St. Augustine movement
The St. Augustine movement was a part of the wider Civil Rights Movement in St. Augustine, Florida, in 1963–1964. It was a major event in the city's long history and had a role in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Despite the unanimous 1954 Supreme Court ruling, in Brown v. Board of Education, that the "separate but equal" legal status of racially segregated public schools made those schools inherently unequal, St. Augustine still had only six black children admitted into white schools.[when?] The homes of two of the families of these children were burned by local segregationists, while other families were forced to move out of the county because the parents were fired from their jobs.
Dr. Robert Hayling is generally considered the "father" of the St. Augustine movement. A Tallahassee native originally, Hayling served as an Air Force officer, and then became the first black dentist in Florida to be elected to the American Dental Association. He set up business in St. Augustine in 1960 and joined the local National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The organization led a high-profile protest of the segregated celebration of the city's 400th anniversary in March 1963. While the campaign was successful at convincing Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson to speak before an interracial audience in St. Augustine, it had no effect on the overall Jim Crow laws. The NAACP campaign lacked a direct action component and Hayling believed that this was a major failing. Hayling founded an NAACP Youth Council that engaged in nonviolent direct action, including wade-ins at the local segregated swimming pools.
A sit-in protest on July 18, 1963, at the local Woolworth's lunch counter ended in the arrest and imprisonment of 16 young black protesters and seven juveniles. Four of the children, two of whom were 16-year-old girls, were sent to "reform" school and retained for six months. These four children were JoeAnn Anderson, Audrey Nell Edwards, Willie Carl Singleton, and Samuel White, and they came to be known as "the St. Augustine Four". Their case was publicized as an egregious injustice by Jackie Robinson, the NAACP, the Pittsburgh Courier, and others. Finally, a special action of the governor and cabinet of Florida freed them in January 1964.
In addition to nonviolent direct action, the St. Augustine movement practiced armed self-defense. In spring of 1963, the NAACP aggressively lobbied for the city's federal funding to be suspended until it came into compliance with existing federal civil rights legislation and the Brown v. Board of Education decision. This led to the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) stepping up its death threats against activists. In June, Dr. Hayling publicly stated, "I and the others have armed. We will shoot first and answer questions later. We are not going to die like Medgar Evers." The comment made national headlines. When Klan nightriders terrorized black neighborhoods in St. Augustine, Hayling's NAACP members often drove them off with gunfire.
In September 1963, the Klan staged a rally of several hundred Klansmen on the outskirts of town. They seized Robert Hayling and three other NAACP activists (Clyde Jenkins, James Jackson, and James Hauser), and beat them with fists, chains, and clubs. The four men were rescued by Florida Highway Patrol officers. St. Johns County Sheriff L. O. Davis arrested four white men for the beating and also arrested the four unarmed blacks for "assaulting" the large crowd of armed Klansmen. Charges against the Klansmen were dismissed, but Hayling was convicted of "criminal assault" against the KKK mob.
Break with NAACP and affiliation with Dr. King
After the incident at the September Klan rally, tensions escalated further. In October, a carload of KKK night riders raced through the black neighborhood of Lincolnville shooting into homes. When blacks returned fire, one Klansman was killed. NAACP activist Rev. Goldie Eubanks and three others were indicted for murder (they were later acquitted). Disturbed by Hayling's militancy, the national NAACP removed him as head of the Youth Council. Hayling, Eubanks, Henry Twine, Kathrine Twine, and other activists left the NAACP and contacted the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), led by Martin Luther King Jr, for assistance.
In the spring of 1964, Hayling put out a call to northern college students to come to St. Augustine for spring break, not to go to the beach, but to take part in civil rights activities. Accompanying them were four prominent Boston women: the wife of the vice president of the John Hancock Insurance Company, and three wives of Episcopal bishops (including Hester Campbell, daughter of William Ernest Hocking and granddaughter of John Boyle O'Reilly). It was front-page news on April 1, 1964, when one of them, Mrs. Mary Parkman Peabody, the 72-year-old mother of the governor of Massachusetts, was arrested in an integrated group at the Ponce de Leon Motor Lodge, north of town.
That event brought the movement in St. Augustine to international attention. Over the next few months, the city got more publicity than it had ever previously received in its four centuries of existence. The massive non-violent direct action campaign was led by Hayling and by SCLC staff, including: Martin Luther King Jr., Ralph Abernathy, Andrew Young, Hosea Williams, C. T. Vivian, Fred Shuttlesworth, Willie Bolden, J. T. Johnson, Dorothy Cotton, and others. Civil rights activists made St. Augustine the stage for a moral drama enacted before a world audience.
From May until July 1964, protesters endured abuse and verbal assaults, usually without any retaliation, although this time police were often intervening to prevent violence between protesters and counter-protesters. The movement engaged in nightly marches down King Street. The protesters were met by white segregationists who violently attacked them, and hundreds of the marchers were arrested and incarcerated. The jail was filled, so subsequent detainees were kept in an uncovered stockade in the hot sun. When attempts were made to integrate the beaches of Anastasia Island, demonstrators were beaten and driven into the water by segregationists. Some of the protesters could not swim and had to be saved from possible drowning by other demonstrators.
Death threats against the leadership were reaching a fever pitch, especially against Dr. King. In the first week of June, a cottage that was scheduled to house the SCLC president went up in flames. In response, Hayling and his team stepped up their armed patrols, a policy which King personally disapproved of. Nonetheless, King was under Hayling's armed protection every night he spent in St. Augustine. On June 10, the filibuster against the Civil Rights Act (one of the longest filibusters in history) finally collapsed.
St. Augustine was the only place in Florida where King was arrested; his arrest there occurred on June 11, 1964, on the steps of the Monson Motor Lodge restaurant. He wrote a "Letter from the St. Augustine Jail" to his old friend, Rabbi Israel Dresner, in New Jersey, urging him to recruit rabbis to come to St. Augustine and take part in the movement. The result was the arrest of 17 rabbis on June 18, 1964 at the Monson motel, the largest mass arrest of rabbis in American history. Among the arrested were Eugene Borowitz, Michael Robinson, Murray Saltzman and Allen Secher. While in jail, the rabbis authored a manifesto titled, "Why We Went".
On June 18, a grand jury suggested that SCLC withdraw for a 30-day cooling-off period. In response, Hayling and King released a joint statement declaring "there will be neither peace nor tranquility in this community until the righteous demands of the Negro are fully met".
The demonstrations came to a climax when a group of black and white protesters jumped into the swimming pool at the Monson Motor Lodge. In response to the protest, James Brock—who was the manager of the hotel, in addition to being the president of the Florida Hotel & Motel Association—poured what he claimed to be muriatic acid into the pool to burn the protesters. Photographs of this, and of a policeman jumping into the pool to arrest them, were broadcast around the world.
On June 30, Florida Governor Farris Bryant announced the formation of a biracial committee to restore interracial communication in St. Augustine. Although matters were far from resolved, national SCLC leaders left St. Augustine on 1 July, the day before President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act into law.
Despite this national success, black residents in St. Augustine continued to face violence and intimidation. Consistent threats and picketing by the Klan led many of the town’s businesses to remain segregated. Although SCLC continued to provide some financial support to activists in St. Augustine beyond July 1964, the organization never returned to the city. With his dental practice financially destitute after the loss of his white patients, and the safety of his wife and children uncertain, Robert Hayling decided to move to Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, in 1966.
The black Florida Normal Industrial and Memorial College, whose students had been involved in the protests, felt itself unwelcome in St. Augustine and in 1965 purchased a tract of land in Dade County, moving there in 1968. The school is today Florida Memorial University.
The motel and pool were demolished in March 2003, despite five years of protests, thus eliminating one of the nation's important landmarks of the civil rights movement. A Hilton Hotel was built on the site. In 2003, nearly four decades after Robert Hayling left St. Augustine, the city’s mayor issued a Certificate of Recognition for Hayling’s "contributions to the betterment of our society," and a street was named after him.
St. Augustine Foot Soldiers Monument
The St. Augustine Foot Soldiers Monument is located near the corner of King St. and Charlotte St., in the Southeast corner of the Plaza De La Constitucion, which is a prominent, historic public park. The monument, commissioned by the St. Augustine Foot Soldiers Remembrance Project, Inc., was unveiled on May 14, 2011.
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- Civil Rights Movement Veterans. "St. Augustine FL, Movement – 1964".
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- David J. Garrow, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Harper Collins, 1987) p 316-318
- "Civil rights timeline". The St. Augustine Record. GateHouse Media. Archived from the original on August 2, 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- "ACCORD Freedom Trail St. Augustine, Florida Historic Civil Rights Movement". www.accordfreedomtrail.org. ACCORD, Inc. 2012. Archived from the original on February 18, 2017.
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- United States Commission on Civil Rights, 1965. Law Enforcement: A Report on Equal Protection in the South. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, p. 47.
- Augustine.com – "Black History: Dr. Robert B. Hayling" ; David J. Garrow, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Harper Collins, 1987) p 316-318
- St. Augustine Movement – M.L. King Research & Education Institute, Stanford University
- Duncan, Gwendolyn (2004). "Dr. Robert B. Hayling". Civil Rights Movement Veterans.
- Civil Rights Movement Veterans website, "Timeline- 1963: The St. Augustine Movement"
- Lincolnville Historic District – National Park Service
- St. Augustine FL Movement – 1964 – Civil Rights Movement Veterans
- David J. Garrow, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Harper Collins, 1987), p325
- Garrow, David (1986). Bearing the Cross. Morrow. ISBN 0-688-04794-7.
- Bryce, Shirley (2004). "St. Augustine Movement 1963–1964". Civil Rights Movement Veterans.
- David J. Garrow, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Harper Collins, 1987), p329-330
- US Senate: Art and History "June 10, 1964-Civil Rights Fillibuster Ended"
- "Why They Went: The Forgotten Story of the St. Augustine 17". Tablet Magazine. 18 June 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
- Herbers, John (June 19, 1964). "16 Rabbis Arrested as Pool Dive-In Sets Off St. Augustine Rights Clash". The New York Times.
- "Why We Went: A Joint Letter from the Rabbis Arrested in St. Augustine". Jewish Women's Archive. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
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- "Our History", http://www.fmuniv.edu/about/our-history/, retrieved May 4, 2016.
- St. Augustine Record: March 18, 2003-Demolition begins on Monson Inn by Ken Lewis
- Griffin, Justine (2011). "City unveils Foot Soldiers monument". The St. Augustine Record.
- Welch, Casey (2011-05-10). "Walking Tall". Folio Weekly.
- Racial and civil disorders in St. Augustine: report of the Legislative Investigation Committee. February 1965.
- Colburn, David R. (1985). Racial Change and Community Crisis: St. Augustine, Florida, 1877-1980. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231060462.
- Eubanks, Gerald (2012). The Dark before Dawn: From Civil Wrongs to Civil Light. Bloomington, Indiana: iUniverse. ISBN 9781475955576.
- Garrow, David J., ed. (1989). St. Augustine, Florida, 1963-1964: Mass Protest and Racial Violence. Carlson Publishing. ISBN 9780926019065.
- Smith, James G. (2014). Before King Came: The Foundations of Civil Rights Movement Resistance and St. Augustine, Florida, 1900-1960. (MA Thesis) University of North Florida.
- Warren, Dan R. (2008). If It Takes All Summer: Martin Luther King, the KKK, and States' Rights in St. Augustine, 1964. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama Press. ISBN 9780817380663.
- Civil Rights Library of St. Augustine - A digital archive composed solely of primary source materials related to the St. Augustine Civil Rights Movement
- St. Augustine's Civil Rights Movement - A video with Professor Michael Butler, faculty member of the Humanities Department at Flagler College, as presenter. He discusses the history of the Civil Rights Movement in St. Augustine, Florida. Published March 25, 2015 on C-SPAN; about 26 minutes.
- ACCORD Freedom Trail - St. Augustine Civil Rights Movement and Freedom Trail sites