St James's

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St James's
BPheadoffice.JPG
BP head office in St James's Square
St James's is located in Greater London
St James's
St James's
St James's shown within Greater London
Population 10,828 (2011 Census. Ward)[1]
OS grid reference TQ295805
• Charing Cross 0.5 mi (0.8 km) E
London borough
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LONDON
Postcode district SW1
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
EU Parliament London
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
UK
England
London
51°30′31″N 0°07′59″W / 51.5085°N 0.1330°W / 51.5085; -0.1330Coordinates: 51°30′31″N 0°07′59″W / 51.5085°N 0.1330°W / 51.5085; -0.1330

St James's is a central district in the City of Westminster, London, forming part of the West End. In the 17th century the area developed as a residential location for the British aristocracy and around the 19th century was the focus of the development of gentlemen's clubs. Anciently part of the parish of St Martin in the Fields, much of it formed the parish of St James from 1685 to 1922. Since the Second World War the area has transitioned from residential to commercial use.

History[edit]

Toponymy[edit]

The St James name is derived from the dedication of a 12th-century leper hospital to Saint James the Less. The hospital site is now occupied by St James's Palace.[2] The area became known as "Clubland" because of the historic presence of gentlemen's clubs.[3]

The section of Regent Street (colloquially known as 'Lower Regent Street') that runs between Waterloo Place and Piccadilly Circus has been officially renamed to 'Regent Street St James'.

Urban development[edit]

St James's was once part of the same royal park as Green Park and St. James's Park. In the 1660s, Charles II gave the right to develop the area to Henry Jermyn, 1st Earl of St Albans, who developed it as a predominantly aristocratic residential area around a grid of streets centred on St James's Square. Until the Second World War, St James's remained one of the most exclusive residential enclaves in London. Notable residences include St James's Palace, Clarence House, Marlborough House, Lancaster House, Spencer House, Schomberg House, Norfolk House and Bridgewater House. For the aristocratic nature of the speculative buildings, see Townhouse (Great Britain).

Local government[edit]

St James's was in the ancient parish of St Martin in the Fields in the Liberty of Westminster. Attempts made in 1664, 1668 and 1670 to separate St James's from the parish were resisted by St Martin's vestry.[4] The building of St James's Church, Piccadilly in 1684 forced the issue, and a new parish of St James within the Liberty of Westminster was created in 1685. The parish stretched from Oxford Street in the north to Pall Mall in the south.[5] It roughly corresponded to the contemporary St James's area, but extended into parts of Soho and Mayfair. Land south of Pall Mall remained in St Martin in the Fields' parish and St James's Park was split between the parishes of St Martin and St Margaret. St James's Palace was an extra-parochial area and not part of any parish. A select vestry was created for the new parish.

Governance[edit]

For elections to Westminster City Council, the area is part of the St James's ward.[6] The ward includes Covent Garden, Strand, Westminster and part of Mayfair. The ward elects three councillors.[7]

Geography[edit]

City of Westminster Green Plaque for Henry Jermyn, Earl of St Albans (1605-1684), located in Duke of York Street, London SW1

St James's is bounded to the north by Piccadilly, to the west by Green Park, to the south by The Mall and St. James's Park and to the east by Haymarket.

Notable streets include:

Street name etymologies[edit]

The following utilises the generally accepted boundaries of St James’s viz. Piccadilly to the north, Haymarket and Cockspur Street to the east, The Mall to the south and Queen’s Walk to the west.

Economy[edit]

St James's is a predominantly commercial area with some of the highest rents in London and, consequently, the world. The auction house Christie's is based in King Street, and the surrounding streets contain many upmarket art and antique dealers including Colnaghi, Agnew’s Gallery, Moretti Fine Art, Hazlitt, Gooden & Fox, Stoppenbach & Delestre Ltd, The Sladmore Gallery and S Franses Ltd.

BP is headquartered in St James's.[76] Office space to rent is the most expensive in the world, costing up to five times the average rents in New York City, Paris and Sydney.[77]

The area is home to fine wine merchants including Berry Brothers and Rudd, at number 3 St James's Street. Adjoining St James's Street is Jermyn Street, famous for tailoring. Some famous cigar retailers are at 35 St James's Street, occupied by Davidoff of London; J.J. Fox at 19 St James's Street and Dunhill at 50 Jermyn St.

Shoemaker, Wildsmith,designers of the first loafer, was located at 41 Duke Street but is now at 13 Savile Row.

Culture[edit]

White Cube gallery in Mason's Yard, St James's

Art galleries catering for a spectrum of tastes occupy premises in the area. The White Cube gallery, which represents Damien Hirst and Tracey Emin, opened in Duke Street before moving to Hoxton Square. In September 2006, it opened a second gallery at 25–26 Mason's Yard, off Duke Street, on a plot previously occupied by an electricity substation. The gallery is the first free-standing building to be built in the area for more than 30 years.

Other notable modern and contemporary art dealers in the St James's area include Helly Nahmad Gallery, Paisnel Gallery, Bernard Jacobson Gallery, Thomas Dane, Whitford Fine Art and Panter & Hall.

On the southernmost border of St James's is The Mall where The Institute of Contemporary Arts and the Mall Galleries are located.

Clubland[edit]

St James's is home to many of the best known gentlemen's clubs in London, and sometimes, though not as often as formerly, referred to as "Clubland".[78] The clubs are organisations of English high society. A variety of groups congregate here, such as royals, military officers, motoring enthusiasts, and other groups. In 1990, the Carlton Club, traditional meeting place for members of the Conservative Party, was struck by an IRA bomb.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "City of Westminster ward population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 October 2016. 
  2. ^ Mills, A.D. (2001). Dictionary of London Place Names. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199566785. 
  3. ^ "Pall Mall; Clubland | British History Online". British-history.ac.uk. 2015-05-23. Retrieved 2015-05-29. 
  4. ^ "The Parish and Vestry of St. James | British History Online". British-history.ac.uk. 2015-05-24. Retrieved 2015-05-29. 
  5. ^ "Boundary Map of Westminster St James CP/Vest". Visionofbritain.org.uk. Retrieved 2015-05-29. 
  6. ^ "St James's Ward Profile : July 2013" (PDF). Westminster.gov.uk. Retrieved 2015-05-29. 
  7. ^ "Westminster City Council". Westminster.gov.uk. Retrieved 2015-05-29. 
  8. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p24
  9. ^ "British History Online - Duke of York Street". Retrieved 11 October 2017. 
  10. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p25
  11. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p12
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  17. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p51
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  21. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p73
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  23. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p76
  24. ^ a b Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p65
  25. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p81
  26. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p189
  27. ^ "British History Online – Piccadilly, South Side". Retrieved 11 October 2017. 
  28. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p86
  29. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p74
  30. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p90-1
  31. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p93
  32. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p105
  33. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, 104
  34. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p189
  35. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p156
  36. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p169
  37. ^ a b Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p171
  38. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p184
  39. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p182
  40. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p189
  41. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p204
  42. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p245-6
  43. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p207
  44. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p208
  45. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p216
  46. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p228
  47. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p234
  48. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p236
  49. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p243
  50. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p239
  51. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p245-6
  52. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p248
  53. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p248
  54. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p255-6
  55. ^ "British History Online – St. James's Street, East Side". Retrieved 11 October 2017. 
  56. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p256
  57. ^ "British History Online – Piccadilly, South Side". Retrieved 11 October 2017. 
  58. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p267
  59. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p265
  60. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p274
  61. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p278
  62. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p272
  63. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p280
  64. ^ "British History Online – Cleveland Row". Retrieved 11 October 2017. 
  65. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p281
  66. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p282
  67. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p184
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  69. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p287
  70. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p301
  71. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p308
  72. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p309
  73. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p334
  74. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p336-7
  75. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p388
  76. ^ [1] Archived 25 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  77. ^ Campbell, Peter (2013-02-19). "West End has the most expensive office space in the world costing more than double New York's 5th Avenue, Paris and Sydney | Daily Mail Online". Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-05-29. 
  78. ^ "History : Royal Opera Arcade". Royaloperaarcade.com. Retrieved 2015-05-29. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]