St. Louis Cardinals
|St. Louis Cardinals|
|2016 St. Louis Cardinals season|
|Established in 1882|
|Major league affiliations|
|Major league titles|
|World Series titles (11)|
|NL Pennants (19)|
|AA Pennants (4)|
|Central Division titles (10)|
|East Division titles (3)[b]|
|Wild card berths (3)|
|Owner(s)||William DeWitt, Jr.|
|General Manager||John Mozeliak|
|President of Baseball Operations||John Mozeliak|
The St. Louis Cardinals are a professional baseball team based in St. Louis, Missouri. The Cardinals compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) Central division. The new Busch Stadium has been their home ballpark since 2006. With origins as one of the early professional baseball clubs in St. Louis, entrepreneur Chris von der Ahe purchased a barnstorming club in 1881 then known as the Brown Stockings and established them as charter members of the American Association (AA) the following season. Upon the discontinuation of the AA, St. Louis joined the NL in 1892; at that time, they were called the Browns and the Perfectos before they were officially renamed as the Cardinals in 1900.
One of the most successful franchises in baseball history, the Cardinals have won 11 World Series championships (second only to the New York Yankees' 27 and most among National League franchises), 19 National League pennants (second only to the San Francisco Giants' 20), and 13 division titles. While still in the AA, St. Louis won four league championships, qualifying them to play in a forerunner of the World Series. They tied in 1885 and won outright in 1886 (both times against the predecessor of the Chicago Cubs) in a storied rivalry that continues on today.
Cardinals achievements that have impacted MLB and sports in general include Branch Rickey's pioneering of the farm system, Rogers Hornsby's two batting Triple Crowns, Dizzy Dean's 30-win season in 1934, Stan Musial's 17 MLB and 29 NL records, Bob Gibson's 1.12 earned run average (ERA) in 1968, Whitey Herzog's Whiteyball, Mark McGwire breaking the single-season home run record in 1998, and the 2011 championship team's unprecedented comebacks. The Cardinals have won 105 or more games in four different seasons and won 100 or more a total of nine times. Cardinals players have won 20 league MVPs, four batting Triple Crowns, and three Cy Young Awards. Baseball Hall of Fame inductees include Lou Brock, Dizzy Dean, Bob Gibson, Whitey Herzog, Rogers Hornsby, Joe Medwick, Stan Musial, Branch Rickey, Red Schoendienst, Ozzie Smith, and Bruce Sutter.
In 2016, Forbes valued the Cardinals at $1.6 billion, making them the 7th-most valuable franchise in MLB; their revenue the previous year was $300 million and operating income of $60.0 million. Since their purchase in 1995, owner William DeWitt, Jr.'s investment group has seen enormous growth from the $147 million purchase price. John Mozeliak is the general manager and Mike Matheny is the manager. The Cardinals are renowned for their strong fan support: despite being in one of the sport's mid-level markets, they routinely see attendances among the league's highest, and are consistently among the Top 3 in MLB in local television ratings.
- 1 History
- 2 Ballpark
- 3 Logos and uniforms
- 4 Support
- 5 Executives and club officials
- 6 Players
- 6.1 Current roster and coaching staff
- 6.2 Selected individual achievements and awards
- 6.3 Team captains
- 6.4 Hall of Famers
- 6.5 Retired numbers
- 7 Minor league affiliations
- 8 Radio and television coverage
- 9 Opening Day lineups
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Before the Cardinals (1875–1881)
Professional baseball began in St. Louis with the inception of the Brown Stockings in the National Association (NA) in 1875. The NA folded following that season, and the next season, St. Louis joined the National League as a charter member, finishing in third place at 45-19. George Bradley hurled the first no-hitter in Major League history. The NL expelled St. Louis from the league after 1877 due to a game-fixing scandal and the team went bankrupt. Without a league, they continued play as a semi-professional barnstorming team through 1881.
The magnitudes of the reorganizations following the 1877 and 1881 seasons are such that the 1875–1877 and 1878–1881 Brown Stockings teams are not generally considered to share continuity as a franchise with the current St. Louis Cardinals;
American Association and early National League eras (1882–1919)
For the 1882 season, Chris von der Ahe purchased the team, reorganized it, and made it a founding member of the American Association (AA), a league to rival the NL. 1882 is generally considered to be the first year existence of the St. Louis Cardinals.[c]
The next season, St. Louis shortened their name to the Browns. Soon thereafter they became the dominant team in the AA, as manager Charlie Comiskey guided St. Louis to four pennants in a row from 1885 to 1888. Pitcher and outfielder Bob Caruthers led the league in ERA (2.07) and wins (40) in 1885 and finished in the top six in both in each of the following two seasons. He also led the AA in OBP (.448) and OPS (.974) in 1886 and finished fourth in batting average in 1886 (.334) and fifth in 1887 (.357). Outfielder Tip O'Neill won the first batting triple crown in franchise history in 1887 and the only one in AA history. By winning the pennant, the Browns played the NL pennant winner in a predecessor of the World Series. The Browns twice met the Chicago White Stockings – the Chicago Cubs prototype – tying one in a heated dispute and winning the other, thus spurring the vigorous St. Louis-Chicago rivalry that ensues to this day. During the franchise's ten seasons in the AA, they compiled an all-time league-high of 780 wins and .639 winning percentage. They lost just 432 contests while tying 21 others.
The AA went bankrupt after the 1891 season and the Browns transferred to the National League. This time, the club entered an era of stark futility. Between 1892 and 1919, St. Louis managed just five winning seasons, finished in last or next-to-last place sixteen times, and ended four seasons with 100 losses or more. The nadir was the 1897 season: a 29–102 record for a franchise-worst .221 winning percentage. St. Louis' 84-67 finish as the Perfectos would be the team's best finish between the AA era and Sam Breadon's purchase of the team. As the "Perfectos", the team wore their jersey with a cardinal red trim and sock striping. Later that season, St. Louis Republic sportswriter Willie McHale included an account in a column of a female fan he heard remarking about the uniforms, "What a lovely shade of cardinal." Fans liked the moniker "Cardinals" and, the next year, popularity for the nickname induced an official change to Cardinals.
In 1902, an American League team moved from Milwaukee into St. Louis, renamed themselves the St. Louis Browns and built a new park on the site of the Cardinals' old stadium, striking a rivalry that lasted five decades. Breadon bought a minority interest in the Cardinals in 1917 and in 1919 Browns manager Branch Rickey joined the Cardinals. The Cardinals' first twenty-eight seasons in the NL were a complete reversal of their stay in the AA – with a .406 winning percentage, they compiled 1,632 wins, 2,425 losses and 74 ties.
Breadon era (1920–52)
St. Louis baseball commenced a renaissance: since 1926 the Cardinals have won eleven World Series and nineteen NL pennants. Breadon spurred this revival when bought out the majority stake in 1920 and appointed Rickey as business manager, who expanded scouting, player development, and pioneered the minor league farm system, filling the role of today's general manager. With Rogers Hornsby at second base, he claimed Triple Crowns in 1922 and 1925, and the Cardinals won the 1926 World Series, their first. St. Louis then won the league in 1928, 1930, and 1931 and the 1931 World Series.
The Gashouse Gang edition claimed the 1934 World Series and the Cardinals amassed new thresholds of popularity far outside St. Louis via radio. Dizzy Dean led the Gang, winning the 1934 MVP, and leading the NL multiple times in wins, strikeouts, innings, complete games and shutouts. Johnny Mize and Joe Medwick emerged as two power threats, with Medwick claiming the last Triple Crown for a Cardinal in 1937.
In the 1940s, a golden era emerged as Rickey's farm system became laden with such talent as Marty Marion, Enos Slaughter, Mort Cooper, Walker Cooper, Stan Musial, Max Lanier, Whitey Kurowski, Red Schoendienst and Johnny Beazley. It was one of the most successful decades in franchise history with 960 wins 580 losses for a winning percentage higher than any other Major League team at .623. With Billy Southworth managing, they won the World Series in 1942 and 1944 (in the only all-St. Louis series against the Browns), and won 105 or more games each in 1942, 1943, and 1944. Southworth's managerial winning percentage (.642) is St. Louis' highest since the franchise joined the National League. Musial was considered the most consistent hitter of his era and most accomplished in team history, winning three MVPs and seven batting titles. St. Louis then won the 1946 World Series on Slaughter's Mad Dash in Game 7. Breadon was forced to sell the team in 1947 but won six World Series and nine NL pennants as Cardinals owner. They remained competitive, finishing .500 or better in thirteen of the next seventeen seasons, but fell short of winning the league or World Series until 1964.
Gussie Busch era (1953–89)
In 1953 the Anheuser-Busch brewery bought the Cardinals and August "Gussie" Busch became team president, spurring the Browns' departure in 1953 to Baltimore to become the Orioles, and making the Cardinals the only major league club in town. More success followed in the 1960s, starting with what is considered one of the most lopsided trades in Major League history, as St. Louis received outfielder Lou Brock from the Cubs for pitcher Ernie Broglio. MVP third baseman Ken Boyer and pitcher Bob Gibson led the club to a World Series win the same year and Curt Flood, Bill White, Curt Simmons, and Steve Carlton also made key contributions in this decade. In 1967, new arrival Orlando Cepeda won the MVP, helping to propel St. Louis to the World Series. The Cardinals won the league the following year behind their Major League-leading 2.49 staff ERA in what was an all-round record-breaking season of pitching dominance. Posting a modern-day record low ERA of 1.12 and striking out a one-game World Series-record of 17, Gibson won both the MVP and Cy Young awards that year.
In the 1970s, catcher/third baseman Joe Torre and first baseman Keith Hernández each won MVPs, but the team's best finishes were second place and 90 wins. The team found their way back to the World Series the next decade, starting with manager Whitey Herzog and his Whiteyball style of play and another trade that altered course of the franchise: in 1982, shortstop Garry Templeton was shipped to the Padres for fellow shortstop Ozzie Smith. Widely regarded as one of the best defensive players in history, Smith ranks first all-time among shortstops in Gold Glove Awards (13), All-Star games (15), assists (8,375), and double plays (1,590). St. Louis won the 1982 World Series from the Milwaukee Brewers that fall. The Cardinals again won the league in 1985 and 1987. In the 1985 Series, they faced-off with cross-state rivals Kansas City Royals for the first time in a non-exhibition game, and lost the World Series.
Bill DeWitt era (1996–present)
After Gussie Busch died in 1989, the brewery took control and hired Joe Torre to manage late in 1990, then sold the team to an investment group led by William DeWitt, Jr. in 1996. Tony La Russa replaced Torre in the spring of 1996. In 1998, Mark McGwire teamed with the Cubs' Sammy Sosa for a barrage of home runs in their pursuit of the single-season home run record. From 2000 to 2013, the Cardinals reestablished their way to the top with ten playoff appearances, four NL pennants, two World Series titles and 1,274 regular season wins against 993 losses for a .560 winning percentage, leading the National League and second in MLB only to the New York Yankees. With the addition of Jim Edmonds, Albert Pujols, and Scott Rolen, the Cardinals featured three prominent sluggers and defenders nicknamed "MV3;" Pujols won three MVPs and hit .328 with 445 home runs in his Cardinals career. In 2004, playoff stalwart Chris Carpenter's 3.09 ERA and 15 wins helped power the team to a major-league best 105 wins and take the NL pennant. In 2006, beset with injuries and inconsistency, they won the World Series, beating Detroit in five games to set an all-time record-low of 83 wins for a World Series winner.
In 2009, the Cardinals reached 10,000 wins, dating to when they first played in the American Association (AA).[d] St. Louis returned to the playoffs in 2011, first surmounting the largest games-won deficit after 130 games (at 10.5) to upstage the Atlanta Braves on the final day for the wild card playoff berth. In Game 3 of the World Series, Pujols became just the third player to hit three home runs in a World Series game. In Game 6, third baseman David Freese and outfielder Lance Berkman each tied the score on the Cardinals' final strike – the first such occurrence in any game in MLB history – and St. Louis defeated the Texas Rangers later that game with a walk-off home run from Freese. After winning that Series, La Russa retired and became the only manager to do so after winning a title. He also finished with the most wins for managers in franchise history with 1,408.
La Russa's successor, Mike Matheny, helped extend St. Louis' playoff run as he became the first manager in the division play era to guide the Cardinals to the NLCS and playoffs in his first two seasons. In 2014, the Cardinals extended their NLCS streak to 4, with their 3-1 series victory over the Dodgers, in the NLDS. Ten days after being eliminated from the postseason by the San Francisco Giants, rookie outfielder Oscar Taveras was killed in a car accident while traveling to his hometown Puerto Plata in the Dominican Republic. On November 17, they acquired Atlanta Braves right-fielder Jason Heyward (who had just come off a Gold Glove-winning season) to replace Taveras. On June 16, 2015, the FBI and the Justice Department started an investigation on the Cardinals for possibly hacking the Houston Astros. It is unknown if this hack was done by a group of executives, or everyone in the Cardinals front office.
The Cardinals play their home games at Busch Stadium (also referred to as New Busch Stadium or Busch III) in downtown St. Louis, straddling 7th and Clark near the intersection of Interstates 64 and 70. The stadium opened for the 2006 season at a cost of $411 million and holds a normal capacity of 46,861. The Cardinals finished their inaugural season in the new Busch Stadium by winning the 2006 World Series, the first team since the 1923 New York Yankees to do so. This open-air stadium emulates the HOK Sport-designed "retro-style" baseball-only parks built since the 1990s. The open panoramic perspective over the outfield wall offers a remarkable view of St. Louis' downtown skyline featuring the distinctive Gateway Arch. A replica of Eads Bridge spans the entrance to the park on the third base side, while the statue of Stan Musial arises in front of that entrance. Other statues at the corner of 8th and Clark include Hall of Famers Rogers Hornsby, Ozzie Smith, George Sisler, Cool Papa Bell, Bob Gibson, Jack Buck and others.
Due to increased demand, Game 7 of the 2011 World Series accommodated a baseball record of 47,399 by increasing the number of standing room only tickets. The attendance record for any sporting event is 48,263, in a 2013 Association Football (soccer) friendly match between Chelsea F.C. and Manchester City F.C., made possible by on field seating. The largest attendance (53,000) of any event at Busch belongs to U2 during a concert from their 360° Tour in 2011.
Ballpark Village, a mixed-use development located across Clark Street from Busch Stadium, is targeted to enhance the ballpark goers' experience. Phase 1 of the development, completed for the start of the 2014 season, includes entertainment venues, restaurants, and retail. Anchored by Cardinals Nation (which includes the Cardinals Hall of Fame, a two-story Cardinals-themed restaurant and all-inclusive rooftop seating for 300+ fans featuring spectacular views of the field across the street), a 20,000 sq ft Budweiser Brew House, FOX Sports Midwest Live! and PBR, the $100 million phase 1 development of Ballpark Village promises to be a vibrant gathering space throughout the year, not just during the baseball season.
Busch Stadium is the Cardinals' fourth home ballpark and the third of that name. The Cardinals' original home ballpark was Sportsman's Park from 1882–1892 when they played in the American Association and were known as the Browns. In 1893, the Browns moved to a new ballpark five blocks northwest of Sportsman's Park which would serve as their home from 1893–1920. The new park was originally called New Sportsman's Park but became more commonly referred to as Robison Field. Midway through the 1920 season the Cardinals abandoned Robison Field and returned to the original Sportsman's Park and became tenants of their American League rivals, the St. Louis Browns. In 1953, the Anheuser-Busch Brewery purchased the Cardinals and the new owner subsequently also purchased Sportsman's Park from the Browns and renamed it Busch Stadium, later becoming Busch I. The Browns then left St. Louis for Baltimore after the season. The Cardinals built Busch Memorial Stadium, or Busch II, in downtown St. Louis, opened it during the 1966 season and played there until 2005. It was built as the multi-purpose stadium home of both the baseball Cardinals and the football Cardinals, now the Arizona Cardinals. The current Busch Stadium was constructed adjacent to, and partly atop, the site of Busch Memorial Stadium.
The Cardinals home field in spring training is Roger Dean Stadium in Jupiter, Florida. They share the complex, which opened in 1998, with the Miami Marlins. Before moving to Jupiter, the Cardinals hosted spring training at Al Lang Field in St. Petersburg, Florida from 1937–1997.
Regular season home attendance
The Cardinals have exceeded the attendance total of 3 million every season since 2004.
Logos and uniforms
The Cardinals have had few logos throughout their history, although those logos have evolved over time. The first logo associated with the Cardinals was an interlocking "SL" that appeared on the team's caps and or sleeves as early as 1900. Those early uniforms usually featured the name "St. Louis" on white home and gray road uniforms which both had cardinal red accents. In 1920, the "SL" largely disappeared from the team's uniforms, and for the next 20 years the team wore caps that were white with red striping and a red bill.
In 1922, the Cardinals wore uniforms for the first time that featured the two familiar cardinal birds perched on a baseball bat over the name "Cardinals" with the letter "C" of the word hooked over the bat. The concept of the birds originated after general manager Branch Rickey noticed a colorful cardboard arrangement featuring cardinal birds on a table in a Presbyterian church in Ferguson, Missouri, at which he was speaking. The arrangement's production was by a woman named Allie May Schmidt. Schmidt's father, a graphic designer, helped Ricky make the logo a familiar staple on Cardinals uniforms. Colloquially referred to as the "birds on the bat", it initially appeared with the birds perched on a black bat and "Cardinals" in printed letters. An alternate version of this logo with "St. Louis" replacing "Cardinals" appeared in 1930 and was the primary logo in 1931 and 1932 before "Cardinals" returned. In 1940, the now-familiar "StL" logo was introduced on the team's caps. The interlocking "StL" has undergone several slight modifications over the years but has appeared on the team's caps every year since. The first appearance of the "STL" in 1940 coincided with the introduction of navy blue as a uniform color. From 1940 until 1955, the team wore navy blue caps with red bills and a red interlocking "StL" while the jerseys featured both cardinal red and navy blue accents. In 1951, the "birds on the bat" logo was changed to feature a yellow baseball bat.
In 1956, the Cardinals changed their caps to solid blue with a red "StL", removing the red bill. Also, for that season only, the Cardinals wore a script "Cardinals" wordmark on their uniforms excluding the "birds on the bat." An updated version of the "birds on the bat" logo returned in 1957 with the word "Cardinals" written in cursive beneath the bat. In 1962, the Cardinals became the first National League team to display players' names on the back of their jerseys. In 1964, while retaining their blue caps for road games, the Cardinals changed their home caps to all red with a white interlocking "StL". The next year, they changed their road caps to red as well. In 1967, the birds on the bat emblem on the jersey was again tweaked, making the birds more realistic and changing the position of their tails relative to the bat and this version remained on all Cardinals game jerseys through 1997.
In 1971, following the trend in baseball at the time, the Cardinals replaced the traditional flannel front-button shirts and pants with belts with new pullover knit jerseys and elastic waist pants. Another trend in baseball led the Cardinals to change their road uniforms from gray to light blue from 1976–1984. In 1992, the Cardinals returned to wearing traditional button-down shirts and pants with belts. That same year they also began wearing an all-navy cap with a red "StL" on the road only while wearing the same red and white cap at home games. In 1998, the "birds on the bat" was updated for the first time in 30 years with more detailed birds and bolder letters. That year, St. Louis introduced a cap featuring a single cardinal bird perched on a bat worn only on Sunday home games. The new birds on the bat design was modified again the next year, with yellow beaks and white eyes replacing the red beaks and yellow eyes of the 1998 version. Uniform numbers also returned to the front of the jerseys in 1999 after a two-year absence.
On November 16, 2012, the Cardinals unveiled a new alternate uniform to be worn at home games on Saturdays beginning with the 2013 season.[dated info] The modified jersey, cream-colored with red trim on the sleeves and down the front, was the first since 1932 in which "St. Louis" will be used instead of "Cardinals" and retained the "birds on the bat." 2013 also saw the team adopt their red caps as their main uniform for both home and away games; the navy cap was retained as an alternate, used mainly against other red-capped teams. Over the years, the Cardinals have released various marketing logos depicting anthropomorphized cardinals in a pitching stance, swinging a baseball bat, or wearing a baseball cap that never became part of the game uniform.
The team mascot is an anthropomorphic cardinal wearing the team's uniform named Fredbird. He is assisted by Team Fredbird, a group of eleven women who entertain fans from the field and on top of the dugouts.
While unofficial, the Rally Squirrel became an unexpected phenomenon during the 2011 postseason. Making its "debut" in Game 3 of the NLDS on Oct 4, a squirrel ran across home plate in the middle of a pitch from Roy Oswalt of the Phillies to the Cardinals' Skip Schumaker. The Cardinals would win Game 4 and subsequently Game 5 (Oct. 7) in Philadelphia to advance to the NLCS, symbolizing the squirrel's "role" in the victory. The squirrel was popularized as "Buschie the Rally Squirrel" As a tribute to the popularity of the squirrel, a small depiction of the Rally Squirrel is also included on the official World Series rings the team received. It shows up under the "STL" logo on the side of the ring.
Fredbird sparked controversy in May 2015, when he was asked by a fan for a photograph and handed him a sign that said "Police Lives Matter". The team later claimed that Fredbird should not be involved in any political activity or social commentary.
The Cardinals–Cubs rivalry refers to games between the Cardinals and the Chicago Cubs. The rivalry is also known as the Downstate Illinois rivalry or the I-55 Series (in earlier years as the Route 66 Series) as both cities are located along Interstate 55 (which itself succeeded the famous U.S. Route 66). The Cubs lead the series 1,134–1,103 through June 22, 2016, while the Cardinals lead in National League pennants with 19 against the Cubs' 16. The Cubs have won 10 of those pennants in Major League Baseball's Modern Era (1901–present), while all 19 of the Cardinals' pennants have been won since 1926. The Cardinals also have an edge when it comes to World Series successes, having won 11 championships to the Cubs' two. The Cardinals also have an advantage over their Chicago rivals in the regular season standings since the Cubs last participated in a World Series (1945): in the 66 seasons from 1946 through 2013, the Cardinals have finished ahead of the Cubs 51 times. In that same span, the Cardinals have had 47 seasons in which their winning percentage was over .500, while the Cubs have finished over that mark 19 times (they finished at an even .500 twice). Games featuring the Cardinals and Cubs see numerous visiting fans in either Busch Stadium in St. Louis or Wrigley Field in Chicago. When the National League split into two and then three divisions, the Cardinals and Cubs remained together. This has added excitement to several pennant races over the years. The Cardinals and Cubs had never played each other in the postseason until the 2015 NLDS, where the Cubs beat the Cardinals 3 games to 1.
Kansas City Royals
Although both teams play in the state of Missouri, they did not play each other for the first time until the 1985 World Series, which the Royals won in seven games, but which is perhaps best remembered for a controversial call from umpire Don Denkinger in Game 6. Due to their geographical proximity, the teams have faced each other every regular season in interleague play since it started in 1997. This is also referred to as the "Show Me Series" or the "I-70 Series", as both cities are located in Missouri and are connected by Interstate 70. The two teams celebrated the 30th anniversary of their rivalry in 2015. St. Louis leads the series 51 games to 37 as of June 28, 2016.
Executives and club officials
Ownership and valuation
An investment group led by William DeWitt, Jr. owns the St. Louis Cardinals, having bought the team from Anheuser-Busch (AB) in 1996. As with other periods of the Cardinals' transaction history, doubt loomed as to whether the purchaser would keep the team in St. Louis, due to the city's status as a "small market", which appear to handicap a club's competitiveness. Such was the case when Sam Breadon put the Cardinals up for sale in 1947: then-NL President Ford Frick proposed moving the Cardinals to Chicago. When AB placed the Cardinals for sale in 1995, they publicly expressed intention to find a buyer who would keep the club in St. Louis. In March 1996, AB sold the team for $147 million to a partnership headed by Southwest Bank's Drew Baur, Hanser and DeWitt, Jr. Civic Center Redevelopment, a subsidiary of AB, held the parking garages and adjacent property and also transferred them to the Baur ownership group. Baur's group then sold the garages to another investment group, lowering the net franchise purchase price to about $100 million, about $10 million less than Financial World's value of the team at the time $110 million.
Current Cincinnati Reds owners Bob Castellini and brothers Thomas Williams and W. Joseph Williams Jr. each once owned a stake in the Cardinals dating back to the Baur-DeWitt group's purchase of the team. To allow their purchase of the Reds in 2005, the rest of the group bought out Castellini's and the Williams brothers' shares, totaling an estimated thirteen percent. At that time, the Forbes valued the Cardinals at about $370 million. However, after reabsorbing that stake into the remainder of the group, they decided to make it available to new investors in 2010. Amid later allegations that the Cardinals owed the city profit shares, DeWitt revealed that their profitability had not reached the threshold to trigger that obligation.
Recent annual financial records
As of 2016, Forbes valued the Cardinals seventh among 30 MLB franchises. Their estimated value of $1.60 billion was an increase of $200 million from the season before, when they ranked sixth. St. Louis' revenue in 2015 was $300 million, up $6 million. Their operating income was $60.0 million. In 2014, Forbes valued the Cardinals at $820 million and opined previously that they play "in the best single-team baseball market in the country and are among the league's leaders in television ratings and attendance every season." Concurrent with the growth of Major League Baseball, the Cardinals value has increased significantly since the Baur-DeWitt purchase. In 2000, the franchise was valued at $219 million, a growth rate of 374% through 2014. The franchise's value grew 12.7% from 2013 to 2014.
|St. Louis Cardinals' financial value since 2009|
|Year||$ Franchise Value (mil.)1||$ Revenue (mil.) 2||$ Operating Income (mil.) 3||$ Player Expenses (mil.) 4||Wins-to-player cost ratio 5||Ref|
|2016||$1,600||$300||$60.0||not given||not given|||
All valuations per Forbes.
1 Based on current stadium deal (unless new stadium is pending) without deduction for debt, other than stadium debt.
(2015: market $548 mil., stadium $338 mil., sport $331 mil., brand management $197 mil.)
(2014: market $339 mil., stadium $211 mil., sport $156 mil., brand management $124 mil.)
(2013: market $291 mil., stadium $182 mil., sport $151 mil., brand management $91 mil.)
(2012: market $240 mil., stadium $157 mil., sport $119 mil., brand management $78 mil.)
(2011: market $206 mil., stadium $136 mil., sport $111 mil., brand management $65 mil.)
2 Net of stadium revenues used for debt payments.
3 Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization.
4 Includes benefits and bonuses.
5 Compares the number of wins per player payroll relative to the rest of MLB. Playoff wins count twice as much as regular season wins. A score of 120 means that the team achieved 20% more victories per dollar of payroll compared with the league average in 2010.
- Franchise Principals
Besides Ballpark Village, which has now finished its first phase, opening on March 27, and considered a smashing success with the first phase of the project totaling 120,000 square feet (11,000 m2). the Cardinals own four of their Minor League Baseball affililiates:
- Memphis Redbirds, Pacific Coast League (AAA) The deal to purchase them was finalized on March 28, 2014.
- Springfield Cardinals, Texas League (AA)
- Palm Beach Cardinals, Florida State League (High-A)
- Gulf Coast League Cardinals, Gulf Coast League (Rookie League)
- Baseball Operations
- Sr. Vice President and General Manager: John Mozeliak
- Assistant General Manager: Mike Girsch
- Farm Director: John Vuch
- Scouting Director: Randy Flores
- International Operations Director: Moisés Rodríguez
- Director of Player Personnel: Matt Slater
- Senior Medical Advisor: Barry Weinberg
- Finance and Administration
- Sr. Vice President and CFO: Brad Wood
- Event Services and Merchandizing
- Vice-President: Vicki Bryant
- Vice-President of Stadium Operations: Joe Abernathy
- Ticket Sales, Marketing & Corporate Sales
- Sr. Vice-President of Sales & Marketing: Dan Farrell
- Vice-President of Corp. Marketing & Stadium Entertainment: Thane van Breusegen
|1883–89, 1891||Charlie Comiskey†||563–273||.673*||Highest winning-percentage in franchise history;
Four consecutive World Series appearances, one title
|1895, 96, 97||Chris von der Ahe||3–14||.176|||
|1929, 1940–45||Billy Southworth†||620–346||.642**||Second-highest winning-percentage in franchise history (highest modern);
Two World Series wins
|1929, 1930–33||Gabby Street||312–242||.563||Two NL pennants and one World Series win|||
|1933–38||Frankie Frisch†||458–354||.564||One World Series win|||
|1946–50||Eddie Dyer||446–325||.578||One World Series win|||
|1961–64||Johnny Keane||317–249||.560||One World Series win|||
|1965–76, 1980, 1990||Red Schoendienst†||1041–955||.522||Two NL pennants and one World Series win|||
|1980–90||Whitey Herzog†||822–728||.530||Three NL pennants and one World Series win|||
|1996–2011||Tony La Russa†||1408*–1182*||.544||Most managerial wins and seasons in team history;
Two World Series wins
|2012–present||Mike Matheny||375-273||.579||One NL pennant|||
- Table key
- *All-time franchise leader. ** Franchise leader since 1900.
||Total number of wins and losses|
||Winning percentage: Number of wins divided by total of wins and losses|
||Elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame|
Current roster and coaching staff
St. Louis Cardinals roster
|Active roster||Inactive roster||Coaches/Other|
60-day disabled list
25 active, 15 inactive
Selected individual achievements and awards
- Darryl Kile Award: Two awards are presented each year, one to a St. Louis Cardinal and one to a Houston Astro, each of whom exemplifies Kile's virtues of being "a good teammate, a great friend, a fine father and a humble man." The winner is selected by each local chapter of the Baseball Writers' Association of America. See: St. Louis Cardinals award winners and league leaders#Darryl Kile Award.
- No-hitters: Cardinal pitchers have thrown 10 no-hitters: Ted Breitenstein (1891), Jesse Haines (1924), Paul Dean (1934), Lon Warneke (1941), Ray Washburn (1968), Bob Gibson (1971), Bob Forsch (1978 and 1983), José Jiménez (1999), and Bud Smith (2001). The Cardinals have never been involved in a perfect game, win or lose.
- Cy Young Awards: Two Cardinal pitchers have won Cy Young Awards: Bob Gibson in 1968 and 1970, and Chris Carpenter in 2005.
- MVP Awards: 16 different Cardinal players have won a total of 20 Most Valuable Player awards, the most recent being Albert Pujols in 2009. Pujols and Stan Musial have collected the most MVPs with three apiece. Bob Gibson won both the Cy Young Award and the MVP award in 1968. The Cardinals are second only to the New York Yankees' 22 MVP awards.
- Rookie of the Year: Six Cardinals have won the Rookie of the Year award: Wally Moon in 1954, Bill Virdon in 1955, Bake McBride in 1974, Vince Coleman in 1985, Todd Worrell in 1986, and Albert Pujols in 2001.
- Hitting for the cycle: 20 Cardinal players have hit for the cycle, the most recent being Mark Grudzielanek in 2005.
- Triple Crown: Four of the 16 batting Triple Crowns in the major leagues (including three of only six in the National League) were by Cardinals. Tip O'Neill won the only American Association Triple Crown and the first in franchise history in 1887. Rogers Hornsby became the only two-time winner in NL history when he did it in 1922 and 1925 (Ted Williams won two AL Triple Crowns). Joe Medwick's Triple Crown in 1937 is the last in the history of the National League. Hornsby's 1925 numbers led the entire major leagues, making him one of only five players to have won this expanded Triple Crown.
- Home runs and RBI in a game: Jim Bottomley drove in 12 runs against Brooklyn on September 16, 1924, an all-time MLB single-game record that still stands. On September 7, 1993, Mark Whiten tied that record and another MLB single-game record with four home runs.
- 2 Grand Slams in a single inning: Fernando Tatís is the only player in Major League history to hit two grand slam home runs in the same inning, on April 23, 1999. Both were against Chan Ho Park of the Dodgers.
Hall of Famers
Inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
|St. Louis Cardinals Hall of Famers|
|Affiliation according to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum|
Inducted into the St. Louis Cardinals Hall of Fame Museum
In 2014, the Cardinals announced the reopening of the franchise Hall of Fame after a 6-year hiatus. A formal selection process will recognize former Cardinals as Cardinals Hall of Famers each year. In conjunction, the team released the names of 22 former players and personnel to be inducted for the inaugural class of 2014.
Inducted into the Missouri Sports Hall of Fame
|St. Louis Cardinals in the Missouri Sports Hall of Fame|
|Born and raised in St. Louis|
|—||Charlie Grimm||1B||1918||Born in St. Louis|
1965–1976, 1980, 1990
|5, 22||Don Gutteridge||2B/3B||1936–1940|
|8||Hal McRae||Coach||2005–2009||Elected mainly on his performance with Kansas City Royals|
|8,14||Mickey Owen||C||1937–1940||Born and raised in Nixa|
|9||Bill Virdon||CF||1955–1956||Grew up in West Plains, attended Drury University|
|10||Tony La Russa||Manager||1996–2011|
|Born in Liberty, grew up in Alba|
|15||Darrell Porter||C||1981–1985||Born in Joplin|
|16||Jamie Quirk||C||1983||Elected mainly on his performance with Kansas City Royals|
|17||Dizzy Dean||P||1930, 1932–1937|
|23||Charlie James||OF||1960–1964||Born in St. Louis, attended University of Missouri|
|28, 40||Dan Quisenberry||P||1988–1989||Elected mainly on his performance with Kansas City Royals|
|30||Orlando Cepeda||1B||1966–1968||Elected mainly on his performance with San Francisco Giants|
|34||Darold Knowles||P||1979–1980||Born and raised in Brunswick, attended University of Missouri|
|38||Todd Worrell||P||1985–1989, 1992|
|40||Rick Sutcliffe||P||1994||Born and raised in Independence|
|49||Jerry Reuss||P||1969–1971||Born in St. Louis, grew up in Overland|
|50||Tom Henke||P||1995||Born and raised in Kansas City|
|85||Gussie Busch||Owner||1953–1989||Born and raised in St. Louis|
The Cardinals have retired 12 total jersey numbers––second in MLB only to the New York Yankees' 20––in honoring 14 total former players and club personnel on the left field wall at Busch Stadium. A 15th, Jackie Robinson, is honored by all MLB teams. It should be noted that, during the time Rogers Hornsby had played, the Cardinals did not have any numbers on their uniforms. This practice had begun with the Cleveland Indians in 1920. Thus, Hornsby had no number to retire.
- Hornsby: When honored in 1937, '"SL"' was used in place of a number as he played mostly in an era without numbers.
- 42: Jackie Robinson's number 42 was retired throughout baseball in 1997. The Cardinals again retired 42 in September 2006 in honor of Sutter, who was elected to the Hall of Fame earlier in the year.
- 85: Cardinal stockholders honored Busch with the number 85 on his 85th birthday in 1984.
Out of circulation, but not officially retired
- 5: Albert Pujols' (1B, 2001–2011) number has not been reissued since he signed with the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim after the 2011 season.
- 25: Mark McGwire's (1B, 1997–2001) number has not been reissued since he retired. McGwire returned to the Cardinals as hitting coach from 2010–2012, before becoming hitting coach for the Los Angeles Dodgers in 2013 to be closer to his family. On December 2, 2015, he was named the new bench coach for the San Diego Padres.
Beginning with the 2015 season, #25 was reissued to Cardinals bench coach David Bell. The number holds historical significance within the Bell baseball family.
- 29: Chris Carpenter's (P, 2004–2012) number has not been reissued since he retired. Carpenter played with the Toronto Blue Jays from 1997–2002.
- 51: Willie McGee's (OF, 1982–1990, 1996–1999) number has not been reissued since late in the 2001 season.
- 57: Darryl Kile's (P, 2000–02) number has not been reissued since his death in the middle of the 2002 season. Along with Josh Hancock's number 32, another active pitcher deceased in the middle of the season, they are honored with small circular logos bearing their initials and numbers on the wall of the Cardinal bullpen. During the 2014 playoffs, but following the Cardinals' elimination, rookie and star prospect Oscar Taveras was killed in a car accident. His number was added along with Kile's and Hancock's in the home bullpen, however his number was reissued the following season to close friend Carlos Martinez.
Minor league affiliations
|AAA||Memphis Redbirds||Pacific Coast League||Memphis, Tennessee||Ron Warner|
|AA||Springfield Cardinals||Texas League||Springfield, Missouri||Mike Shildt|
|Advanced A||Palm Beach Cardinals||Florida State League||Jupiter, Florida||Dann Bilardello|
|A||Peoria Chiefs||Midwest League||Peoria, Illinois||Joe Kruzel|
|Short season A||State College Spikes||New York–Penn League||University Park, Pennsylvania||Oliver Mármol|
|Rookie||Johnson City Cardinals||Appalachian League||Johnson City, Tennessee||Johnny Rodríguez|
|GCL Cardinals||Gulf Coast League||Jupiter, Florida||Steve Turco|
|DSL Cardinals||Dominican Summer League||Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic||Fray Peniche|
Radio and television coverage
Capable of reaching 21 million listeners in nine states including Missouri, Illinois, Arkansas, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Tennessee, the Cardinals radio network is the second-largest in MLB with 117 affiliate stations. In St. Louis, CBS-owned KMOX (1120 AM) airs Cardinals games over radio and feeds the rest of the Cardinals network. Mike Shannon and John Rooney alternate as play-by-play announcers, with Chris Hrabe serving as pre-game and post-game host. KMOX's 50,000-watt clear-channel signal covers much of the continental United States at night. At one time, owing to the Cardinals' status as a "regional" franchise, the Cardinals radio network reached almost half of the country.
The 2011 season marked the Cardinals' return to KMOX following five seasons on KTRS (550 AM), a station which is 50 percent owned by the Cardinals. With a partnership spanning seven decades, and continuously since 1954, its conclusion realized after the 2005 season when CBS Radio and the Cardinals failed to reach terms on a new rights agreement. However, frustrated by the underpowered coverage of 5,000-watt KTRS, the Cardinals reached a new deal with KMOX in 2011.
Mike Shannon will announce 30 fewer games in 2013, compared to the 15 he took off in 2012, and in previous seasons. Most of the games will be road games and three-city trips. He has been announcing Cardinals' games starting in 1972, making 2013 his 41st year announcing. He turns 74 in July. He has announced Cardinals' games for more years than anyone except Jack Buck (1954–58, 1961–2001) who announced for 46 years.
Since 2000, Cardinals telecasts have generated the top three in ratings in MLB every season. Fox Sports Midwest airs all games in high-definition and is the team's exclusive television broadcaster, with the exception of selected Saturday afternoon games on Fox (via its St. Louis affiliate, KTVI) or Sunday Night Baseball on ESPN. Fox Sports Indiana, Fox Sports South, Fox Sports Tennessee, Fox Sports Oklahoma, Fox Sports Southwest, and SportSouth air Cardinals games for fans living within the Cardinals broadcast territory who do not receive the Fox Sports Midwest channel. The television commentators lineup includes Dan McLaughlin, Rick Horton, and Al Hrabosky. Jimmy "The Cat" Hayes serves as dugout reporter during the game as well as on Cardinals Live, a pre- and post-game show. Cardinals Live is hosted in-studio by Pat Parris along with game analysts and former Cardinals players Jim Edmonds, Gary Bennett and Chris Duncan.
Cardinals Kids, a program aimed at the team's younger fans, airs weekly in-season on Fox Sports Midwest. It's hosted by former Cardinals pitcher Andy Benes, team mascot Fredbird, and Busch Stadium Public Address announcer John "The U-Man" Ulett. The 30-minute show began airing in 2003 and presents team news, player profiles, and Cardinals team history in a kid-friendly manner along with games and trivia.
A weekly magazine program, This Week in Cardinal Nation, airs on St. Louis' NBC affiliate KSDK. Cardinals games had been seen on KSDK (and its predecessor, KSD-TV) from 1947 through 1958, 1963 through 1987, and 2007 until 2010. KPLR-TV was the Cardinals' other over-the-air broadcaster, carrying games from 1959 through 1962 and from 1988 until 2006.
Former Cardinals broadcasters include Jack Buck, Harry Caray, Dizzy Dean, Joe Garagiola, Sr., and Jay Randolph. Joe Buck, the son of Jack Buck, was an official member of the Cardinals' broadcast team from 1991 until 2007. The younger Buck is currently the lead play-by-play caller for Fox Sports' national Major League Baseball and National Football League broadcasts.
Opening Day lineups
Opening Day salaries
Opening Day payrolls for 25-man roster (since 2000):
|Opening Day Salary
(ML contracts plus pro-rated signing bonuses)
|2014||$111,250,000 (Google spreadsheet)|
|2015||$122,066,500 (Google spreadsheet)|
|2016||$145,553,500 (Google spreadsheet)|
- In 2001, the Cardinals and the Houston Astros finished the season with identical records of 93–69 and finished tied for first place in the Central Division standings. The Baseball Hall of Fame wrote they were both awarded a co-championship. According to the Cardinals' website, this was "the first shared championship in major-league history". For playoff seeding, the NL Central slot went to Houston and St. Louis was awarded the wild card berth.
- In 1981, the Cardinals finished with the overall best record in the East Division. However, a players' strike in the middle of the season forced the season to be split into two halves. St. Louis finished second in both halves and was thereby deprived of a post-season appearance.
- Most sources consider the 1882 Brown Stockings to represent the beginning of the St. Louis Cardinals (if it was not the even earlier 1875 or 1878 clubs) but the St. Louis Cardinals baseball club itself considers its history to have begun in 1892 when the team (still called the St. Louis Browns) joined the National League.
- Although the St. Louis Cardinals do not officially recognize their era in the American Association (AA) as part of their Major League history, Major League Baseball recognized that incarnation of the AA in 1968, as well as other historic leagues, existing as former Major Leagues.
- "St. Louis Cardinals and the National Baseball Hall of Fame". National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. Archived from the original on June 10, 2007.
The Cardinals and Astros were declared co-champions of the NL Central in 2001, based on their identical regular season record. The Astros, who edged the Cardinals in head-to-head games, 9-7, were seeded as the division winner in the post-season, and the Cardinals were seeded as the wild-card.
- "St. Louis Cardinals History". St. Louis Cardinals. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
- "St. Louis Cardinals Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved February 13, 2013.
- Eisenbath 1999: 251
- "St. Louis Cardinals". Forbes. March 23, 2016.
- "St. Louis Cardinals". Forbes. March 2015.
- "Cardinals Front Office". mlb.com. Retrieved October 14, 2014.
- Saunders, Patrick (August 2, 2012). "Cardinals fans get another vote as best in baseball". The Denver Post. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
- "Busch Stadium facts". St. Louis Cardinals. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
- Cash 2002: 38
- "St. Louis Cardinals Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved October 24, 2014.
- "St. Louis Cardinals (1882–2013)". Retrosheet. Retrieved October 24, 2014.
- Suehsdorf, A. D. (1978). The Great American Baseball Scrapbook, p. 8. Random House. ISBN 0-394-50253-1
- "1875 St. Louis Brown Stockings team page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- "Franchise Timeline". The Official Site of the St Louis Cardinals. Major League Baseball. Retrieved October 24, 2014.
- "Cardinals assert team history began in 1892". The Cardinal Nation Blog. August 21, 2009. Retrieved October 24, 2014.
- "Charlie Comiskey Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "Bob Caruthers player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Tip O'Neill player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Tip O'Neill awards". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "MLB Triple Crown Winners". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- Cash, Jon David (2002). Before They Were Cardinals: Major League Baseball in Nineteenth-Century. St. Louis: University of Missouri Press.
- "Cardinals timeline 1". St. Louis Cardinals Official Website. Retrieved March 6, 2007.
- "Baltimore Orioles on Baseball Almanac". Baseball-almanac.com. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
- Macht, Norman. "The Ballplayers – Sam Breadon". BaseballLibrary.com. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
- Doyle, Pat. "Branch Rickey's Farm – Minor League History". baseball-almanac.com. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
- "On This Day: Branch Rickey, 83, dies in Missouri". New York Times on the Web Learning Network. January 10, 1965. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
- "Rogers Hornsby player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Cardinals timeline 3". St. Louis Cardinals Official Website. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
- Doug Feldman. Dizzy and the Gashouse Gang: The 1934 St. Louis Cardinals and Depression-Era Baseball. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 2000. 215pp.
- "Dizzy Dean player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
- "St. Louis Cardinals HOF Museum". MLB.com. Retrieved February 23, 2013.
- "Johnny Mize player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Joe Medwick player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Marty Marion player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Enos Slaughter player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Mort Cooper player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Walker Cooper player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Stan Musial player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Max Lanier player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Whitey Kurowski player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Red Schoendienst player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Johnny Beazley player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Breakout selected from 1940 to 1949". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
- "Billy Southworth". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved February 23, 2013.
- "Billy Southworth Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- Fallstrom, A.B. (January 20, 2013). "Cardinals Hall of Famer Stan Musial Dies at 92". ABC News. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
- Schwartz, Larry (October 17, 2005). "Slaughter's mad dash gives Cardinals the title". ESPN Classic. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
- "Cardinals timeline 4". St. Louis Cardinals Official Website. Retrieved May 15, 2007.
- "Bob Gibson player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- "August Anheuser Busch Was Born". America's Library. July 30, 2011. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
- "August Anheuser Busch Was Born". Sports Encyclopedia. April 23, 2008. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
- "MLB Trade Deadline Can Be Great Deal of Trouble". New York Times. July 30, 2011. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
- Newhan, Ross (January 20, 2008). "1964 St. Louis Cardinals". Scout.com. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- "Bill White player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- "Steve Carlton player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved May 16, 2013.
- "Curt Flood player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- "Curt Simmons player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- "Orlando Cepeda player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- "1967 World Series". MLB.com. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- "1968 Major League Baseball Season Summary". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- "World Series History: 1968 World Series". MLB.com. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- "1968: The Year of the Pitcher". SI.com. August 4, 1998.
- "Joe Torre player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- "Keith Hernández player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- Newhan, Ross (July 5, 1987). "A Deep Team Rises to Top Despite Injuries, Cardinals Are Flying High and Leading NL East". Los Angeles Times. p. Sports 3.
- "Whitey Herzog Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- Donovan, John (July 28, 2002). "Calling the Wizard". SI.com. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
- "Ozzie Smith player page". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- "1982 World Series". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
- "Vintage Gallery: Memories of the last 'Suds Series". pjstar.com. October 11, 2011. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- "1987 St. Louis Cardinals Batting, Pitching & Fielding statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
- "1985 World Series". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
- "Chris Carpenter player page". Baseball-Reference.com. March 31, 2013.
- Cart, Julie (September 30, 1989). "Patriarch of Cardinals Is Dead at 90: August A. Busch, Jr., Beer Baron, Bought Baseball Team in '53". LA Times. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- "Anheuser-Busch Looking to Sell Cardinals". The Daily Reporter. October 26, 1995. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- "Joe Torre Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "AB Sell Cardinals". New York Times. December 23, 1995. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- "Tony La Russa retires as manager, three days after winning World Series". NJ.com (Associated Press). October 31, 2011. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- "Mark McGwire's Seventy Home Run Season by Baseball Almanac". Archived from the original on August 17, 2007. Retrieved August 8, 2007.
- "Breakout selected from 2000 to 2013". Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
- Goold, Derrick (December 24, 2011). "Cardinals recast the 'MV3'". stltoday.com. Retrieved June 3, 2012.
- "Albert Pujols player page". Baseball-Reference.com. March 31, 2013.
- "2004 St. Louis Cardinals team page". Baseball-Reference.com. March 31, 2013.
- Morris, Patrick (February 6, 2008). "Cardinals win like never before". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- "Top 10 Unlikely World Series Winners". RealClearSports. October 25, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- "Cardinals timeline: 2000s". St. Louis Cardinals Official Website. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- "2006 St. Louis Cardinals team page". Baseball-Reference.com. March 31, 2013.
- "American Association Remembered". MLB.com. May 7, 2007. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- "The St. Louis Cardinals' Greatest Moments". Back to Baseball. July 24, 2012. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- Miklasz, Bernie (October 29, 2011). "Cardinals win like never before". St Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
- Strauss, Joe (October 22, 2011). "Pujols puts on historic display of power". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
- DiComo, Anthony (October 28, 2011). "'Unbelievable' Game 6 ranks among the best". MLB.com. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
- Jenkins, Bruce (October 12, 2012). "Cardinals carry on winning tradition". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved November 5, 2012.
- "Cardinals to retire Tony La Russa's No. 10 jersey". USATODAY.com (AP). May 1, 2012. Retrieved May 3, 2012.
- Cardinals Press Release (November 20, 2013). "Cardinals announce extension for Matheny". cleveland.indians.mlb.com. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- Cards in disbelief over Taveras' death
- Heyward, Miller in Braves-Cards swap
- Schmidt, Michael (June 16, 2015). "Cardinals Face F.B.I. Inquiry in Hacking of Astros’ Database". Retrieved June 16, 2015.
- "Busch Stadium Information – Directions". cardinals.com. Retrieved May 27, 2013.
- "Busch Stadium". ballparks.com. Retrieved May 27, 2013.
- "Cardinals make 65,000 additional tickets available" St. Louis Cardinals Press Release, April 28, 2006
- Spector, Jesse (November 5, 2009). "27 things about those 27 New York Yankees World Series titles". New York Daily News.
- "Park Factors for Busch Stadium, St. Louis". parkfactors.com. Retrieved May 27, 2013.
- Hoffert, Jess. "Busch Stadium". midwestliving.com. Retrieved May 27, 2013.
- Kim, Roland (September 5, 2012). "Watching a Cardinals Game at Busch Stadium". Yahoo! Voices.
- Granillo, Larry (February 3, 2010). "Baseball's Best Statues, by Ballpark". wezen-ball.com.
- Snyder, Matt (May 24, 2013). "PHOTO: Busch Stadium as a soccer venue". CBSSports.com. Retrieved May 27, 2013.
- Volkmann, Kelsey (July 18, 2011). "U2 rocks Busch Stadium in St. Louis". St. Louis Business Journal. Retrieved May 27, 2013.
- "Busch Stadium Ballpark Village Information". cardinals.com. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
- "St. Louis Cardinals Attendance, Stadiums, and Park Factors". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
- "Theme of the week". www.stlouis.cardinals.mlb.com Cardinals Hall of Fame Museum. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- "Cardinals uniforms". Baseball Hall of Fame Uniform Database. Retrieved May 3, 2008.
- "Cardinals unveil alternate home jersey | cardinals.com: News". St. Louis Cardinals. MLB. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- Britt, Crystal (October 7, 2011). "Fans hope Buschie the Rally Squirrel is good luck – KFVS12 News & Weather Cape Girardeau, Carbondale, Poplar Bluff". Kfvs12.com. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- Lee, Tony (January 12, 2011). "Cubs, Cardinals Must Emulate Yankees, Red Sox to Rekindle Rivalry". NESN. Retrieved February 6, 2011.
- "In defense of DeWit & Company". Scout.com. December 24, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "Baseball's Sign of the Times: Under New Ownership". Chicago Tribune. December 26, 1995. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "Anheuser-Busch Puts Cardinals Up for Sale". Eugene Register-Guard. October 26, 1995. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- Judd 2002: 91
- "Cards owners worth $4 billion". St. Louis Business Journal. May 6, 2001. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "Cardinals group to buy up departing owners' stakes". St. Louis Business Journal. November 20, 2005. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- "DeWitt III defends Cardinals; releases owner names". St. Louis Business Journal. December 7, 2010. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- Mike Ozanian (March 23, 2016). "Baseball's Most Valuable Teams". Forbes.
- "St. Louis Cardinals – in photos: MLB valuations". Forbes. March 26, 2014. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
- "#10 St. Louis Cardinals". Forbes. March 26, 2013. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
- "St. Louis Cardinals, LLC". Privco. March 26, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
- "#8 St. Louis Cardinals". Forbes. April 7, 2010. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
- "#11 St. Louis Cardinals". Forbes. March 23, 2011. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
- "#11 St. Louis Cardinals". Forbes. March 21, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
- "St. Louis Cardinals on the Forbes MLB team valuations list". Forbes. Retrieved March 30, 2014.
- "St. Louis Cardinals on the Forbes MLB team valuations list". Forbes. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- "First phase of Ballpark Village opens". MLB.com. March 27, 2014.
- "Finally! Ballpark Village announces its grand opening lineup". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. March 6, 2014.
- "Ballpark Village at Busch a smashing success". MLB.com. April 7, 2014.
- "Cardinals finalize purchase of Memphis Redbirds: Club has long-term lease agreement with city to use AutoZone Park". MLB.com. March 28, 2014.
- Liss, Samantha (November 16, 2013). "Cardinals acquire Memphis Redbirds". St. Louis Business Journal. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
- Langosch, Jenifer (December 9, 2013). "Vote delayed again on Cards' purchase of Redbirds". www.stlouis.cardinals.mlb.com. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
- Hummel, Rick (November 16, 2013). "Cardinals buy Memphis franchise". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
- "Chris Von der Ahe Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "Patsy Donovan Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "John McCloskey Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "Roger Bresnahan Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "Miller Huggins Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "Branch Rickey Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "Gabby Street Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "Frankie Frisch Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "Eddie Dyer Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "Eddie Stanky Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "Fred Hutchinson Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
- "Solly Hemus Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
- "Johhny Keane Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "Red Schoendienst Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "Ken Boyer Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
- "Tony LaRussa Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
- "Mike Matheny Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved October 19, 2013.
- "Darryl Kile Award". Baseball-almanac.com. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- St. Louis Cardinals award winners and league leaders
- NL MVP Awards by team
- "St. Louis Cardinals". Baseball-almanac.com. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
- "Triple Crown Winners". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
- "RBI records". Baseball-almanac.com. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
- "Box score for Bottomley". Retrosheet.org. September 16, 1924. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
- "Home run records". Baseball-almanac.com. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
- "Box score". Retrosheet.org. September 7, 1993. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
- "Baseball Almanac". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
- "Cardinals establish Hall of Fame & detail induction process" (Press release). St. Louis Cardinals. January 18, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- "Cardinals retired numbers". stlouis.cardinals.mlb.com. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
- Kiley, Gabriel (July 12, 2012). "A look at the Cardinals retired numbers". stlouis.cardinals.mlb.com. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
- Araton, Harvey (April 14, 2010). "Yankees' Mariano Rivera is the last No. 42". New York Times.
- Lupica, Matt (January 2012). "Busch Stadium". The Baseball Stadium Insider: A Comprehensive Dissection of All Thirty Ballparks, the Legendary Players, and the Memorable Moments. Bloomington, Indiana: iUniverse. p. 221.
A lifetime .358 hitter, Hornsby was inducted in the Hall of Fame in 1942, and the Cardinals honored him alongside the retired numbers with the 'SL' symbol due to his playing days predating the use of numbers.
- Snyder, John. Cardinals Journal: Year by Year and Day by Day with the St. Louis Cardinals Since 1882. Clerisy Press. p. 689. ISBN 9781578604807.
- Goold, Derrick (February 6, 2013). "Cards issue No. 32 for first time since Hancock wore it". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
- "Shannon will do fewer Cards games in 2013". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. March 22, 2013. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- "Edmonds joins Fox Sports Midwest". Fox Sports Midwest.com. March 14, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- "About Cardinals Kids". Cardinals Kids.com. 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- "Pirates 4, Cardinals 1". MLB.com. April 3, 2016.
- "Cardinals 3, Cubs 0". MLB.com. April 5, 2015.
- "Cardinals 1, Reds 0". MLB.com. March 31, 2014.
- "Matheny unveils Cardinals' Opening Day lineup". MLB.com. March 31, 2013.
- The Washington Critic. September 12, 1887. Missing or empty
- "March 31, 2011 San Diego Padres at St. Louis Cardinals Box Score and Play by Play". Baseball-Reference.com. March 31, 2011. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "April 5, 2010 St. Louis Cardinals at Cincinnati Reds Play by Play and Box Score". Baseball-Reference.com. April 5, 2010. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "April 6, 2009 Pittsburgh Pirates at St. Louis Cardinals Box Score and Play by Play". Baseball-Reference.com. April 6, 2009. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "April 1, 2008 Colorado Rockies at St. Louis Cardinals Play by Play and Box Score". Baseball-Reference.com. April 1, 2008. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "April 1, 2007 New York Mets at St. Louis Cardinals Box Score and Play by Play". Baseball-Reference.com. April 1, 2007. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "April 3, 2006 St. Louis Cardinals at Philadelphia Phillies Play by Play and Box Score". Baseball-Reference.com. April 3, 2006. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "April 5, 2005 St. Louis Cardinals at Houston Astros Box Score and Play by Play". Baseball-Reference.com. April 5, 2005. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "April 5, 2004 Milwaukee Brewers at St. Louis Cardinals Play by Play and Box Score". Baseball-Reference.com. April 5, 2004. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "Box Score of Game played on Monday, March 31, 2003 at Busch Stadium II". Baseball-almanac.com. March 31, 2003. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "Box Score of Game played on Monday, April 15, 1985 at Busch Stadium II". Baseball-almanac.com. April 15, 1985. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "Box Score of Game played on Tuesday, April 11, 1967 at Busch Stadium II". Baseball-almanac.com. April 11, 1967. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "Cot's Baseball Contracts". Baseballprospectus.com. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
- Cash, Jon (2002). Before They Were Cardinals: Major-League Baseball in Nineteenth-Century St. Louis. University of Missouri Press. ISBN 0-826-21935-7.
- Eisenbath, Mike (1999). The Cardinals Encyclopedia. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-703-0. OCLC 40193767.
- Judd, Dennis (2002). The Infrastructure of Play: Building the Tourist City. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-0956-4.
- Taylor, Phil (October 31, 2011). "Where's The Boo In Booster?". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
Redbird Nation's reputation as the most knowledgeable, loyal and, above all, friendly fans in the majors ... 'Our fans are the best because they're just as passionate as anywhere else, ..., but they're probably a little more fair-minded,' says St. Louis manager Tony La Russa.
- Weintraub, Robert (2013). The Victory Season: The End of World War II and the Birth of Baseball's Golden Age. New York: Little, Brown & Company. ISBN 978-0-316-20591-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to St. Louis Cardinals.|