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St James's

Coordinates: 51°30′31″N 0°07′59″W / 51.5085°N 0.1330°W / 51.5085; -0.1330
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(Redirected from St. James’s)

St James's
Fortnum & Mason flagship store, Piccadilly
St James's is located in Greater London
St James's
St James's
Location within Greater London
Population10,828 (2011 Census. Ward)[1]
OS grid referenceTQ295805
• Charing Cross0.5 mi (0.8 km) E
London borough
Ceremonial countyGreater London
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townLONDON
Postcode districtSW1
Dialling code020
PoliceMetropolitan
FireLondon
AmbulanceLondon
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
UK
England
London
51°30′31″N 0°07′59″W / 51.5085°N 0.1330°W / 51.5085; -0.1330

St James's is a central district in the City of Westminster, London, forming part of the West End. The area was once part of the northwestern gardens and parks of St. James's Palace. During the Restoration in the 17th century, the area was developed as a residential location for the British aristocracy, and around the 19th century was the focus of the development of their gentlemen's clubs. Once part of the parish of St Martin in the Fields, much of it formed the parish of St James from 1685 to 1922. Since the Second World War the area has transitioned from residential to commercial use.

St James's is bounded to the north by Piccadilly and Mayfair, to the west by Green Park, to the south by The Mall and St. James's Park, and to the east by Haymarket.

Toponymy[edit]

The area's name is derived from the dedication of a 12th-century leper hospital to Saint James the Less.[2][3] The hospital site is now occupied by St James's Palace.[4] The area became known as "Clubland" because of the historic presence of gentlemen's clubs.[5][5]

The section of Regent Street (colloquially known as 'Lower Regent Street') that runs between Waterloo Place and Piccadilly Circus has been officially renamed 'Regent Street St James's'.

Urban development[edit]

St James's was once part of the same royal park as Green Park and St. James's Park. In the 1660s, Charles II gave the right to develop the area to Henry Jermyn, 1st Earl of St Albans who developed it as a predominantly aristocratic residential area around a grid of streets centred on St James's Square. Until the Second World War, St James's remained one of the most exclusive residential enclaves in London. Notable residences include St James's Palace, Clarence House, Marlborough House, Lancaster House, Spencer House, Schomberg House, Norfolk House and Bridgewater House.

Governance[edit]

Historical[edit]

St James's was in the ancient parish of St Martin in the Fields in the Liberty of Westminster. Attempts made in 1664, 1668 and 1670 to separate St James's from the parish were resisted by St Martin's vestry.[6] The building of St James's Church, Piccadilly in 1684 forced the issue, and a new parish of St James within the Liberty of Westminster was created in 1685. The parish stretched from Oxford Street in the north to Pall Mall in the south.[7] It roughly corresponded to the contemporary St James's area, but extended into parts of Soho and Mayfair. Land south of Pall Mall remained in St Martin in the Fields' parish, and St James's Park was split between the parishes of St Martin and St Margaret. St James's Palace was an extra-parochial area and not part of any parish. A select vestry was created for the new parish.

Local government[edit]

For elections to Westminster City Council, the area is part of the St James's ward.[8] The ward includes Covent Garden, the Strand, Westminster and part of Mayfair. The ward elects three councillors.[9]

Notable streets[edit]

City of Westminster green plaque for Henry Jermyn, Earl of St Albans (1605–1684), located in Duke of York Street, London SW1

Notable streets include:

Street name etymologies[edit]

The following utilises the generally accepted boundaries of St James’s, viz. Piccadilly to the north, Haymarket and Cockspur Street to the east, The Mall to the south and Queen's Walk to the west.

Economy[edit]

St James's is a predominantly commercial area with some of the highest rents in London and, consequently, the world. The auction house Christie's is based in King Street, and the surrounding streets contain many upmarket art and antique dealers including Colnaghi, Agnew's Gallery, Moretti Fine Art, Hazlitt, Gooden & Fox, Stoppenbach & Delestre Ltd, The Sladmore Gallery and S Franses Ltd.

BP is headquartered in St James's.[75] The area is home to fine wine merchants including Berry Brothers and Rudd, at number 3 St James's Street. Adjoining St James's Street is Jermyn Street, famous for tailoring. Some famous cigar retailers are at 35 St James's Street, occupied by Davidoff of London; J.J. Fox at 19 St James's Street and Dunhill at 50 Jermyn St.

Shoemaker, Wildsmith, designers of the first loafer, was located at 41 Duke Street but is now at 13 Savile Row.

Culture[edit]

White Cube gallery in Mason's Yard, St James's
Institute of Contemporary Arts

Art galleries catering for a spectrum of tastes occupy premises in the area. The White Cube gallery, which represents Damien Hirst and Tracey Emin, opened in Duke Street before moving to Hoxton Square. In September 2006, it opened a second gallery at 25–26 Mason's Yard, off Duke Street, on a plot previously occupied by an electricity substation. The gallery is the first free-standing building to be built in the area for more than 30 years.

Other notable modern and contemporary art dealers in the St James's area include Helly Nahmad Gallery, Paisnel Gallery, Bernard Jacobson Gallery, Thomas Dane, Whitford Fine Art and Panter & Hall.

On the southernmost border of St James's is The Mall where The Institute of Contemporary Arts and the Mall Galleries are located.

Clubland[edit]

St James's is home to many of the best known gentlemen's clubs in London, and sometimes, though not as often as formerly, referred to as "Clubland".[76] The clubs are organisations of English high society. A variety of groups come together here, such as military officers, politicians, motoring enthusiasts, yachtsmen, and other groups. In 1990, the Carlton Club, traditional meeting place for members of the Conservative Party, was struck by an IRA bomb.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "City of Westminster ward population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  2. ^ a b Griffin 1998.
  3. ^ a b Roffey 2012, p. 218.
  4. ^ Mills 2001, p. 200.
  5. ^ a b Walford 1878, pp. 140–164.
  6. ^ Sheppard 1960, pp. 29–30.
  7. ^ "Boundary Map of Westminster St James CP/Vest". Visionofbritain.org.uk. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  8. ^ "St James's Ward Profile: July 2013" (PDF). Westminster.gov.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  9. ^ "Westminster City Council". Westminster.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  10. ^ Sheppard 1960, pp. 322–324.
  11. ^ Londonist's Back Passage, Londonist.com
  12. ^ a b Fairfield 1983, p. 171.
  13. ^ a b c Bebbington 1972, p. 184.
  14. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 24.
  15. ^ Sheppard 1960, pp. 285–287.
  16. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 25.
  17. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 12.
  18. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 26.
  19. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 18.
  20. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 31.
  21. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 28.
  22. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 44.
  23. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 51.
  24. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 50.
  25. ^ Fairfield 1983, pp. 58–59.
  26. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 73.
  27. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 61.
  28. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 76.
  29. ^ a b Fairfield 1983, p. 65.
  30. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 81.
  31. ^ a b c Bebbington 1972, p. 189.
  32. ^ a b Sheppard 1960, pp. 251–270.
  33. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 86.
  34. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 74.
  35. ^ Bebbington 1972, pp. 90–91.
  36. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 93.
  37. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 105.
  38. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 104.
  39. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 156.
  40. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 169.
  41. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 287.
  42. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 278.
  43. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 182.
  44. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 204.
  45. ^ Bebbington 1972, pp. 245–256.
  46. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 207.
  47. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 208.
  48. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 216.
  49. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 228.
  50. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 234.
  51. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 236.
  52. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 243.
  53. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 239.
  54. ^ Bebbington 1972, pp. 245–246.
  55. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 248.
  56. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 248.
  57. ^ Bebbington 1972, pp. 255–256.
  58. ^ Sheppard 1960, pp. 433–458.
  59. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 256.
  60. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 267.
  61. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 265.
  62. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 274.
  63. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 278.
  64. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 272.
  65. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 280.
  66. ^ Sheppard 1960, pp. 487–509.
  67. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 281.
  68. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 282.
  69. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 301.
  70. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 308.
  71. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 309.
  72. ^ Fairfield 1983, p. 334.
  73. ^ Bebbington 1972, pp. 336–337.
  74. ^ Bebbington 1972, p. 388.
  75. ^ "Contact BP in the United Kingdom". BP worldwide. Archived from the original on 25 May 2009.; "Where we operate: London". BP: United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 21 June 2023.
  76. ^ "History: Royal Opera Arcade". Royaloperaarcade.com. Archived from the original on 3 July 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2015.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]