Sri Lanka Freedom Party

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Sri Lanka Freedom Party
Sri Lanka Nidahas Pakshaya
Sinhala name ශ්‍රී ලංකා නිදහස් පක්ෂය
Tamil name இலங்கை சுதந்திரக் கட்சி
Leader Maithripala Sirisena
Chairperson Maithripala Sirisena
Secretary-General Anura Priyadarshana Yapa
Founder S.W.R.D Bandaranaike
Parliamentary Leader Nimal Siripala de Silva
Founded September 2, 1951 (1951-09-02)
Split from United National Party
Preceded by Sinhala Maha Sabha
Headquarters 307 T. B. Jayah Mawatha, Colombo 10
Newspaper Singhale, Dinakara
Youth wing SLFP youth organization
Ideology Social democracy
Sinhalese nationalism (minority)[1][2]
Political position Centre-left
National affiliation United People's Freedom Alliance
(2004 – Present)
People's Alliance
(1994 – 2004)
Colors      Blue
Parliament of Sri Lanka
116 / 225
Election symbol
Hand
Slfreedomparty.jpg
Website
www.slfp.lk
Politics of Sri Lanka
Political parties
Elections

The Sri Lanka Freedom Party (Sinhalese: ශ්‍රී ලංකා නිදහස් පක්ෂය Sri Lanka Nidahas Pakshaya, Tamil: இலங்கை சுதந்திரக் கட்சி) is one of the major political parties in Sri Lanka. It was founded by S.W.R.D Bandaranaike in 1951 [3] and, since then, has been one of the two largest parties in the Sri Lankan political arena. It first came to power in 1956 and since then has been the predominant party in government on a number of occasions.[4] The party is generally considered as having a socialist or progressive economic agenda and is often associated with nationalist Sinhala parties. The Sri Lanka Freedom Party is currently a part of the UPFA (United People's Freedom Alliance).

History[edit]

After independence, the SLFP represented a form of non-revolutionary socialism and a policy of non-alignment with strong ties to socialist countries. Its social democratic and nationalist policies in the aftermath of Sri Lankan independence supported its rapid rise towards attaining major party status alongside the centre-right United National Party. Founding member, S.W.R.D Bandaranaike stated that the basis of the party would be the ‘Pancha Maha Balavegaya’ (Five Great Forces) which consisted of the clergy, native doctors, teachers, farmers and workers.[5]

After winning 9 seats in the 1952 parliamentary election, leader S.W.R.D Bandaranaike contested the 1956 election on a platform of giving true meaning to the independence achieved in 1948.[6] This involved a nationalist, democratic and socialist programme which saw the SLFP achieve a huge victory at the 1956 elections and is seen by many observers as a social revolution resulting in the eclipse of the Westernized elite.[7]

First SLFP Government, 1956-1959[edit]

Amongst the many achievements of S.W.R.D Bandaranaike’s term of office include the reverting of major defence facilities from British to local control, initiating a shift in Sri Lanka’s foreign policy from the West to the Non-Aligned Movement and lowering the voting age from 21 years to 18 years of age.[8]

Working people, a core base of support for the party, also benefitted through the setting up of an Employees Provident Fund and the empowerment of peasants through the Paddy Lands Act. The healthcare and education systems were also improved for the benefit of the common man with the establishment of ayurvedic research centres, recognition of native physicians as well as the allowing of students to learn in their mother tongue (rather than only English).[9][10]

The S.W.R.D Bandaranaike government also had a lasting contribution in language policy. In 1956 Sinhala replaced English as the official language of Sri Lanka, fulfilling a major election pledge. In reaction to Tamil unease, the Bandaranaike–Chelvanayakam Pact was signed to grant official status to the Tamil language. However, this agreement was vehemently opposed by extremists led by the main opposition party UNP and instead a watered down act was passed.[11] In September 1959, Bandaranaike was assassinated by an extremist monk opposed to his attempts to allegedly appease Tamils. He was replaced as Prime Minister for an interim period by Wijeyananda Dahanayake.

SLFP under Sirimavo Bandaranaike, 1960-1977[edit]

After this, the party turned to Bandaranaike's widow Sirimavo Bandaranaike who consequently in 1960 became the world's first elected female head of government. Sirimavo Bandaranaike was determined to carry on the programme of her husband and her government pursued several socialist policies during its terms of office between 1960-1964 and 1970-1977. Sirimavo also initiated the trend of the SLFP forging alliances with other leftist parties such as the Communist Party of Sri Lanka and the Lanka Sama Samaja Party which continues to this day with the United People's Freedom Alliance.[12]

Under Sirimavo Bandaranaike’s leadership, SLFP governments nationalized key sectors of the economy such as banking and insurance, the Ceylon Transport Board and also all schools then owned by the Roman Catholic Church. Issues arose during the state takeover of foreign businesses which upset the United States and Britain. Consequently this augmented the SLFP’s foreign policy shift towards the East and Non-Aligned Movement. Further, in 1972, the SLFP led government oversaw the introduction of a new constitution which changed the country’s name from Ceylon to Sri Lanka and declared Sri Lanka to be a republic.[12]

During her term in office, Sirimavo Bandaranaike achieved high international standing, being chosen as chairman of the Non-Aligned Movement in 1976 and receiving plaudits as the SLFP led government attempted to mediate between India and China during the Sino-Indian war.[13]

In government, the SLFP had to also overcome a number of challenges to democracy such as the 1962 coup attempt launched by Christian officers upset by the increasing number of Buddhist officer corp which had previously been three-fifths Christian. Likewise, in 1971 the SLFP led government was almost toppled by a violent Marxist insurrection, which was eventually put down after it claimed more than a thousand lives.[14]

Towards the end of Sirimavo Bandaranaike’s second term as Prime Minister, her government had become increasingly unpopular amidst the background of a declining economy and charges of corruption and the SLFP was routed in the 1977 election.[15] This was the start of 17 years in opposition.

Difficult years in opposition, 1977-1994[edit]

This period of opposition was made greatly difficult after President J.R. Jayewardene's government stripped Sirimavo Bandaranaike of her civic rights for 7 years and expelled her from parliament.[16] As a result, the SLFP fielded Hector Kobbekaduwa at the 1982 Presidential Election, which failed to deliver a strong outcome for the party.[17] The SLFP suffered a further blow in the same year, when a referendum to delay parliamentary elections by 6 years was passed. During this period, the party suffered from internal conflicts, with Sirimavo’s daughter and future party leader Chandrika Kumaratunga even leading a breakaway group, the Sri Lanka People’s Party.[18]

Towards the early 1990s, the existing UNP government had weakened through internal conflicts of its own as well as the descent into two civil wars and fading public support. New SLFP leaders, most prominently Mahinda Rajapaksa, had launched successful pada yatra, jana gosha and white flag campaigns against the UNP government during this period.[19] However, by this time Sirimavo Bandaranaike had lost her influence with the electorate and was persuaded to step aside as party leader in favour of her daughter Chandrika Kumaratunga who had rejoined the SLFP.[20]

SLFP Under Chandrika Kumaratunga, 1994-2005[edit]

During the 1994 parliamentary and presidential elections, SLFP completed a successful return to power and Chandrika Kumaratunga was elected the nation’s President as part of the SLFP led People’s Alliance coalition. Kumaratunga’s tenure marked the beginning of the SLFP’s shift from the socialism of Sirimavo towards a more centrist philosophy that sought to combine both the free market and the SLFP’s traditional people friendly policies.[21]

The People's Alliance government continued with their predecessor’s attempts to negotiate with the LTTE, whilst simultaneously attempting to weaken them militarily through force. The SLFP government however initially placed greater emphasis on achieving peace with the Kumaratunga government engaging in numerous peace talks. However, LTTE intransigence limited the policy’s effectiveness.[21] The People’s Alliance can be credited however with significant victories on the foreign policy front, with Foreign Affairs Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar spearheading successful efforts to further isolate the LTTE internationally.[22] Other achievements of the Kumaratunga administration include the establishment of several new public universities.[23]

Despite successes on these fronts, the Kumaratunga government also oversaw territorial losses to the LTTE as well as a flagging economy.[24] As a result of this, a UNP government was elected at the 2001 Parliamentary elections. In November 2003, Kumaratunga used her presidential powers to sack UNP Prime Minister Ranil Wickremasinghe and the People’s Alliance returned to power at the 2004 polls with future party leader Mahinda Rajapaksa being appointed as the Prime Minister.

SLFP Under Mahinda Rajapaksa, 2005-2015[edit]

A rift opened up in the party in 2005 over the choice of the its candidate for the 2005 Presidential election between the President Kumaratunga backed Anura Bandaranaike and Mahinda Rajapaksa.[25] Many members of the SLFP had been uneasy with Chandrika Kumaratunga’s liberal economic policies, privatisation of many public institutions as well as several allegations of corruption against her.[26][26] Ultimately Rajapaksa was selected as the Presidential candidate for the SLFP led United People's Freedom Alliance and was subsequently elected as President

Under Mahinda Rajapaksa, the SLFP shifted back to the left towards a social democratic programme termed Mahinda Chinthana. Some of the companies privatised by the Kumaratunga administration were re-nationalised such as Shell Gas Lanka.[27]

The major legacy of this period of UPFA government was the end of the long-running civil war and the reunification of Sri Lanka. This achievement boosted the popularity of the SLFP leading to convincing victories in the presidential and parliamentary polls held in 2010.[28]

In the post-war period, the Rajapaksa administration instituted a large-scale infrastructure and development drive including the construction and renewal of many of Sri Lanka’s key roads.[29] In 2011 the construction of Sri Lanka's first expressway was completed. Likewise, new coal and renewable energy power plants were built, improving the nation’s power generation capacity. Another key accomplishment during this period was urban development, particularly in Colombo which ranked as the world’s fastest growing tourist city in 2015.[30] Other policies of the Rajapaksa government include programs to aid farmers and agricultural production, such as the re-launch of the farmer’s pension scheme and subsidisation of fertilisers.[31]

In the area of foreign policy, the Rajapaksa government was seen to align itself towards the East, in accordance with SLFP tradition. This situation was augmented by the prevailing geopolitcal environment which led some Western nations to criticise the UPFA government regarding accusations of human rights abuses during the civil war.[32]

The 2010-2015 period of SLFP led government was characterised by high economic growth and a reducing debt-to-GDP ratio.[33] However, allegations of corruption and nepotism saw Mahinda Rajapaksa lose the presidency to SLFP defector Maithripala Sirisena in 2015, who ran against him with the support of the UNP and other smaller parties.[34] The UNP consequently regained power despite the UPFA still holding a majority of seats in the legislature.

Sirisena's Ascension to the Leadership and Internal Division in the SLFP, 2015-Present[edit]

Soon after President Sirisena’s victory, Mahinda Rajapaksa handed over leadership of the party to Maithripala Sirisena as per the SLFP constitution which states any SLFP member who is President is automatically leader of the party.[35] Very soon afterwards, the party split into two main factions with those supporting President Sirisena and willing to work with the minority UNP government on one side. The Rajapaksa faction which included parts of the SLFP and UPFA acted as the main defacto opposition to the new regime.[36][37] Nimal Siripala de Silva was appointed as parliamentary leader of the SLFP and the official Opposition Leader.

During Maithripala Sirisena’s term as President, SLFP members came to dominate the cabinet numerically, albeit largely with lower ranking positions. The SLFP, especially the Rajapaksa faction, were instrumental in revising the 19th Amendment to the constitution proposed by the UNP so as to reduce Presidential powers without transferring executive powers to the Prime Minister. However, rigorous attempts by President Sirisena and the SLFP to modify the prevailing and unpopular electoral system were unsuccessful due to stiff opposition from the UNP and other smaller parties.[38]

Leaders[edit]

General-Secretaries[edit]

Organization[edit]

  • Sri Lanka Nidahas Bhikku Sanvidanaya
  • Sri Lanka Nidahas Indigenous physicians Organization
  • Sri Lanka Nidahas Teachers Union
  • Sri Lanka Nidahas Farmers’ Organization
  • Sri Lanka Nidahas Sewaka Sangamaya
  • Sri Lanka Nidahas Medical Group
  • Sri Lanka Nidahas Students’ Organization
  • Sri Lanka Nidahas Fishermen and Domestic Industrialists organization
  • Sri Lanka Nidahas Cultural Organization
  • Sri Lanka Nidahas Lawyers Organization
  • Sri Lanka Nidahas Provincial Council members’ Association
  • Sri Lanka Nidahas Association of members of local authority
  • Sri Lanka Nidahas Management Assistant Union
  • Sri Lanka Freedom Graduates Association.
  • Sri Lanka Freedom development Officer Association.
  • Nil Balakaya (Officially Dissolved after the 2015 Presidential Elections)

Publication[edit]

  • "Singhale" - First SLFP journal 1956 ( Founder editor Dharma Sri Kuruppu )
  • Dinakara - News paper

References[edit]

  1. ^ de Silva, Nalin (22 March 2011). "Sri Lanka is neither Egypt nor Libya". The Island. 
  2. ^ "Sri Lanka: The ethnic divide". BBC News. 16 May 2000. 
  3. ^ Charting a new course for Sri Lanka’s success. Daily News (Sri Lanka), 16 November 2009.
  4. ^ "Sri Lanka Freedom Party, or SLFP (political party, Sri Lanka)". BRITANNICA-Online. 
  5. ^ Sepalika De Silva, Cultural practice of human rights: An anthropological study of human rights in Sri Lanka (2006), p. 57.
  6. ^ "Freedom" (PDF). Retrieved 29 June 2015. 
  7. ^ IBP USA, Sri Lanka Country Study Guide Volume 1 Strategic Information and Developments (2012), p. 39.
  8. ^ "Politics". Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  9. ^ "Education Policy". Retrieved 11 June 2015. 
  10. ^ "Health Policy". Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  11. ^ Peebles, Patrick (2006-08-30). The History of Sri Lanka. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-33205-0. 
  12. ^ a b "Sirimavo Bandaranaike". Britannica. 
  13. ^ "The Foreign Policy of Sirimavo Bandaranaike". Retrieved 30 June 2015. 
  14. ^ details&code_title=76058 "April 1971 JVP uprising: Not to make the same mistakes". Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  15. ^ John Richardson, Paradise Poisoned: Learning About Conflict, Terrorism and Development from Sri Lanka's Civil Wars (2005), p. 324.
  16. ^ John Richardson, Paradise Poisoned: Learning About Conflict, Terrorism and Development from Sri Lanka's Civil Wars (2005), p. 400.
  17. ^ "1982 Presidential Election Results". Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  18. ^ IBP USA, Sri Lanka Country Study Guide Volume 1 Strategic Information and Developments (2012), p. 84.
  19. ^ "Rajapaksa's choice: Statesman or politician?". Retrieved 18 June 2015. 
  20. ^ "The UNP and opposition political landscape". 
  21. ^ a b De Silva, K.M. A History of Sri Lanka, Colombo: 2005. ISBN 978-955-8095-92-8.
  22. ^ Sir Adam Roberts, Democracy, Sovereignty and Terror: Lakshman Kadirgamar on the Foundations of International Order (2012), p. viii.
  23. ^ "Education". Retrieved 12 June 2015. 
  24. ^ "Second Chance". Retrieved 21 June 2015. 
  25. ^ "CBK, Anura keep away from Mahinda’s campaign". Retrieved 12 June 2015. 
  26. ^ a b "CBK and the Prince’s mansion Evening Standard editor stands by his report". Retrieved 16 June 2015. 
  27. ^ "Re-nationalizing: New economic policy". Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  28. ^ "Sri Lanka declares end to war with Tamil Tigers". Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  29. ^ "'Quality infrastructure must to uplift living standards'". Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  30. ^ "10 most popular cities for travelers in 2015". Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  31. ^ 5015 "Achievements". Retrieved 23 June 2015. 
  32. ^ "Chinese president visits Sri Lanka to strengthen strategic ties". Retrieved 23 June 2015. 
  33. ^ "Why Rajapaksa is good for the Economy". Retrieved 26 June 2015. 
  34. ^ "Gotabaya rejects Ravi’s accusation on BoC account". Retrieved 16 June 2015. 
  35. ^ "President Leads SLFP". Retrieved 25 June 2015. 
  36. ^ "MR claims he is SLFP President". Colombo Gazette. Retrieved 12 January 2015. 
  37. ^ "SLFP MPs, Dayasiri join Maithri". Colombo Gazette. 11 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015. 
  38. ^ "Opposition Leader Says Both UNP, JVP Oppose 20th Amendment". Retrieved 11 June 2015. 

External links[edit]