Ravi Shankar (spiritual leader)

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Ravi Shankar
SriSriRaviShankar.jpg
Ravi Shankar in 2013
Religion Hinduism
Founder of Art of Living Foundation, International Association for Human Values,[1] World Forum for Ethics in Business[2]
Personal
Nationality Indian
Born Ravi Shankar
(1956-05-13) 13 May 1956 (age 62)
Papanasam, Madras State (now Tamil Nadu), India
Guru Maharishi Mahesh Yogi[3][4]
Literary works Celebrating Silence, An Intimate Note to the Sincere Seeker, God Loves Fun, Ashtavakra Gita, Patanjali Yoga Sutras, etc.
Honors Sri Sri
Quotation
My Vision is a violence free, stress free world.[5]

Ravi Shankar (born 13 May 1956) is an Indian spiritual leader. He is frequently referred to as "Sri Sri" (honorific) or as Guruji or Gurudev.[6] He founded the Art of Living Foundation in 1981, a volunteer-based NGO providing social support to the people. In 1997, he established a Geneva-based charity, the International Association for Human Values, an NGO that engages in relief work and rural development and aims to foster shared global values.[7][8]

Life[edit]

Ravi Shankar was born in Papanasam, Tamil Nadu, to Visalakshi Ratnam and R. S. Venkat Ratnam. He was named "Ravi" (a common Indian name which means "sun") because his birth was on a Sunday, and "Shankar" after the eighth-century Hindu saint, Adi Shankara, whose birthday was the same day as Ravi Shankar.[9] Ravi Shankar's first teacher was Sudhakar Chaturvedi, an Indian Vedic Scholar and a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi.[10][11] He holds a Bachelor of Science degree from the St Joseph's College of Bangalore University.[12][13] After graduation, Shankar travelled with his second teacher, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi,[3] giving talks and arranging conferences on Vedic science, and setting up Transcendental Meditation and Ayurveda centres.[14][15]

In the 1980s, Shankar initiated a series of practical and experiential courses in spirituality around the globe. He says that his rhythmic breathing practice, Sudarshan Kriya, came to him in 1982, "like a poem, an inspiration," after a ten-day period of silence on the banks of the Bhadra River in Shimoga, in the state of Karnataka, adding, "I learned it and started teaching it".[16]

In 1983, Shankar held the first Art of Living course in Switzerland. In 1986, he travelled to Apple Valley, California in the US to conduct the first course to be held in North America.[17]

Philosophy and teachings[edit]

Spirituality[edit]

Shankar believes spirituality is that which enhances human values such as love, compassion and enthusiasm. It is not limited to any one religion or culture. Hence it is open to all people. He feels the spiritual bond we share as part of the human family is more prominent than nationality, gender, religion, profession, or other identities that separate us.[18]

According to him, science and spirituality are linked and compatible, both springing from the urge to know. The question, "Who am I?" leads to spirituality; the question, "What is this?" leads to science. Emphasizing that joy is only available in the present moment, his stated vision is to create a world free of stress and violence. His programs are said to offer practical tools to help accomplish this. He sees breath as the link between body and mind, and a tool to relax the mind, emphasising the importance of both meditation/spiritual practice and service to others. In his view, "Truth is spherical rather than linear; so it has to be contradictory."[19]

Sudarshan Kriya[edit]

Sudarshan Kriya (Sanskrit: सुदर्शन क्रिया sudarśana-kriyā) is a breathing-based technique[20] that is a core component of the Art of Living courses and "the cornerstone of . . . Art of Living Foundation's trauma relief programs".[20] It involves Ujjayi breathing and bhastrika in vajrasana followed by rhythmic breathing in sukhasana.[21]

A number of medical studies on its preparatory practices have been published in international peer-reviewed journals.[22] A range of mental and physical benefits are reported in these studies, including reduced levels of stress (reduced cortisol—the "stress" hormone), improved immune system, relief from anxiety and depression (mild, moderate, and severe),[23] increased antioxidant protection, and enhanced brain function (increased mental focus, calmness, and recovery from stressful stimuli), among other findings.[24]

Peace and humanitarian work[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

He visited Pakistan in 2004 on a "goodwill mission"[25] and again in 2012 when he inaugurated Art of Living centers in Islamabad and Karachi.[26] The Islamabad centre was burned down by armed men in March 2014.[27][28]

Iraq[edit]

During his visits to Iraq, at the invitation of Prime Minister Nouri al Maliki, in 2007[29] and again in 2008,[30] he met with political and religious leaders to promote global peace. In November 2014, Ravi Shankar visited the relief camps in Erbil, Iraq. He also hosted a conference to address the dire condition of Yazidis and other non-Muslims in the region.[31][32]

Colombia and FARC[edit]

Ravi Shankar "brokered" the peace deal between the Colombian government and the guerrilla movement FARC during his visit to Cuba in June 2015. The FARC agreed to follow the Gandhian principle of non-violence to attain its political objectives and social justice.[33][34]

Kashmir, India[edit]

The South Asian Forum for Peace was launched in November 2016 at a conference titled "Kashmir Back to Paradise" in Jammu. According to Ravi Shankar, 90% of people in Kashmir want peace but are neglected. He added, "The solution to the Kashmir problem can only come from the Kashmiris". This forum would bring together eight South Asian countries to cooperate and work in areas such as entrepreneurship, skill development, cultural exchange, educational partnerships and women empowerment initiatives among others.[35][36][37][38]

Northeast India[edit]

68 militants from 11 militant outfits surrendered to the government in Manipur on the eve of India's 71st Independence Day in August 2017. The Chief Minister of Manipur, N. Biren Singh, lauded Ravi Shankar for his efforts in making this happen and "bringing peace in troubled areas". Ravi Shankar's organization has been working in Manipur for the last 15 years.[39][40]

In September 2017, at the "Strength in Diversity - North East Indigenous People's Conference", Ravi Shankar claimed that another 500 militants were waiting to "lay down weapons and join the peace process". The conference was attended by representatives from 67 rebel outfits from the Northeast. Expressing his willingness to facilitate the peaceful transition of any rebel group wanting to join the mainstream, Ravi Shankar claimed that his organization has been working for this for the last 10–12 years and "will continue to work until the last gun is laid down".[41] Former ULFA General Secretary, Anup Chetia, who was also the convenor of the conference, appreciated Ravi Shankar's interest and efforts for peace in the region.[42][43]

Ayodhya Ram Temple Dispute, India[edit]

Ravi Shankar's efforts at mediation in the Ayodhya dispute in 2017 received a mixed response from both Hindu and Muslim leaders. Based on Supreme Court of India's suggestion for an out-of-court settlement[44], he proposed a mutual compromise where both communities "gift" neighbouring pieces of land to each other. This proposal was met with a lot of skepticism and resistance.[45][46][47][48][49]

Interfaith Dialogue[edit]

Ravi Shankar is involved in interfaith dialogue and currently sits on the Board of World Religious Leaders for the Elijah Interfaith Institute.[50] Through interfaith summits in 2008 and 2010, he has been engaging faith-based leaders for collective action against HIV.[51] In July 2013 at a meeting in UNAIDS headquarters in Geneva, issues including HIV prevention, gender based violence, stigma and discrimination were discussed.[52]

Prison Program[edit]

In 1992, he started a prison programme[53] to rehabilitate prison inmates and help them reintegrate into society.[54]

Awards and recognition[edit]

  • Padma Vibhushan, India's Second Highest Civilian Award, January 2016[55]
  • Dr Nagendra Singh International Peace Award, India, November 2016[56]
  • Peru's Highest Award, "Medalla de la Integracion en el Grado de Gran Oficial" (Grand Officer)[57]
  • Colombia's highest civilian award, "Orden de la Democracia Simon Bolivar"[58][59]
  • Gandhi, King, Ikeda Community Builders Prize[60]
  • Highest civilian award "National Order of Merito de Comuneros", Paraguay, 13 September 2012[61][62]
  • Illustrious citizen by the Paraguayan Municipality, 12 September 2012[63]
  • Illustrious guest of the city of Asuncion, Paraguay, 12 September 2012[63]
  • Tiradentes Medal, the highest honour from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, 3 September 2012[64]
  • The Sivananda World Peace award, Sivananda Foundation, South Africa, 26 August 2012[65]
  • Crans Montana Forum Award, Brussels, 24 June 2011[66][67]
  • Culture in Balance Award, World Culture Forum, Dresden Germany, 10 October 2009[68]
  • Phoenix Award, Atlanta, USA, 2008[69]
  • Honorary Citizenship and Goodwill Ambassador, Houston, USA, 2008[69]
  • Proclamation of Commendation, New Jersey, USA 2008[70]
  • Sant Shri Dnyaneshwara World Peace Prize, Pune, India, 11 January 2007[71]
  • Order of the Pole Star, Mongolia, 2006[72]
  • Bharat Shiromani Award, New Delhi, India, 2005[73]
  • Honorary Doctorates from – Universidad Autónoma de Asunción of Paraguay,[61] Buenos Aires University, Argentina; Siglo XXI University Campus, Cordoba, Argentina; Nyenrode Business University, Netherlands;[74] Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur;[75] Kuvempu University, India.

In 2009, Shankar was named by Forbes magazine as the fifth most powerful leader in India.[76]

Criticism[edit]

In 2012, Ravi Shankar, while attending a function in Jaipur, claimed that some Indian government schools are breeding grounds for Naxalism, a movement of militant communist groups in India declared to be terrorist organisations. "All government schools and colleges should be privatised. The government should not run any school. It's often found that children from government schools get into Naxalism and violence. Children from private schools don't get into this," he was quoted as saying by media reports. Later, Shankar issued a clarification that he didn't mean that all government schools breed Naxalism. More clarification followed on his Twitter account: "I specifically referred to sick government schools in Naxal affected areas. Many who have turned to Naxalism have come from these schools. I did not say all Govt schools (where lakhs study) breed Naxalism. Great talents have emerged from these schools & I would never generalize."[77][78] In March 2018, he faced criticism from political leaders for his commentary, where he said, India will turn into Syria if the Ram temple issue is not resolved soon.[79]

Books[edit]

  • An Intimate Note to the Sincere Seeker; Vol. 1: ISBN 1-885289-29-4, Vol. 2: ISBN 1-885289-30-8, Vol. 3: ISBN 1-885289-33-2, Vol. 4: ISBN 1-885289-36-7, Vol. 5: ISBN 1-885289-38-3, Vol. 6: ISBN 1-885289-40-5, Vol. 7: ISBN 1-885289-41-3
  • Buddha: manifestation of silence, ISBN 81-89291-91-2
  • 1999 – Be A Witness: The Wisdom of the Upanishads, 106 pp. ISBN 81-7621-063-3
  • 2000 – God Loves Fun, 138 pp. ISBN 1-885289-05-7
  • 2001 – Celebrating Silence: Excerpts from Five Years of Weekly Knowledge 1995–2000, 206 pp. ISBN 1-885289-39-1
  • Celebrating Love ISBN 1-885289-42-1
  • 2005 – Narada Bhakti Sutra, 129 pp. ISBN 81-7811-029-6
  • Hinduism & Islam, the common thread, 34 pp, 2002
  • Secrets of Relationships, Arktos, 2014
  • Patanjali Yoga Sutras, Arktos, 2014
  • Ashtavakra Gita, 2010, ISBN 9380592833[80]
  • Management Mantras, Arktos, 2014
  • Know Your Child: The Art of Raising Children, Arktos, 2014

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Sri Sri Ravishankar: Founder". International Association for Human Values. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
  2. ^ "Founders". World Forum for Ethics in Business. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
  3. ^ a b Mani, Rajiv (12 February 2008). "Maharishi Mahesh Yogi cremated in Allahabad". The Times of India.
  4. ^ Pradhan, Sharat (11 February 2008). "Mahesh Yogi cremated with state honours". Hindustan Times.
  5. ^ "Home". Official Website of Sri Sri Ravi Shankar.
  6. ^ Salkin, Allen (28 August 2007). "Emperor of Air". Yoga Journal. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  7. ^ "Member Associations". NGO Forum For Health. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  8. ^ "Welcome". IAHV Peacebuilding.
  9. ^ Kilgannon, Corey (11 April 2011). "Seeking Bliss Among the Honks and Hisses". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  10. ^ Avdeeff, Alexis (2004). "Sri Sri Ravi Shankar and the Art of Spreading Awareness over the World" (PDF). Journal of Dharma. XXIX (3): 321–335. ISSN 0253-7222. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  11. ^ "Pandit gifted wheelchair on birthday". The Times of India. 15 March 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  12. ^ "Scan of Degree Certificate". Bawandinesh.name. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012.
  13. ^ "Distinguished Alumni". St Joseph's College.
  14. ^ Gautier (2008), p. 36.
  15. ^ Fischman, Michael (2010). Stumbling into Infinity: An Ordinary Man in the Sphere of Enlightenment. Morgan James Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60037-648-1.
  16. ^ Mahadevan, Ashok (February 2007). "Face to Face: Stress Free with Sri Sri". Reader's Digest. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
  17. ^ Pandit, Srimoyee (29 June 2011). "Art of living founder Ravi Shankar - First Indian to receive the Crans Montana Forum Award". Jagran Josh.
  18. ^ Shankar, Sri Sri Ravi (1995). Bang on the Door. Santa Barbara, CA: Art of Living Foundation. ISBN 1-885289-31-6.
  19. ^ Copeland, Libby (5 July 2007). "Take a Deep Breath". The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
  20. ^ a b "Sudarshan Kriya". The Office of His Holiness Sri Sri Ravi Shankar. Archived from the original on 16 May 2010. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
  21. ^ Pinto, Stanly (9 September 2003). "Sudarshan Kriya, a stress buster". The Times of India.
  22. ^ "Published Research". Art of Living Research Committee.
  23. ^ Janakiramaiah, N.; Gangadhar, B.N.; Naga Venkatesha Murthy, P.J.; Harish, M.G.; Subbakrishna, D.K.; Vedamurthachar, A. (2000). "Antidepressant efficacy of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) in melancholia: A randomized comparison with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and imipramine". Journal of Affective Disorders. 57 (1–3): 255–259. doi:10.1016/s0165-0327(99)00079-8. PMID 10708840.
  24. ^ Gautier (2008), pp. 155–164.
  25. ^ "There's dignity of religion in Pakistan". The Times of India. 23 July 2004. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  26. ^ Shaukat, Aroosa (12 March 2012). "Sri Sri Ravi Shankar tells Lahore about his 'Art of Living'". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  27. ^ "Art of Living Center Torched in Islamabad". Newsweek Pakistan. 10 March 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  28. ^ "Did Pakistan TV Debate Prompt Burning of Yoga Center?". NBC News. 10 March 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  29. ^ "Art of Living guru in Iraq to talk peace". IBNlive.com. 24 May 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
  30. ^ "Sri Sri Ravi Shankar visits Iraq". Rediff.com. 22 December 2008. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  31. ^ Blumberg, Antonia (19 November 2014). "Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, Spiritual Leader and Activist, Travels To Iraq To Promote Yazidi Rights". Huffington Post. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
  32. ^ "Indian spiritual leader steps up relief work for refugees in northern Iraq". South China Morning Post. 19 November 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
  33. ^ "Words from the Peace Delegation of the FARC-EP to Sri Sri Ravi Shankar". Official website of the Peace Delegation of the FARC-EP (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - People's Army). Archived from the original on 22 July 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  34. ^ "Sri Sri Ravi Shankar helps to bring peace to Colombia". Times of India. 10 July 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  35. ^ Sagotra, Yogesh (24 November 2016). "Solution to Kashmir problem can only come from Kashmiris: Sri Sri". Greater Kashmir. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  36. ^ "Kashmir: 90 per cent of people want peace". The Indian Express. 24 November 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  37. ^ Jameel, Yusuf (24 November 2016). "Kashmiri separatists, militants are 'cash cows'". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  38. ^ "AOL to launch regional peace platform for South Asia". Press Trust of India. 22 November 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  39. ^ "CM Biren lauds Sri Sri Ravi Shankar for peace efforts in Manipur". The Statesman. 15 August 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  40. ^ "Manipur: 68 members of 6 terror cadres, including 4 women cadres, surrender before CM Biren Singh". India Today. 14 August 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  41. ^ Mazumdar, Prasanta (8 September 2017). "North East militants waiting to make peace". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  42. ^ "Sri Sri Ravi Shankar expressed willingness to rehabilitate militants back into Mainstream". NorthEast India24. 7 September 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  43. ^ "We Will Not Stop till the Last Gun is Laid Down: Sri Sri Ravi Shankar". Arunachal24. 7 September 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  44. ^ "SC calls for out-of-court settlement in Ayodhya case". The Hindu. 21 March 2017. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  45. ^ "Shia Waqf Board chief meets Sri Sri, favours Ram Temple at disputed site". Hindustan Times. 31 October 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  46. ^ "In a bid to solve Ayodhya issue, Sri Sri Ravi Shankar meets Nirmohi Akhara and Muslim law board members". Hindustan Times. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  47. ^ "Sri Sri Ravi Shankar meets expelled AIMPLB member Nadvi". The Tribune. 1 March 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  48. ^ "Solution to Ayodhya dispute not possible in Supreme Court: Sri Sri Ravishankar". Zee News. 28 February 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  49. ^ "Ayodhya dispute: Sri Sri Ravi Shankar gives fresh mediation push, meets UP CM Yogi Adityanath in Gorakhpur". The New Indian Express. 28 February 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  50. ^ "Leaders of Religions of India". Elijah Interfaith Institute. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  51. ^ "Spiritual healing for HIV-infected in Bangalore". Daily News and Analysis. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  52. ^ "Science, spirituality and health in the AIDS response". UNAIDS. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  53. ^ Walker, Andrew (24 December 2008). "South African prisoners embrace yoga". BBC News.
  54. ^ "Pravin Mahajan 'n D's brother sing together". The Indian Express. 30 April 2007.
  55. ^ "Padma Vibhushan for Rajinikanth, Dhirubhai Ambani, Jagmohan". The Hindu. 26 January 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  56. ^ "Sri Sri Ravishankar gets international peace prize". The Times of India. 20 November 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  57. ^ "Sri Sri Ravi Shankar conferred with Peru's highest award 'Grand Officer'". Daily News and Analysis. 1 July 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  58. ^ "Sri Sri Conferred With Colombia's Highest Civilian Award". Outlook. 25 June 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  59. ^ "Spiritual Leader Sri Sri Ravi Shankar Conferred With Colombia's Highest Civilian Award". NDTV. Press Trust of India. 25 June 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  60. ^ "Sri Sri Ravi Shankar to Speak at Morehouse's Martin Luther King International Chapel". Atlanta Daily World. 2 April 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
  61. ^ a b "Sri Sri Ravi Shankar gets Paraguay's highest civilian award". The Economic Times. 15 September 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
  62. ^ "Condecorarán al Dr. Sri Sri Ravi Shankar". La Nación (in Spanish). 7 September 2012. Archived from the original on 25 March 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
  63. ^ a b "Sri Sri gets Paraguays Highest Civilian Award". The Times of India. 15 September 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
  64. ^ "Concede Medalha Tiradentes e Respectivo Diploma ao Ilustre Sri Sri Ravi Shankar". Assembleia Legislativa do Estado do Rio De Janeiro (in Spanish). 20 March 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  65. ^ "Sivananda Peace Pillar presented to Ravi Shankar". Sivananda Peace Pillars.com. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
  66. ^ "Prix De La Fondation" (PDF). Crans Montana Forum. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  67. ^ "Ravi Shankar 1st Indian to get Crans Montana award". The Indian Express. 28 June 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
  68. ^ "Sri Sri Ravi Shankar conferred award by German organisation". Deccan Herald. 11 October 2009.
  69. ^ a b "Sri Sri Ravi Shankar honoured by three US cities". Daily News and Analysis. 1 November 2008.
  70. ^ "Sri Sri teaches Art of Living to New Jersey". Rediff.com. 7 July 2008.
  71. ^ "Give me your worries". The Times of India. 11 January 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
  72. ^ "Mongolia's top civilian honour for Sri Sri Ravishankar". Rediff.com. 24 August 2006.
  73. ^ "Of oneness, spirituality and unity". Times of India. 21 April 2005.
  74. ^ "Sri Sri Ravi Shankar receives Honorary Doctorate from Nyenrode Business Universiteit". Nyenrode Business Universiteit. 4 June 2012. Archived from the original on 7 June 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  75. ^ "Gyan Vihar convocation". Gyan Vihar University. Archived from the original on 19 March 2013.
  76. ^ "Editor's Picks: The Seven Most Powerful People In India – No. 5: Sri Sri Ravi Shankar". Forbes. 9 November 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  77. ^ "Ravishankar courts controversy on remarks on govt schools". The Economic Times. 21 March 2012.
  78. ^ "Didn't say all govt schools breed Naxalism: Sri Sri Ravi Shankar". NDTV. 21 March 2012.
  79. ^ Team, BS Web (2018-03-06). "Sri Sri Ravi Shankar likens India to Syria, gets trolled: Top 10 highlights". Business Standard India. Retrieved 2018-09-29.
  80. ^ Ashtavakra Gita. Bangalore: Sri Sri Publications Trust. 2010. ISBN 9380592833.

References[edit]

External links[edit]