St. Aloysius College (Mangalore)
|Motto||Lucet et Ardet|
Motto in English
|Shine to Enkindle|
|Affiliation||Jesuit, (Roman Catholic)|
|Principal||Fr. Praveen Martis SJ (April 2017-)|
|Location||Mangaluru, Karnataka, India|
|Campus||Urban, 37 acres|
St Aloysius College (also known as Aloysius) is a private, coeducational, Jesuit college located about a mile east of central Mangaluru, Karnataka, India. With a 2016–2017 enrollment of 4183 undergraduate students and 1532 postgraduate students and 69 research scholars the college specializes in academic programs in the humanities, commerce, science, technology and management.
Founded in 1880, the college's name reflects its early history as a liberal arts college and preparatory school (now St Aloysius College High School) in the same campus. Its main campus is a monumental attraction with a chapel dedicated to St Alosyius Gonzaga featuring some of the earliest examples of collegiate architecture in South India.
The National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) awarded St. Aloysius College with a Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) of 3.62 out of 4.0 in the third cycle of accreditation in March 2015. The college has been sanctioned ‘DDU Kaushal Centre’ for the year 2015-17 under the 12th Plan Scheme by the Govt of India.
The College is awarded STAR Status under Dept of Biotechnology, Govt of India and is extended to the second phase. It has also been recognised as 'College with Potential for Excellence' by the University Grants Commission (UGC) also for the second phase. The college has been sanctioned Community College Scheme by UGC and the state government has given grants to the college to start Biotechnology Finishing School (BTFS).
In April 2017, the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India, ranked St Aloysius College, under the National Institute Ranking Framework (NIRF) 2017, at 44 among the best colleges of the country and #2 college in Karnataka.
St Aloysius College offers bachelors degrees, masters degrees and doctoral degrees in humanities, commerce, science, information technology and management.
In 1880, St Aloysius College was founded as an all-male school through the efforts of the Roman Catholic Community of Mangaluru, who sent requisitions to Rome asking for the transfer of the Vicarate of Mangalore (then under Carmelites) to the Jesuits. Mangaloreans, who had visited Jesuit educational institutions in Mumbai (then Bombay), Tiruchirapalli (then Trichinopoly) and Kolkata (then Calcutta), envisioned a "College in the City of Mangalore" that would raise the standards of education and nurture a new generation of young leaders to serve both the civic and spiritual needs of the city.
Pope Leo XIII, by the Brief of 27 September 1878, handed over the Mangalore Mission to the Italian Jesuits of Naples, who played an important role in education, health and social welfare of the community. On 31 December 1878, nine Jesuits landed in the old port of Mangalore to form the Jesuit Mission in Mangalore. They were:
- Mgr. Nicholus Pagani (Italian)
- Fr Angelo Maffei (Italian)
- Fr Angelo Mutti (Italian)
- Fr Quintinus Sani SJ (Italian)
- Fr Augustus Muller SJ (German)
- Fr Otto Ehrle SJ (German)
- Fr Urban Stein SJ (German)
- Br Mathew Meneghetti (Italian) and
- Br Francis Zamboni SJ (Italian).
On 12 January 1880, St Aloysius College opened its doors in Kodialbail with only one building, a bungalow donated by Mrs Mary Magdalene Coelho, under inaugural superior Fr Joseph Antony Willy SJ (1880–1885) with 150 students. In 1882, it was affiliated to Madras University as a Secondary Grade College, in Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Ancient History and Logic.
Move to Main Building
The official inauguration of the college took place in 1885, under the rectorship of Fr Willy and the shift to main building took place on 16 January 1885 with 326 students. With the departure of Fr Willy in the same year, Fr Joseph Hoene was appointed Principal and Fr Abundius Cavadini as the Rector of the college with 7 Jesuit staff and 6 lay staff members. In 1887, the college was raised to First Grade with classes from the first form to Senior First in Arts (F.A.)
Shift from Madras University
Independent India saw the classification of regions according to linguistic basis turning all colleges in Dakshina Kannada district to sever ties with Madras University and join one of the existing universities in the newly formed state of Mysore (later Karnataka). In 1958, St Aloysius College shifted affiliations to Karnataka University and then to Mysore University in quick succession. In 1980, St Aloysius College came under the purview of Mangalore University, under which it has been continuing its existence henceforth.
In 1986, after over 106 years of all-male education system, St Aloysius College added its first batch of lady students with about 65 ladies admitted for PUC and Degree courses under Fr Leo D'Souza, who was the principal between 1980-1990. In 1992, there were 511 lady students out of a total strength of 2597.
In 1999, the college launched its first full-fledged master’s program – Master of Computer Application (MCA) followed by Master of Business Administration (MBA) in 2004. This lead to the inauguration of a new campus on the outskirts of Mangaluru known as Aloysius Institute of Management and Information Technology (AIMIT) in 2008.
In 2007, the college was granted autonomous status and has been conducting its day-to-day activities under the autonomous system ever since. Current Principal of St Aloysius College is Fr Praveen Martis SJ. Since assuming the duties of Principal in April 2017, Fr Martis' has accelerated the growth and development activities initiated by his predecessors.
Religious affiliation and ethos
The college is Roman Catholic and the Society of Jesus exercises responsibility over the activities of the college through a Governing Body whose chairman is the Vice-President of Mangalore Jesuit Educational Society (MJES), who also is the provincial of the Karnataka Province of the Society. Though a catholic minority institution, it admits all students without discrimination on the basis of religion, caste or creed. It seeks to establish a academic environment in which those of diverse cultural backgrounds and religious beliefs can participate in the community in a spirit of co-operation and mutual respect. The college strives to provide an all-round education, moral formation, while inculcating worldly and spiritual values.
St Aloysius Gonzaga, after whom the college is named, was a young Jesuit priest who was active when the plague hit Rome in 1591. He is revered for his work among the plague victims where he actively cared for the sick. Aloysius developed the symptoms of plague and died soon after on June 21, 1591. He was canonized in 1726 and named Patron of All Students in 1729.
Crest and motto
The college crest contains a rising sun with the letters IHS. This is the abbreviation of the name Jesus (which is written in Greek as IHSUS). The crest also contains a lion symbolising bravery, nobility, royalty, strength, stateliness, and valour and three soaring eagles symbolising competence and excellence in intellectual, physical and spiritual dimensions of a student’s personality. The Motto of this institution is Lucet et Ardet, which is Latin for Shine to Enkindle. This refers to the qualities of the mind and the heart.
Accreditation and Assessment
Since 1980, St. Aloysius College has been affiliated to the University of Mangalore. It is accredited by the University with the task of preparing students for degrees in Humanities, Science, and Commerce. In 2015, the college was awarded a CGPA of 3.62 in the third cycle of re-accreditation by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC), an autonomous body linked to the University Grants Commission of India.
The national magazine The Week report on colleges has rated St Aloysius College in the top 50 in India in recent years. The UGC has awarded St. Aloysius College the "College with a Potential for Excellence" award in 2006.In 2007, St. Aloysius College was granted autonomy by the University Grants Commission, thereby becoming only the first college in Mangaluru to be granted such a status. The College is awarded STAR College Scheme under Dept of Biotechnology, Govt of India for the second phase.
St. Aloysius College is run by the Jesuits of Karnataka Province. It is headed by a Rector who is also the head of all the institutions within the campus. The College has ten sister institutions: St. Aloysius College Primary School, St. Aloysius High School, St. Aloysius Pre-University College, St. Aloysius ITI, St. Aloysius Institution of Education, St. Aloysius Institute of Management and Information Technology (AIMIT), St. Aloysius Gents' Hostel, St. Aloysius Ladies' Hostel (UG and PUC), St. Aloysius PG Ladies' hostel, and St. Aloysian Boys Home. AIMIT has become an independent campus in Beeri, Kotekar.
The Governing Body consists of the chairman, vice chairman, ex-officio trustees, members, the local managing committee, and an advisory council. The principal functions through the Academic Council of the registrar, five vice principals and other important officials. He is also aided by the Internal Quality Assurance Cell (IQAC) which is responsible for planning and evaluation of the college. The college has instituted various committees of staff and students responsible for the myraid activities of the college.
The Local Managing Committee (LMC) comprises 14 members, including the principal as the secretary and rector as the chairperson, and meets twice every year. It prepares the budget and financial statements, recommends creation of new posts, recommends measures for academic and administrative enhancement, and undertakes many other vital decision-making activities. Consecutive meetings with the Academic Council, IQAC, Board of Studies of every department and heads of the departments are conducted to formulate a prospective plan for institutional development. The college takes measures to upgrade the teaching skills and soft skills of both teaching and non-teaching staff by conducting orientation programmes during vacations
The college has 250 permanent teachers (of whom 163 are women), 6 part-time, raising the number of full-time teachers to 95. The teacher-student ratio is 1:22. Numerous teachers have been accorded special awards and recognition for their distinguished service.
As of 2017, the college is both an undergraduate college and post graduate college with 4138 undergraduate students and 1532 postgraduate students. The syllabi for undergraduate and postgraduate courses are prepared by the Board of Studies of each department, and include mid-term tests and final examinations. The success rate of students is 90 to 100 percent across all departments, and 95 to 100 percent in university examinations.
The undergraduate courses offered by the college are:
- Bachelor of Commerce/B.Com,
- Bachelor of Commerce B.Com Professional,
- Bachelor of Business Administration/BBA
- Bachelor of Business Administration BBA Professional
- Bachelor of Science/B.Sc.,
- Bachelor of Arts/B.A., and
- Bachelor of Computer Application/BCA.
The college offers 17 post graduate courses including:
- Master of Business Administration
- M.A. in Economics
- M.A. in English
- M.A. Journalism & Mass Communication
- M.Sc. in Analytical Chemistry
- M.Sc. in Biochemistry
- M.Sc. in Biotechnology
- M.Sc. in Chemistry
- M.Sc. in Corporate Psychology
- M.Sc. in Food Science & Technology
- M.Sc. in Mathematics
- M.Sc. in Physics
- M.Sc. in Bioinformatics
- M.Sc. in Software Technology
- Master in Social Work/MSW
- Master of Computer Application.
St Aloysius College also offers Post Graduate Diplomas in Computer Application/PGDCA, Computer Biology, Information Technology and Human Resource Management, Konkani language and PGDBM.
Deen Dayal Upadhyay Kaushal Kendra
The University Grants Commission (UGC) has launched a vocationalised program on skills based higher education as part of college/university education, under the title of Bachelor of Vocation (B.Voc.). In 2015, St. Aloysius College was awarded the status of Kaushal Kendra by UGC to offer three B.Voc. Courses from the academic year 2015-2016 in
- Retail Management
- Food Processing and Engineering
- Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
St. Aloysius Community College
The 12th Five-Year Plan Document of the Planning Commission recommends setting up of Community Colleges (CC) to serve needs of the youth deprived of the facility of higher education. Accordingly, St Aloysius College has been granted status of Community College to begin two Certificate Courses in Computer Animation and Multimedia, and Travel and Tourism with an approve intake of 20 each from 2013-14. As per the communication of UGC dated 4 Sep 2014, St Aloysius Community College Scheme has been extended with the introduction of two One -year diploma courses in Computer Animation and Multimedia and Travel and Tourism with an intake of 50 students each.
In the Centenary Year of the College, 1980, The Konkani Institute of St Aloysius College was established for the purpose of propagation, development and preservation of the Konkani language and culture. Fr. Herbert Noronha SJ was the first Director of the Institute. The institute has a Konkani library which has now grown to eight thousand plus volumes and publishes a bi-annual research journal named “Amar Konkani” started under the editorship of (late) VJP Saldanha. The institute offers a full fledged two-year Post Graduate Diploma Course in Konkani since 1997. The institute regularly conducts workshops, symposiums and conferences on varied themes related to the propagation, development and preservation of the Konkani language.
The college is located on a gated 37 acres campus in the city's Hampankatta neighborhood atop Edyah Hill (also known as lighthouse hill), the highest point in the city of Mangaluru. It is located about a mile north of Mangaluru Central Railyway Station and about three miles from Mangaluru Junction Railyway Station and KSRTC Bus Stand. The campus is surrounded by residential urban neighborhood about a mile east of central Mangaluru. The Edyah Hill neighborhood, which borders the west end of campus, is a predominantly high-income area with crime rates lower than the city average. The college is bordered with prominent malls, eateries and hospitals.
There are three main gates to campus, at Edyah Hill (opp Eidgah Masjid) and on Jyothi Circle to the upper campus, and at the northwest corner of the upper campus, along PUC blocks.The campus consists of five academic and administrative buildings, four hostels, one Jesuit residence complexes, one athletic building, a swimming pool, two basketball courts, a security office gate house and several parking areas. The campus also has five convention halls and the world famous St. Aloysius Chapel, a must-see tourist attraction of the city of Mangaluru.
Main Building (1882)
The main building was the first building to be inaugurated at the main campus in 1880. Though currently not part of St Aloysius College (as it now hosts St Aloysius High School), the main building is related to the college as the upper part plays the role of Jesuit residence – a simple yet basic residence for fathers with rooms, cafeteria and basketball court. With 22 Jesuits residing and serving as college lecturers and administrators, this forms the largest Jesuit community in Karnataka Jesuit Province.
Red Building (1899)
The cornerstone for the red building was laid in 1899 and the building was inaugurated a few years later. Currently, the red building hosts the St Aloysius Institute of Konkani along with its library on the first floor and Aloyseum – the Aloysius Museum. Over the past century, it has played host to classes for FA, BA, B.Com and many other streams.
Administrative Block (1946)
Also known as A-BLOCK, the admin block was inaugurated in 1946. Built in Indo-gothic architectural style, this expansive block gives the entire campus a most old-world majestic look and feel. The building can be seen from many parts of the city as it is situated atop a hill. Currently, the A-Block plays host to UG Office, Principal’s chambers, Faculties of arts, languages and computer applications (UG), Registrar’s office, UG Library, Radio Sarang 107.8 FM, Television studio of MA (Journalism and Mass Communication) and St Aloysius Evening College.
The current edifice was built in two phases – the left side portion was inaugurated in 1946 and in 1980, the centenary year, the right side portion was formally inaugurated by Sri Sanjeeva Reddy, the then President of India.
Maffei Block (2002)
On the left side of A-Block lies the relatively newer Maffei Block, named after one of the founding members of the Jesuit mission in Mangalore and former rector, Fr Angelo Maffei SJ. Originally conceived and established for the MCA faculty, the building (formerly known as IT Block and PG Block) currently houses postgraduate courses (MA in English, Journalism and Mass Communication, Economics, MSW, M.Com and M.Sc Mathematics), PG Library and Office, Eric Mathias Convention Hall along with BCA and BA Animation labs. The building also houses the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) centre and alumni association office.
Xavier Block (2002)
Also known as Science Block, this building was inaugurated in 2002 by the then Defense Minister of India Sri George Fernandes. Lying at the hind side of A-Block, the Xavier Block is named after St Francis Xavier, one of the founding members of the Society of Jesus in 1540. The building houses undergraduate science faculties and laboratories – Botany, Zoology, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Electronics, Mathematics, Statistics and Physics. The top floor houses Laboratory of Applied Biology of international repute in Tissue Culture supervised by Fr Leo D’Souza. The building also has an observatory – Al-Solarium.
Arrupe Block (2008)
Named after Fr Pedro Arrupe SJ, the 28th Superior General of the Society of Jesus, this block was inaugurated in 2008 by Fr Vijaykumar Prabhu, the then president of Karnataka Jesuit Province. The building, at the farthest left corner of the campus, houses the undergraduate faculties of Commerce and Business Administration, the office of IQAC and NAAC coordinator. The building has three convention halls of varying capacities.
Loyola Centre for Research and Innovation (2016)
The latest entry into the St Aloysius College campus is the Loyola Centre for Research and Innovation (LCRI) which was inaugurated in 2016 by Dr Harsh Vardhan Batra, Director of Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore. The new LCRI block has seven floor housing postgraduate programs and research laboratories of Food Science and Technology, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Chemistry and Physics Departments. The block has multiple conference rooms and two centrally air conditioned conventional halls. LCRI also houses the DDU Kaushal Centre and has classrooms and staff rooms for B.Voc courses and Community College.
Tourist Attractions within the Campus
The College museum-Aloyseum-functions in an area of 4337 sq. ft with unique exhibits like the first car in Mangaluru, first generator and traditional items of local culture. The observatory ‘AL-SOLARIUM’ built on the top of the Xavier block is used for skywatching through an 8 inch reflecting type Telescope. The College Chapel is a place of tourist importance with well known world class paintings and frescoes.
Community radio SARANG 107.8 MHz broadcasts various programmes on health, literature, culture, folklore and awareness of legal aid in four local languages to the rural communities around Mangalore. The community radio is on-air 14 hours a day and has won two National Awards for best programming.
The sports department has two physical education staff with a total of
- 4 gyms in two campuses
- 360-meter track
- 7 cricket coaching pitches
- 4 basketball courts
- 4 volleyball courts
- 3 Indoor badminton courts and
- Two table tennis courts.
- An Olympic-size swimming pool of international standards constructed at an estimated cost of Rs.3 crores.
For cultural activities, the College has 3 open air stages and 8 halls, two of which are centrally air conditioned.
The College has 4 separate well furnished libraries-3 libraries in the main campus, 1 in the AIMIT campus. Libraries have a total built-in area of 51,712sqft. As of 2015, there are 1,33, 269 books in these libraries and 10,129 books in the departmental libraries. The libraries use J-Gate, N-list, DELNET, PROQUEST, IEEE, EBSCO databases to avail e-books and e-journals. The College was one among the top 10 Colleges of the country in availing e-resources through N-List in the month of April & May, 2014.
An internet and width of 24 Mbps is provided to these libraries. In the Konkani and UG library, rare manuscripts are available. An amount of Rs.24.96 lakhs is spent on purchases of new books, Rs.6.41 lakhs on journals and magazines and Rs7.14 lakhs fore-resources in 2013-14.
A team of researchers led by by Hareesh Joshy, professor and former head of the Department of Zoology, St. Aloysius College, and Mitsuru Kuramoto, professor, Fukuoka University, Japan have discovered a new species of frog in the Western Ghats and Mangalore which has been named Euphlyctis Aloysii in honour of the college.
St Aloysius College has research collaborations with:
- Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden and Max Planck Institute, Germany
- Institutes of repute BARC Mumbai, IISC Bangalore, CFTRI Mysore, National Institute of Technology Karnataka
- Food industries such as Cashew Industry, Milk industry, Bread industry, Chocolate industry for mutual growth and benefits.
- BRNS sponsored project with CARRT, Mangalore University.
- Fisheries College and Botany Department of St Aloysius College.
St Aloysius College has signed research and development MoU with:
- Manipal University
- North Dakota University
- Loyola University, USA
- State University New York
- LeMoyne College, NewYork,
- Tompkins Cortland College, New York
- Yenopoya University, Mangalore
The St. Aloysius College, Mangalore, is managed by the Mangalore Jesuit Educational Society which is registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860, and admits students without discriminating against any religion, caste or creed. It seeks to establish a collegial environment in which those of diverse cultural backgrounds and religious beliefs can participate in the community in a spirit of co-operation and mutual respect. The student population is currently 14,000. Apart from academics the college is well known for National level fests such as Composite, ACME, Art Beat, Imprints, Asthitva, Spin Out, etc.
In the 2015–16 academic year there were 5760 full-time students at the college. Of these, 1702 came from outside Karnataka (approximately 30% of the total student body). Hence, making St Aloysius College a highly national college with all the states represented. In the last five years, 12 international students have been admitted to St Aloysius College through twinning programs and MoUs with international universities and institutes. Combined over 20 languages are spoken at St Aloysius College. Over one-third of LSE's students are postgraduates, an unusually high proportion in comparison with other Indian institutions. There is approximately an equal split between genders with 51% male and 49% female students. The female-to-male ratio in the post graduate departments is 3:1.
The St Aloysius College Student Union (SACSU) is responsible for campaigning and lobbying college management on behalf of students as well undertaking activities related to student support. The student council organises entertainment events and student societies. The council consists of a permanent director and assistant director overseeing the union. Every year, the student council president, vice-president, secretary and speaker are selected through an indirect system of election where they are chosen by the votes of class representatives of various classes in the college, who, in turn, are elected through class elections.
The highlight of St Aloysius College student life is the annual Inter Collegiate Championship Aloysius Fest - when the college hosts seven national level fests of various branches under one roof at one time during three-day long event. Six of the fests are cultural - Art-Beat (Arts), Imprints (Science), ACME (B.Com), Spinout (BBM), Composite (IT Fest), Astitva (Cultural Fest). Apart from cultural competitions, college hosts Aloysiad - inter collegiate sports championship fests for all the streams. The events for the Aloysiad includes Throw ball-Women, Hand Ball- Men, Soft ball-Men, Volley ball- Men/Women, Chess, Table Tennis- Men/Women.
The College holds UTSAV an inter class festival for UG students and SANGAM and LAKSHYA interclass fests for PG students. Every faculty of the College organizes State/National level intercollegiate festivals every year. There are eight major fests conducted by the students which include a cultural and a sports fest. The Students participate in cultural and academic fests organized by other Colleges. In the year 2011-12 the College celebrated 25 years of women’s presence in the Campus.
Extension projects and outreach
NSS, NCC and Rowers and Rangers are the organizations functioning under the college. The College has 3 units each of NSS and NCC. St Aloysius College is the only College to have all 3 wings of NCC in this region. The Centre for Social Concern has adopted 8 villages in Mangalore where a number of outreach programmes are organized. With 54 o-curricular and extracurricular associations in the college every student should be a memberin at least one association. Credits are allotted to the association activities.UG students have a compulsory 20 hour per year Sahaaya programme for two years to sensitize the students to the marginalized sections of the society. PG students have a 6 day rural exposure programme. Students live with rural communities sharing their day to day life. Aloysian Boys' Home-a rehabilitation centre started by the College in 1981, looks after delinquents and destitute children. Staff and students regularly visit these children.
The College has aregistered Alumni/ae Association (SACAA) with more than 10,000 members. It organizes SACAA talks on current issues, Eminent Aloysian Awards, Cricket and Throwball tournaments, Annual reunion, felicitating teaching and non-teaching staff who complete 25 years of service. Its chapters are functioning in Bangalore, the Gulf countries and America.
In the main campus, there are separate Gents and Ladies hostels facility for both UG and PG students seperately with an intake of capacity of 940. AIMIT campus has also separate Gents and Ladies hostels with a capacity of 331. Broadband facility is provided to all hostellers. Public Call Office provision is available in hostels.
The placement cell interacts with industry to secure employment of qualified students. Ninety percent of MBA graduates have been placed in companies like NOMURA, IBM, Bank of Maharashtra, UNION BANK, E&Y, AMDOCS, South India Bank, IndiaBulls, Kotak Mahendra, ICICI Bank, ICICI Prudential, IDBI, 24/7Customer, Infosys, Symphony, Mekaster, Cambridge, HDFC and other leading banks and financial institutions.
St Aloysius College subscribes to the concept of conservation is based on three principles - reduce, reuse and recycle. Al-Vana is a microforest spread over 1.5 acres which is maintained with natural flora and fauna. The entire College is involved in the go-green project. Students of bioscience departments have labeled most of the flora of the campus and Al-vana. Organic waste is managed efficiently through Vermi Technology Programme. Segregation of plastic waste is being done with an aim of recycling plastic. Efforts are made to control carbon dioxide by maintaining clean, green, pollution-free campus. Garbage and e-waste are disposed in an efficient manner. Alternative sources of energy such as Solar, Astravole and Gobar-gas units are used as energy devices.
Notable alumni from St. Aloysius College include:
- Kottayan Katankot Venugopal, Senior Advocate, Supreme Court of India
- Anant Agarwal, research scholar and CEO 
- Aravind Adiga, winner of the Man Booker Prize
- Brian J. G. Pereira, M.D.
- Devi Prasad Shetty, surgeon philanthropist
- George Fernandes, former Union Defence Minister 
- K. V. Kamath, Chairman, ICICI Bank, India
- V. J. P. Saldanha, Konkani language litterateur, dramatist, novelist, and poet
- Maxwell Pereira, former Joint Police Commissioner, Delhi
- Deepa Sannidhi, actress
- Mavila Vishwanathan Nair, Chairman, Union Bank of India
- K. L. Rahul, Indian team cricketer
- K. P. Rao - Scientist, Software Engineer
- St. Aloysius
- Prominent St Aloysius College Alumni - St. Aloysius College, Mangalore website
- George 1992, p. 217
- Union Bank of India Website
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