Cyprian

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This article is about the bishop of Carthage. For other Cyprians, see Cyprian (disambiguation).
Cyprian
Bishop of Carthage
Heiliger Cyprianus.jpg
See Carthage
Appointed 248 or 249 AD
Term ended September 14, 258 AD
Predecessor Donatus I
Successor Carpophorus
Personal details
Born c. 210 AD[1]
Carthage[2]
(present-day Tunisia)
Died September 14, 258 AD
Carthage
(present-day Tunisia)
Sainthood
Feast day 16 September (Roman Catholic Church) and (Lutheran)
Venerated in Eastern Orthodox Church
Roman Catholic Church
Title as Saint Bishop and martyr

Cyprian (Latin: Thaschus Cæcilius Cyprianus; c. 200 – September 14, 258 AD)[1] was bishop of Carthage and an important Early Christian writer, many of whose Latin works are extant. He was born around the beginning of the 3rd century in North Africa, perhaps at Carthage, where he received a classical education. Soon after converting to Christianity, he became a bishop in 249. A controversial figure during his lifetime, his strong pastoral skills, firm conduct during the Novatianist heresy and outbreak of the plague, and eventual martyrdom at Carthage vindicated his reputation and proved his sanctity in the eyes of the Church. His skillful Latin rhetoric led to his being considered the pre-eminent Latin writer of Western Christianity until Jerome and Augustine.[3]

Early life[edit]

Cyprian was born into a rich pagan family of Carthage, sometime during the early third century. His original name was Thascius; he took the additional name Caecilius in memory of the priest to whom he owed his conversion.[4] Before his conversion, he was a leading member of a legal fraternity in Carthage, an orator, a "pleader in the courts", and a teacher of rhetoric.[5] After a "dissipated youth", Cyprian was baptised when he was thirty-five years old,[2] c. 245 AD. After his baptism, he gave away a portion of his wealth to the poor of Carthage, as befitted a man of his status.

In the early days of his conversion he wrote an Epistola ad Donatum de gratia Dei and the Testimoniorum Libri III that adhere closely to the models of Tertullian, who influenced his style and thinking. Cyprian described his own conversion and baptism in the following words:

When I was still lying in darkness and gloomy night, I used to regard it as extremely difficult and demanding to do what God's mercy was suggesting to me... I myself was held in bonds by the innumerable errors of my previous life, from which I did not believe I could possibly be delivered, so I was disposed to acquiesce in my clinging vices and to indulge my sins.... But after that, by the help of the water of new birth, the stain of my former life was washed away, and a light from above, serene and pure, was infused into my reconciled heart... a second birth restored me to a new man. Then, in a wondrous manner every doubt began to fade.... I clearly understood that what had first lived within me, enslaved by the vices of the flesh, was earthly and that what, instead, the Holy Spirit had wrought within me was divine and heavenly.

— Cyprian, Ad Donatum, 3-4

Contested election as bishop of Carthage[edit]

Not long after his baptism he was ordained a deacon, and soon afterwards a priest. Some time between July 248 and April 249 he was elected bishop of Carthage, a popular choice among the poor who remembered his patronage as demonstrating good equestrian style. However his rapid rise did not meet with the approval of senior members of the clergy in Carthage,[6] an opposition which did not disappear during his episcopate.

Not long afterwards, the entire community was put to an unwanted test. Christians in North Africa had not suffered persecution for many years; the Church was assured and lax. Early in 250 the "Decian persecution" began.[7] Roman officials demanded that all citizens sacrifice to the pagan gods, but the Christian bishops were especially targeted.[citation needed] Cyprian chose to go into hiding rather than face potential execution. While some clergy saw this decision as a sign of cowardice, Cyprian defended himself saying he had fled in order not to leave the faithful without a shepherd during the persecution, and that his decision to continue to lead them, although from a distance, was in accordance with divine will. Moreover, he pointed to the actions of the Apostles and Jesus himself: "And therefore the Lord commanded us in the persecution to depart and to flee; and both taught that this should be done, and Himself did it. For as the crown is given by the condescension of God, and cannot be received unless the hour comes for accepting it, whoever abiding in Christ departs for a while does not deny his faith, but waits for the time..." [8]

Controversy over the lapsed[edit]

The persecution was especially severe at Carthage, according to Church sources. Many Christians fell away, and were thereafter referred to as "lapsi" (the fallen). [7] The majority had obtained signed statements (libelli) certifying that they had sacrificed to the Roman gods in order to avoid persecution or confiscation of property. In some cases Christians had actually sacrificed, whether under torture or otherwise. Cyprian found these libellatici especially cowardly, and demanded that they and the rest of the lapsi undergo public penance before being readmitted to the Church.

However, in Cyprian's absence, some priests disregarded his wishes by readmitting the lapsed to communion with little or no public penance. Some of the lapsi presented a second libellus purported to bear the signature of some martyr or confessor who, it was held, had the spiritual prestige to reaffirm individual Christians. This system was not limited to Carthage, but on a wider front by its charismatic nature it clearly constituted a challenge to institutional authority in the Church, in particular to that of the bishop. Hundreds or even thousands of lapsi were re-admitted this way, against the express wishes of Cyprian and the majority of the Carthaginian clergy, who insisted upon earnest repentance.[3]

A schism then broke out in Carthage, as the laxist party, led largely by the priests who had opposed Cyprian's election, attempted to block measures taken by Cyprian during his period of absence. After fourteen months, Cyprian returned to the diocese and in letters addressed to the other North African bishops defended his having left his post. After issuing a tract, "De lapsis," (On the Fallen) he convoked a council of North African bishops at Carthage to consider the treatment of the lapsed and the apparent schism of Felicissimus (251). Cyprian took a middle course between the followers of Novatus of Carthage who were in favour of welcoming back all with little of no penance, and Novatian of Rome who would not allow any of those who had lapsed to be reconciled.[9] The council in the main sided with Cyprian and condemned Felicissimus, though no acts of this council survive.

The schism continued as the laxists elected a certain Fortunatus as bishop in opposition to Cyprian. At the same time, the rigorist party in Rome, who refused reconciliation to any of the lapsed, elected Novatian as bishop of Rome, in opposition to Pope Cornelius. The Novatianists also secured the election of a certain Maximus as a rival bishop of their own at Carthage. Cyprian now found himself wedged between laxists and rigorists, but the polarization highlighted the firm but moderate position adopted by Cyprian and strengthened his influence, wearing down the numbers of his opponents. Moreover, his dedication during the time of a great plague and famine gained him still further popular support.[9]

Cyprian comforted his brethren by writing his De mortalitate, and in his De eleemosynis exhorted them to active charity towards the poor, setting a personal example. He defended Christianity and the Christians in the apologia Ad Demetrianum, directed against a certain Demetrius, in which he countered pagan claims that Christians were the cause of the public calamities.

Persecution under Valerian[edit]

Relic of Cyprian in Kornelimünster Abbey

At the end of 256 a new persecution of the Christians broke out under Emperor Valerian I, and both Pope Stephen I and his successor, Pope Sixtus II, suffered martyrdom in Rome.[3]

In Africa Cyprian courageously prepared his people for the expected edict of persecution by his De exhortatione martyrii, and himself set an example when he was brought before the Roman proconsul Aspasius Paternus (August 30, 257).[3] He refused to sacrifice to the pagan deities and firmly professed Christ.

The proconsul banished him to Curubis, modern Korba, whence he comforted to the best of his ability his flock and his banished clergy. In a vision he saw his approaching fate. When a year had passed he was recalled and kept practically a prisoner in his own villa, in expectation of severe measures after a new and more stringent imperial edict arrived, and which Christian writers subsequently claimed demanded the execution of all Christian clerics.[3]

On September 13, 258, Cyprian was imprisoned on the orders of the new proconsul, Galerius Maximus. The day following he was examined for the last time and sentenced to die by the sword. His only answer was "Thanks be to God!" The execution was carried out at once in an open place near the city. A vast multitude followed Cyprian on his last journey. He removed his garments without assistance, knelt down, and prayed. After he blindfolded himself, he was beheaded by the sword.[3]

The body was interred by Christians near the place of execution,.[3] Over the tomb and over the actual place of his death, churches were afterward erected. In later centuries, however, these churches were destroyed by the Vandals. Charlemagne is said to have had the bones transferred to France, and Lyons, Arles, Venice, Compiegne, and Roenay in Flanders all have claimed to possess part of the martyr's relics.

Writings[edit]

St. Cyprian was not a speculative theologian, his writings being always related to his pastoral ministry.[10] Doubtless only part of his actual written output has reached us and this must especially apply to the correspondence. Cyprian's first major work was a monologue spoken to a friend called Ad Donatum, detailing his own conversion, the corruption of Roman government and the gladiatorial spectacles, and pointing to prayer as "the only refuge of the Christian".[3] Another early written work was the Testimonia ad Quirinum. It was during his exile from Carthage that Cyprian wrote his most famous treatise, De Ecclesiae Catholicae Unitate (On the Unity of the Catholic Church) and on returning to his see, he issued De Lapsis (On the Fallen). Another important work is his Treatise on the Lord's Prayer.

Approximately sixty letters survive, and the collection contains in addition some of the letters Cyprian received. Some of Cyprian's treatises have the character of pastoral letters. In his De Ecclesiae Catholicae Unitate he states: "if a man deserts the Chair of Peter upon whom the Church was built, does he think that he is in the Church?" (iv.); "He can no longer have God for his Father who has not the Church for his mother; . . . he who gathers elsewhere than in the Church scatters the Church of Christ" (vi.); "nor is there any other home for believers but the one Church" (ix.).

However, the following works are of doubtful authenticity: De spectaculis ("On Public Games"); De bono pudicitiae ("The Virtue of Modesty"); De idolorum vanitate ("On the Vanity of Images," written by Novatian); De laude martyrii ("In Praise of Martyrdom"); Adversus aleatores ("Against Gamblers"); De duobus montibus Sina et Sion (On the Two Mountains Sinai and Sion); Adversus Judaeos (Against the Jews); and the Cena Cypriani ("Cyprian's Banquet", which enjoyed wide circulation in the Middle Ages). The treatise entitled De duplici martyrio ad Fortunatum and attributed to Cyprian was not only published by Erasmus, but probably also composed by him. A number of grimoires, such as Libellus Magicus are also attributed to Cyprian (but actually it is possible that his "Citation," was the only thing written by him, a prayer for the help of angels against demonic attacks).

Cyprian's works were edited in volumes 3 and 4 of the Patrologia Latina.

The Plague of Cyprian is named after him, owing to his description of it.

Sources on Cyprian's life[edit]

Pontius the Deacon wrote a biography of Cyprian titled The Life and Passion of St. Cyprian which details the saint's early life, his conversion, notable acts, and martyrdom under Valerian.

Veneration[edit]

Icon of Saint Cyprian from a German Orthodox church.

The Roman Catholic Church celebrates his feast together with that of his good friend Pope St. Cornelius on September 16. Anglicans celebrate his feast usually either on September 13 (e.g. the Anglican Church of Australia) or September 15 (the present-day Church of England, although the Church of England before the Reformation, in the Sarum use, observed it on the day of his death, September 14).

A surviving homily from St. Augustine on Cyprian's feast day indicates that his cult was fairly widespread throughout Africa by the fourth century.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Liturgy of the Hours according to the Roman Rite: Vol. IV. New York: Catholic Book Publishing Company, 1975. p. 1406.
  2. ^ a b Benedict XVI 2008, p. 51.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Chapman, John. "St. Cyprian of Carthage." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 15 Jan. 2013
  4. ^ Butler, Alban. "St. Cyprian, Archbishop of Carthage, Martyr", The Lives of the Saints, Vol, IX, 1866
  5. ^ Butler's Lives of the Saints, (Michael Walsh, ed.), New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1991, p. 289.
  6. ^ Oshitelu, G.A., The African Fathers of the Early Church, Ibadan, Nigeria, 2002
  7. ^ a b Benedict XVI 2008, p. 52.
  8. ^ Cyprian. De Lapsis. 
  9. ^ a b Foley, Leonard O.F.M., "St. Cyprian", Saint of the Day, (revised by Pat McCloskey O.F.M.), Franciscan Media
  10. ^ Benedict XVI 2008, p. 53.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]