squash Mosaic Virus". Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California-Davis. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
  6. ^ "Virus Diseases of Cucurbits". Cornell University. October 1984. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
  7. ^ "Squash Mosaic Virus (SqMV)". Michigan State University. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
  8. ^ Haudenshield, James S.; Palukaitis, Peter (1998). "Diversity Among Isolates of Squash Mosaic Virus" (PDF). Journal of General Virology. 79: 2331–2341. CiteSeerX doi:10.1099/0022-1317-79-10-2331. PMID 9780037.
  9. ^ a b Nelson, Merritt R.; Knuhtsen, Hjalmar K. (July 1973). "Squash Mosaic Virus Variability: Review and Serological Comparison of Six Biotypes" (PDF). Phytopathology. 63: 920–926. doi:10.1094/phyto-63-920.
  10. ^ "Squash". Texas A&M University. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
  11. ^ Salama, El-Sayed A.; Sill, Jr., W. H. (1968). "Resistance to Kansas Squash Mosaic Virus Strains Among Cucurbita Species". Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 71 (1): 62–68. doi:10.2307/3627399. JSTOR 3627399.