The current church building, built between 1678 and 1681 replaced the Ss. Catherine's and Barbara Chapel from the late 14th century. With the adoptation of the Lutheran Reformation by the Free Imperial City of Frankfurt in 1533 the city unilaterally appropriated all religious buildings within its old city centre. This status was statutorily fixed in 1830 by the deeds of dotation, which is why St. Catherine's is one of the city's dotation churches left for eternal usage by a Lutheran congregation. The German writer, artist, and politician Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832) was baptized in this church in 1749.