Matsya protecting Sraddhadeva Manu and the seven sages at the time of Deluge
In Hindu mythology, Shraddhadeva Manu (Sanskrit manuśraddhādeva) is the current Manu and the progenitor of the current humanity (manvantara). He is the seventh of the 14 manus of the current kalpa (aeon).
Shraddhadeva was the king of the Dravida Kingdom before the Pralaya, the great flood. Forewarned about the flood by the matsya avatara of Vishnu, he saved humanity by building a boat that carried his family and the saptarishi to safety. He is the son of Vivasvana and is therefore also known as Vaivasvata Manu. He is also called Satyavrata (always truthful).
According to the Puranas, the genealogy of Shraddhadeva is as follows:
- Marichi, one of the 10 Prajapatis created by Brahma.
- Kashyapa, son of Marichi and his wife, Kala. Kashyapa is regarded as the father of humanity.
- Vivasvan or Surya, son of Kashyapa and Aditi.
- Vaivasvata Manu, because he is the son of Vivasvan and Saranyu (Saṃjñā). He is also known as Satyavrata and Shraddhadeva.
The Great Deluge
Shraddhadeva was the king of the Dravida Kingdom during the epoch of the Matsya Purana. According to the Matsya Purana, Matsya, the avatar of Vishnu, first appeared as a shaphari (a small carp) to Shraddhadeva while he washed his hands in a river flowing down the Malaya Mountains.
The little fish asked the king to save him, and out of compassion, he put it in a water jar. It kept growing bigger and bigger, until the king first put it in a bigger pitcher, and then deposited it in a well. When the well also proved insufficient for the ever-growing fish, the King placed it in a tank (reservoir), that was two yojanas (16 miles) in height above the surface and on land, as much in length, and a yojana (8 miles) in breadth. As it grew further, the king had to put the fish in a river, and when even the river proved insufficient, he placed it in the ocean, after which it nearly filled the vast expanse of the great ocean.
It was then that Vishnu, revealing himself, informed the king of an all-destructive deluge which would be coming very soon. The king built a huge boat which housed his family, saptarishi, nine types of seeds, and animals to repopulate the earth, after the deluge would end and the oceans and seas would recede. At the time of deluge, Vishnu appeared as a horned fish and Shesha appeared as a rope, with which the king fastened the boat to the horn of the fish.
The boat was perched after the deluge on the top of the Malaya Mountains. After the deluge, Manu's family and the seven sages repopulated the earth. According to Purana, Manu's story occur before 28 chaturyuga in the present Manvantara which is the 7th Manvantara. This amounts to 120 million years ago.
And Manu was endowed with great wisdom and devoted to virtue. And he became the progenitor of a line. And in Manu's race have been born all human beings, who have, therefore, been called Manavas. And it is of Manu that all men including Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Sudras, and others have been descended, and are therefore all called Manavas. Subsequently, the Brahmanas became united with the Kshatriyas. And those sons of Manu that were Brahmanas devoted themselves to the study of the Vedas. And Manu begot ten other children named Vena, Dhrishnu, Narishyan, Nabhaga, Ikshvaku, Karusha, Sharyati, the eighth, a daughter named Ila, Prishadhru the ninth, and Nabhagarishta, the tenth. They all betook themselves to the practices of Kshatriyas (warriors). Besides these, Manu had fifty other sons on Earth. But we heard that they all perished, quarrelling with one another.
In Theosophy, the "Vaivasvata Manu" is one of the most important beings at the highest level of Initiation of the ancient Vedic sages, along with Maitreya, and the Maha Chohan. According to Theosophy, each root race has its own Manu who physically incarnates in an advanced body of an individual of the old root race and physically progenerates with a suitable female partner the first individuals of the new root race.
- V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar (1935). The Matsya Purana: A Study. University of Madras. p. 5.
- The Hare Krsnas - The Manus - Manus of the Present Universe
- Francis Hamilton (1819). Geneaolgies of the Hindus: extracted from their sacred writings; with an introduction and alphabetical index. "Printed for the author". p. 89.
- Alain Daniélou (11 February 2003). A Brief History of India. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-59477-794-3.
- David Dean Shulman (1980). Tamil Temple Myths: Sacrifice and Divine Marriage in the South Indian Saiva Tradition. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-5692-3.
- DRISCOLL, Ian Driscoll; KURTZ, Matthew Atlantis: Egyptian Genesis, 2009.
- Sacred Texts. Section CLXXXVI
- S'rîmad Bhâgavatam (Bhâgavata Purâna)Canto 8 Chapter 24 Text 12
- The story of Vedic India as embodied ... - Google Books. 14 March 2008. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- Matsya Purana, Ch.I, 10-33
- Matsya Purana, Ch.II, 1-19
- The Matsya Purana Archived 26 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- "G. P. Bhatt (ed.), The vayu purana, part-II, 1st ed., 784--789, tr. G. V. Tagare. In vol.38 of Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1988". Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "J. L. Shastri (ed.), The kurma-purana, part-I, 1st ed., 47--52, tr. G. V. Tagare. In vol.20 of A.I.T.&M., Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1981". Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "J. L. Shastri (ed.), The Narada purana, part-II, 1st ed., p. 699, tr. G. V. Tagare. In vol.16 of A.I.T.&M., Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1981". Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- Klaus K. Klostermaier (5 July 2007). A Survey of Hinduism: Third Edition. SUNY Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4.
- Thapar 2013, p. 308-309.
- Mahabharata Book 1:Adi Parva:Sambhava Parva:Section LXXV, p. 183.
- The Laws of Manu Archived 17 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine, translated by George Bühler.
- Swami Parmeshwaranand (1 January 2001). Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Puranas. Sarup & Sons. ISBN 978-81-7625-226-3., p. 638.