St. Louis Lambert International Airport

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

St. Louis Lambert International Airport
St. Louis Lambert International Airport logo.png
St. Louis Lambert T1 from West.jpg
Summary
Airport typePublic
Owner/OperatorSt. Louis City Airport Commission
ServesGreater St. Louis and Southern Illinois
LocationUnincorporated St. Louis County 10 miles (16 km) NW of St. Louis, Missouri, United States
Opened1923; 100 years ago (1923)
Hub for
Focus city forSouthwest Airlines
Elevation AMSL605 ft / 184 m
Coordinates38°44′50″N 090°21′41″W / 38.74722°N 90.36139°W / 38.74722; -90.36139Coordinates: 38°44′50″N 090°21′41″W / 38.74722°N 90.36139°W / 38.74722; -90.36139
Websitewww.flystl.com
Maps
FAA airport diagram
FAA airport diagram
STL is located in Missouri
STL
STL
STL is located in the United States
STL
STL
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
12R/30L 11,020 3,359 Concrete
12L/30R 9,013 2,747 Concrete
11/29 9,000 2,743 Concrete
6/24 7,603 2,317 Concrete
Statistics (2021)
Total passengers10,351,533
Aircraft operations137,701
Source: St. Louis Lambert International Airport[1]

St. Louis Lambert International Airport (IATA: STL, ICAO: KSTL, FAA LID: STL) is the primary commercial airport serving metropolitan St. Louis, Missouri, United States. Commonly referred to as Lambert Field or simply Lambert, it is the largest and busiest airport in the state of Missouri. The 2,800-acre (1,100 ha)[2][3] airport sits 14 miles (23 km) northwest of downtown St. Louis in unincorporated St. Louis County between Berkeley and Bridgeton. The airport provides nonstop service to airports throughout the United States and to the Caribbean, Mexico, Canada, and Europe. In 2019, it served nearly 16 million passengers with more than 259 daily departures to 78 nonstop domestic and international locations.[4]

Named for Albert Bond Lambert, an Olympic medalist and prominent St. Louis aviator, the airport rose to international prominence in the 20th century thanks to its association with Charles Lindbergh, its groundbreaking air traffic control (ATC), its status as the primary hub of Trans World Airlines (TWA), and its iconic terminal.[5]

St. Louis Lambert International Airport is connected by the MetroLink mass transportation rail system to other parts of the St. Louis metropolitan area, including a future connection to the region's secondary commercial airport, MidAmerica St. Louis Airport about 37 miles (60 km) to the east. [6]

History[edit]

Beginnings[edit]

Aerial view of Naval Air Station St. Louis in the mid-1940s

The airport had its beginnings in 1909, when the Aero Club of St. Louis created a balloon launching base called the Permanent Aviation Field and Dirigible Harbor in Kinloch Park, a suburban development of the 1890s.[7] In October 1910, the airfield hosted the first International Air Meet, attracting "many famous persons," including the Wright brothers, who brought six airplanes and their Exhibition Team. President Theodore Roosevelt accepted the club's telegraphed invitation to attend, and after initially ruling out a flight,[8] took off on October 11 with pilot Arch Hoxsey, becoming the first U.S. president to fly.[9] The following year, the airfield—generally called Kinloch Field—was the takeoff point for what is generally regarded as the first parachute jump from an airplane.[10] The club's lease on the land expired in 1912, and the field was closed and its grandstand demolished. Efforts to revive the facility were unsuccessful.[9]

In June 1920, a nearby 170-acre field[9] was leased to the Missouri Aeronautical Society,[11] which named its facility the St. Louis Flying Field. Among the Society's leading members was Albert Bond Lambert, an Olympic silver medalist golfer in the 1904 Summer Games, president of Lambert Pharmaceutical Corporation (which made Listerine),[12] and the first person to receive a pilot's license in St. Louis. So vigorous was Lambert in his efforts to promote St. Louis aviation that in 1923 the field was renamed Lambert-St. Louis Flying Field.[9] "Major" Lambert (his "rank" was given by the Aero Club and not the military) purchased the field outright in February 1925, and added hangars and a passenger terminal.[11] In the late 1920s, the airport became the first with an air traffic control system–albeit one that communicated with pilots via waving flags. The first controller was Archie League.[13]

Charles Lindbergh's first piloting job was flying airmail for Robertson Aircraft Corporation from the airfield. He stopped at the airport during his cross-country San Diego to New York flight about a week before his record-breaking flight to Paris in 1927. In February 1928, the City of St. Louis leased the airport for $1. Later that year, Lambert sold the airport to the city after a $2 million bond issue was passed, making it one of the first municipally owned airports in the United States.[5][14]

In 1925, the airport became home to Naval Air Station St. Louis, a Naval Air Reserve facility that became an active-duty installation during World War II.[15]

In 1930, the airport was officially christened Lambert–St. Louis Municipal Airport by Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd. The first terminal building opened in 1933,[14] and within the decade, the airport was served by Robertson Air Lines, Marquette Airlines, Eastern Air Lines, and Transcontinental & Western Air (later renamed TWA).[14][16][17][18][19][20][21][22]

In August 1942, voters passed a $4.5 million bond issue to expand the airport by 867 acres (351 ha) and build a new terminal.[14]

During World War II, the airport became a manufacturing base for the McDonnell Aircraft Corporation (later McDonnell Douglas, now Boeing) and Curtiss-Wright.[23][24]

After World War II: expansion, Ozark Air Lines hub[edit]

Terminal 1 as it originally appeared
Ozark DC-9 at Lambert

After the war, NAS St. Louis reverted to a reserve installation, supporting carrier-based fighters and land-based patrol aircraft. When it closed in 1958, most of its facilities were acquired by the Missouri Air National Guard and became Lambert Field Air National Guard Base. Some other facilities were retained by non-flying activities of the Naval Reserve and Marine Corps Reserve, while the rest was redeveloped to expand airline operations at the airport.[15]

Ozark Air Lines began operations at the airport in 1950.[14]

To handle increasing passenger traffic, Minoru Yamasaki was commissioned to design a new terminal, which began construction in 1953. Completed in 1956 at a total cost of $7.2 million, the three-domed design preceded terminals at John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK) in New York City and Paris–Charles de Gaulle Airport.[5][14] A fourth dome was added in 1965 following the passage of a $200 million airport revenue bond.[25][26][14]

The April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 44 weekday TWA departures; American, 24; Delta, 16; Ozark, 14; Eastern, 13; Braniff, 6 and Central, 2. The first scheduled jet was a TWA 707 to New York on July 21, 1959.[27][28]

In 1971, the airport became Lambert–St. Louis International Airport.[24]

In the 1970s, St. Louis city officials proposed to replace Lambert with a new airport in suburban Illinois. After Missouri residents rejected that, Lambert in 1977 received a $290-million expansion that lengthened the runways, increased the number of gates to 81, and boosted its capacity by half. (In 1997, MidAmerica St. Louis Airport would open in Mascoutah, Illinois, far from the site proposed in the 1970s.) Concourse A and Concourse C were rebuilt into bi-level structures with jet bridges as part of a $25 million project in the mid-1970s designed by Sverdrup. The other concourses were demolished. Construction began in the spring of 1976 and was completed in September 1977.[29] A $20 million, 120,000-square-foot (11,000 m2) extension of Concourse C for TWA and a $46 million, 210,000-square-foot (20,000 m2) Concourse D for Ozark Air Lines (also designed by Sverdrup) were completed in December 1982.[30][31]

Ozark established its only hub at Lambert in the late 1950s. The airline grew rapidly, going from 36 million revenue passenger miles in 1955, to 229 million revenue passenger miles in 1965. The jet age came to Ozark in 1966 with the Douglas DC-9-10 and its network expanded to Denver, Indianapolis, Louisville, Washington, D.C., New York City, Miami, Tampa, and Orlando. With the addition of jets, Ozark began its fastest period of growth, jumping to 653 million revenue passenger miles in 1970 and 936 million revenue passenger miles in 1975;[32] Ozark soon faced heavy competition in TWA's new hub at Lambert.

In 1979, the year after airline deregulation, STL's dominant carriers were TWA (36 routes) and Ozark (25), followed by American (17) and Eastern (12). Other carriers at STL included Air Illinois, Air Indiana, Braniff International Airways, Britt Airways, Brower Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Frontier Airlines, Northwest Orient, Republic Airlines, Texas International Airlines, Trans-Mo Airlines, and USAir.[33]

Trans World Airlines hub[edit]

TWA L-1011 at Lambert

After airline deregulation in 1978, airlines began to change their operations to a hub and spoke model. Trans World Airlines (TWA) was headquartered in New York City but its main base of employment was at Kansas City International Airport (KCI) and had large operations at Chicago O'Hare International Airport (ORD) as well as St. Louis. TWA deemed Kansas City's terminals unsuitable to serve as a primary hub. TWA reluctantly ruled out Chicago, as its Chicago operation was already losing $25 million a year under competition from American Airlines and United Airlines. This meant that St. Louis was the carrier's only viable option. TWA downsized in Chicago and built up in St. Louis, swapping three Chicago gates for five of American's St. Louis gates. By December 1982, St. Louis accounted for 20% of TWA's domestic capacity. Lambert's terminal was initially too small for this operation, and TWA was forced to use temporary terminals, mobile lounges and airstairs to handle the additional flights.[34] After Concourse D was completed in 1985, TWA began transatlantic service from Lambert to London, Frankfurt, and Paris.[35]

TWA's hub grew again in 1986 when the airline bought Ozark Air Lines, which operated its hub from Lambert's B, C, and D concourses. In 1985, TWA had accounted for 56.6% of boardings at STL while Ozark accounted for 26.3%, so the merged carriers controlled over 80% of the traffic.[36] As of 1986, TWA served STL with nonstop service to 84 cities, an increase from 80 cities served by TWA and/or Ozark in 1985, before the merger.

Lambert again grew in importance for TWA after the airline declared bankruptcy in 1992 and the following year moved its headquarters to St. Louis from Mount Kisco, New York.[37] TWA increased the number of cities served and started routing more connecting passengers through its hub at Lambert. The total number of passengers departing Lambert jumped almost 20% in a year, from 19.9 million passengers in 1993 to 23.4 million in 1994. Growth continued, to 27.3 million by 1997 and the airport's all-time peak of 30.6 million in 2000.[38]

By September 1999, Lambert was TWA's main hub, with 103 destinations served by 515 daily flights: 352 on TWA mainline aircraft and 163 on Trans World Express flights operated by its commuter airline partners. Lambert became the eighth-busiest U.S. airport by flights. Congestion caused delays during peak hours and was exacerbated when bad weather reduced the number of usable runways from three to one, and traffic projections made in the 1980s and 1990s predicted enough growth to strain the airport and the national air traffic system.[39] As a result, city leaders decided to build a 9,000-foot (2,700 m) runway, dubbed Runway 11/29, parallel to the two larger existing runways. At $1.1 billion, it was the costliest public works program in St. Louis history.[40] It required moving seven major roads and destroying about 2,000 homes, six churches, and four schools in Bridgeton.[40][41][42] Work began in 1998 and continued even as traffic at the airport declined after the 9/11 attacks, the collapse of TWA and its subsequent purchase by American, and American's flight reductions several years later.[43][44]

American Airlines and hub closure[edit]

American MD-83 at Lambert
F-15s flying over the Air National Guard base

As TWA entered the new millennium, its financial condition deteriorated; it was purchased by American Airlines in April 2001.[45] The last day of operations for TWA was December 1, 2001, including a ceremonial last flight to TWA's original and historic hometown of Kansas City before returning to St. Louis one final time. The following day, TWA was officially absorbed into American Airlines.[46][47] The plan for Lambert was to become a reliever hub for the existing American hubs at Chicago–O'Hare and Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW). American was looking at something strategic with its new St. Louis hub to potentially offload some of the pressure on O'Hare as well as provide a significant boost to the airline's east/west connectivity.[48][49]

The September 11 attacks depressed air service nationwide: total airline industry domestic revenue passenger miles dropped 20% in October 2001 and 17% in November 2001.[50] Overnight, American no longer had the same need for a hub that bypassed its hubs at Chicago and Dallas/Fort Worth, which suddenly became less congested.[51] As a result of this and the ongoing economic recession, service at Lambert was reduced to 207 flights by November 2003.[52][53][54] Total passenger traffic dropped to 20.4 million that same year.[38] On the international front, flights to Paris went to seasonal in December 2001 and transatlantic service was soon discontinued altogether when American dropped flights to London in late 2003.[55][56]

In 2006, the United States Air Force (USAF) announced plans to turn the 131st Fighter Wing of the Missouri Air National Guard into the 131st Bomb Wing. The wing's 20 F-15C and F-15D aircraft were moved to the Montana Air National Guard's 120th Airlift Wing at Great Falls International Airport/Air National Guard Base, Montana and the Hawaii Air National Guard's 154th Wing at Hickam AFB, Hawaii. The pilots and maintainers moved to Whiteman AFB, Missouri to fly and maintain the B-2 Spirit stealth bomber as the first Air National Guard wing to fly the aircraft. Lambert Field Air National Guard Base formally shut down on June 13, 2009, when the final two F-15C Eagles did a low approach over the field and then flew away, ending an 86-year chapter of Lambert's history.[57][58]

2006 also saw the completion of the W-1W airport expansion after eight years of work. The culmination of this program was the opening of Runway 11/29, the airport's fourth, on April 13, 2006, when American Airlines Flight 2470 became the first commercial airliner to land on the new runway.[59][44]

In 2008, Lambert's position as an American Airlines hub faced further pressure due to increased fuel costs and softened demand because of a depressed economy. American cut its overall system capacity by over 5% during 2008.[60] At Lambert, American shifted more flights from mainline to regional.[61] Total passengers enplaned fell 6% to 14.4 million in 2008, then fell another 11% to 12.8 million passengers in 2009.[38] In 2009, American announced that as a part of the airline's restructuring, it would close its St. Louis hub by reducing its operations from about 200 daily flights to 36 daily flights by summer 2010.[62] American's closure of the St. Louis hub coincided with its new "Cornerstone" plan, wherein the airline would concentrate itself in several major markets: Chicago, Dallas/Fort Worth, Miami, New York, and Los Angeles.[63][64]

Recent years[edit]

Terminal 1 windows boarded up after the 2011 tornado
Terminal 1 departures hall in 2017 after renovation

In the aftermath of the American hub closure, Southwest Airlines boosted daily departures from 74 to 83, adding six new destinations for a total of 31. Southwest quickly replaced American as the carrier with the most daily flights, and continues to dominate the airport to this day.[65][66]

On April 22, 2011, a tornado (rated EF4 nearby but not at the airport itself) struck the airport's Terminal 1, destroying jetways and breaking more than half of the windows.[67][68][69][70] The wind damaged a Southwest Airlines aircraft by pushing a baggage conveyor belt into it. Four American Airlines aircraft were damaged, including one that was buffeted by 80 mph (130 km/h; 70 kn) crosswinds while taxiing after landing.[71] Another aircraft, with passengers still on board, was moved away from its jetway by the storm.[72] The FAA closed the airport at 8:54 pm CDT, and reopened it the following day at temporarily lower capacity.[73] The damage to Concourse C even forced several airlines to use vacant gates in the B and D concourses.[74] Concourse C underwent renovations and repairs and reopened on April 2, 2012.[74]

In late 2016, officials with the City of St. Louis announced that brand researchers had found that travelers might be confused by the name "Lambert–St. Louis International Airport".[75] They said they might rename it St. Louis International Airport at Lambert Field to freshen up the airport's image and emphasize "St. Louis" in the name. Descendants of Albert Bond Lambert opposed the change, arguing that it de-emphasized the importance of Maj. Lambert to the airport's history and the history of aviation. The proposal was amended, and the St. Louis Airport Commission voted unanimously to change the name to St. Louis Lambert International Airport.[76][77]

In 2018, WOW air began four weekly A321 flights between St. Louis and Reykjavík, marking a return of transatlantic service to the airport for the first time since 2003.[78] Despite strong sales, WOW announced in October 2018 that it would end the route due to the airline's financial struggles.[79][80] Other domestic carriers such as Sun Country Airlines and Spirit Airlines have begun flying from Lambert in recent years.[81][82]

In December 2021, Lufthansa announced nonstop service between St. Louis and Frankfurt beginning in June 2022. The flight will be the first full service transatlantic flight from St. Louis since American Airlines ended their London route in 2003, and is being backed by several area corporations, including Sigma-Aldrich and Monsanto, both of which have been acquired by German firms in recent years.[83]

Future[edit]

In early 2022, airport officials released a plan that would consolidate both existing terminals into one, at the existing Terminal 1 site.[84] The proposal would gradually demolish Concourses A, B, C and build a single new concourse with 62 gates in its place, while retaining the iconic domed terminal building.[85] Following the completion, Terminal 2 would be demolished or repurposed.[84]

Facilities[edit]

Interior of Concourse E

Terminals[edit]

The airport has two terminals, five concourses, and 86 gates.

  • Terminal 1 contains 36 gates across two concourses, lettered A and C.[86] It also has an American Airlines Admirals Club and one of the nation's largest USO facilities.[87][88]
  • Terminal 2 contains 18 gates across one concourse, lettered E.[86] It also has a public lounge operated by Wingtips.[89] All international flights without border preclearance are processed in Terminal 2.

Runways[edit]

STL control tower

The airport has four runways: three parallel and one crosswind. The crosswind runway, 6/24, is the shortest of the four at 7,607 feet (2,319 m). The newest runway is 11/29, completed in 2006 as part of a large expansion program.[2][90]

Runway Length Width
12R/30L 11,020 feet (3,360 m) 200 feet (61 m)
12L/30R 9,013 feet (2,747 m) 150 feet (46 m)
11/29 9,000 feet (2,700 m) 150 feet (46 m)
6/24 7,603 feet (2,317 m) 150 feet (46 m)

The airport's current ~156-foot (~47.6-meter) control tower opened in 1997 at a cost of about $15 million.[91][92]

Ground transportation[edit]

Metro Train To City The airport is served by MetroLink's (St. Louis' mass transportation system) Red Line with stations at Terminal 1 and Terminal 2.[93] The Metro lines provide direct or indirect service to downtown St. Louis, the Clayton area, and Illinois suburbs in St. Clair County.

The airport is served by I-70; eastbound leads to downtown St. Louis and Illinois with a north–south connection at I-170 immediately east of the airport, while westbound leads to St. Louis exurbs in St. Charles County with a north–south connection at I-270 immediately west of the airport.

Art and historical pieces[edit]

The Monocoupe 110 Special in Terminal 2

Black Americans in Flight is a mural that depicts African American aviators and their contributions to aviation since 1917. It is located in Terminal 1 / Main Terminal on the lower level near the entrance to gates C and D and baggage claim. The mural consists of five panels and measures 8 feet (2.4 m) tall and 51 feet (16 m) long. The first panel includes Albert Edward Forsythe and C. Alfred Anderson, the first black pilots to complete a cross-country flight; the Tuskegee Institute and the Tuskegee Airmen; Eugene Bullard; Bessie Coleman; and Willa Brown, the first African American woman commercial pilot. The second panel shows Benjamin O. Davis Jr., Clarence "Lucky" Lester, and Joseph Ellesberry. The third panel shows Gen. Daniel "Chappie" James, Capt. Ronald Radliff, and Capt. Marcella Hayes. The fourth and fifth panels show Ronald McNair, who died in the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster in 1986, Guion Bluford, who in 1983 became the first African American in space, and Mae Jemison, the first African American woman in space. Spencer Taylor and Solomon Thurman created the mural in 1990.[94][95] The mural had a re-dedication ceremony in 2012.[96]

One aircraft from the Missouri History Museum currently hangs from Lambert's ceilings. This aircraft, a red Monocoupe 110 Special manufactured in St. Louis in 1931, hangs in the ticketing hall of Terminal 2.[97] The airport has also played host to two other aircraft. A Monocoupe D-127 hung near the eastern security checkpoint in Terminal 1. Charles Lindbergh bought it in 1934 from the Lambert Aircraft Corporation and flew it as his personal aircraft. It was removed in 2018 and returned to the Missouri Historical Society, from which the aircraft had been on loan since 1979, for preservation purposes.[98] Until 1998, a Ryan B-1 Brougham, a replica of the Spirit of St. Louis, hung next to the D-127.[99]

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Passenger[edit]

AirlinesDestinationsReferences
Air Canada Express Toronto–Pearson [100]
Alaska Airlines Seattle/Tacoma [101]
American Airlines Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Miami, New York–LaGuardia, Philadelphia, Phoenix–Sky Harbor
Seasonal: Cancún
[102]
American Eagle Austin, Boston, Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, New York–LaGuardia, Philadelphia, Washington–National [102]
Cape Air Burlington (IA) (ends March 31, 2023), Kirksville, Marion, Owensboro [103]
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Salt Lake City [104]
Delta Connection Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York–LaGuardia [104]
Frontier Airlines Cancún, Denver, Las Vegas, Orlando, Tampa
Seasonal: Atlanta, Montego Bay (begins February 23, 2023),[105] Punta Cana
[106]
Lufthansa Frankfurt [107]
Southern Airways Express Burlington (IA) (begins April 1, 2023),[108] Jonesboro, Quincy[109] [110]
Southwest Airlines Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Boston, Cancún, Charlotte, Chicago–Midway, Cleveland, Columbus–Glenn, Dallas–Love, Denver, Des Moines, Detroit, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Houston–Hobby, Jacksonville (FL), Kansas City, Las Vegas, Little Rock, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Miami, Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Myrtle Beach, Nashville, New Orleans, New York–LaGuardia, Oklahoma City, Omaha, Orlando, Pensacola, Philadelphia, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Pittsburgh, Raleigh/Durham, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Juan, Sarasota, Tampa, Tulsa, Washington–National, Wichita
Seasonal: Charleston (SC), Destin/Fort Walton Beach, Hartford, Montego Bay, Oakland, Orange County, Panama City (FL),[111] Pensacola,[112] Portland (OR), Punta Cana (resumes March 11, 2023),[113] Sacramento, San Jose (CA), Seattle/Tacoma
[114]
Spirit Airlines Las Vegas, Orlando [115]
Sun Country Airlines Seasonal: Minneapolis/St. Paul (resumes May 22, 2023) [116]
United Airlines Chicago–O'Hare (resumes May 5, 2023), Denver, Houston–Intercontinental, Newark [117]
United Express Chicago–O'Hare, Denver, Houston–Intercontinental, Newark, Washington–Dulles

Cargo[edit]

AirlinesDestinationsRefs
Amazon Air Baltimore, Ontario, San Bernardino [118]
DHL Aviation Cincinnati, Omaha
FedEx Express Indianapolis, Memphis, Minneapolis/St. Paul
UPS Airlines Boise, Chicago–Rockford, Louisville, Portland (OR)

Statistics[edit]

Top destinations[edit]

Busiest domestic routes from STL (November 2021 – October 2022)[119]
Rank City Passengers Carriers
1 Denver, Colorado 418,890 Frontier, Southwest, United
2 Atlanta, Georgia 388,130 Delta, Southwest
3 Orlando, Florida 311,020 Delta, Frontier, Southwest
4 Las Vegas, Nevada 285,880 Frontier, Southwest, Sun Country
5 New York–LaGuardia, New York 271,430 American, Delta, Southwest
6 Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Arizona 249,720 American, Southwest
7 Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas 245,760 American
8 Charlotte, North Carolina 236,850 American, Southwest
9 Chicago–O'Hare, Illinois 212,980 American, United
10 Washington–National, DC 192,070 American, Southwest

Airline market share[edit]

Busiest airlines serving STL
(November 2021 – October 2022)
[119]
Rank Airline Passengers Share
1 Southwest Airlines 7,824,000 60.78%
2 American Airlines 1,574,000 12.22%
3 Delta Air Lines 978,000 7.60%
4 SkyWest Airlines 424,000 3.30%
5 Frontier Airlines 382,000 2.97%
6 Others 1,690,000 13.13%

Airport traffic[edit]

Annual passenger traffic at STL airport. See Wikidata query.

Accidents and incidents[edit]

Accidents[edit]

  • August 5, 1936: Chicago and Southern Flight 4, a Lockheed 10 Electra headed for Chicago, crashed after takeoff, killing all eight passengers and crew. The pilot became disoriented in fog.
  • January 23, 1941: a Douglas DC-3 of Transcontinental & Western Air crashed 0.4 miles west of St. Louis Municipal Airport during a landing attempt in adverse weather, killing two occupants out of the 14 on board.[120]
  • August 1, 1943: during a demonstration flight of an "all St. Louis-built glider", a Waco CG-4A, USAAF serial 42-78839, built by sub-contractor Robertson Aircraft Company, lost its starboard wing due to a defective wing strut support and plummeted vertically to the ground at Lambert Field, killing all on board, including St. Louis Mayor William D. Becker; Maj. William B. Robertson and Harold Krueger, both of Robertson Aircraft; Thomas Dysart, president of the St. Louis Chamber of Commerce; Max Doyne, director of public utilities; Charles Cunningham, department comptroller; and Henry Mueller, St. Louis Court presiding judge.[121] The failed component had been manufactured by Robertson subcontractor Gardner Metal Products Company, of St. Louis, which, coincidentally, had been a casket maker.[122]
  • September 6, 1944: the starboard engine of the sole completed McDonnell XP-67 prototype, USAAF serial 42-11677, caught fire during a test flight. Test pilot E.E. Elliot executed an emergency landing at Lambert Field and escaped, but the fire rapidly spread, destroying the aircraft. This was a crippling setback to the XP-67 program, which had been plagued by delays and technical problems, and the second prototype was only 15% complete, so flight testing could not promptly resume. The United States Army Air Forces deemed the XP-67 unnecessary and canceled the program.[123]
  • May 24, 1953: a Meteor Air Transport Douglas DC-3 crashed on approach to the airport, killing six of the seven people on board.[124]
  • February 28, 1966: astronauts Elliot See and Charles Bassett – the original crew of the Gemini 9 mission – were killed in the crash of their T-38 trainer while attempting to land at Lambert Field in bad weather. The aircraft crashed into the same McDonnell Aircraft Corporation building (adjacent to the airport) where their spacecraft was being assembled.[125]
  • March 20, 1968: a McDonnell F-4 Phantom II jet fighter crashed on takeoff during a test flight. The aircraft pitched up and stalled almost immediately after lifting from the runway; both crewmen were able to eject and were not seriously injured. The aircraft was destroyed in the ensuing explosion and fire. The crash was allegedly caused by a wrench socket, mistakenly left in the cockpit by maintenance crews, becoming lodged inside the control stick well on takeoff, jamming the stick in the full aft position.[126]
  • March 27, 1968: Ozark Air Lines Flight 965, a Douglas DC-9-15, collided with a Cessna 150F on a local training flight approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) north of the airport while both aircraft were on approach to runway 17. The Cessna was destroyed and both of its occupants were killed. The DC-9 sustained light damage and was able to land safely; none of its 44 passengers or five crewmembers were injured. The accident was attributed to inadequate visual flight rules (VFR) procedures in place at the airport, the failure of the DC-9 crew to spot the other aircraft in time, the Cessna crew's deviation from their traffic pattern instructions, and poor communications between the Cessna pilots and air traffic control.[127]
  • July 23, 1973: while on the approach to land at St. Louis International Airport, Ozark Air Lines Flight 809 crashed near the University of Missouri – St. Louis, killing 38 of the 44 persons on board. Wind shear was cited as the cause. A tornado had been reported at Ladue, Missouri, about the time of the accident but the National Weather Service did not confirm that there was a tornado.[128]
  • July 6, 1977: a Fleming International Airways Lockheed L-188 Electra, a cargo flight, crashed during the takeoff roll; all three occupants were killed.[129]
  • January 9, 1984: Douglas DC-3 registration C-GSCA of Skycraft Air Transport crashed on take-off, killing one of its two crew members. The aircraft was on an international cargo flight to Toronto Pearson International Airport, Canada. Both engines lost power shortly after take-off. The aircraft had been fueled with jet fuel instead of avgas.[130]
  • April 8, 1990: A Missouri Air National Guard F-4 Phantom II veered off the runway during takeoff, crashed, and burst into flames. The pilot suffered minor injuries after his ejection seat failed to deploy and he was forced to exit the burning wreckage while the weapons officer fractured his left leg when he ejected from the aircraft.[131]
  • November 22, 1994: TWA Flight 427 collided with a Cessna 441 Conquest, registration N441KM, at the intersection of runway 30R and taxiway Romeo. The TWA McDonnell Douglas MD-82 was taking off for Denver and had accelerated through 80 knots (150 km/h; 92 mph) when the collision occurred. The MD-82 sustained substantial damage during the collision. The Cessna 441, operated by Superior Aviation, was destroyed. The pilot and the passenger were killed. The investigation found the Cessna 441 had entered the wrong runway for its takeoff.[132]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "CY2021 Passenger & Operation Statistics". St. Louis: St. Louis City Airport Commission. February 9, 2022. Archived from the original on August 5, 2020. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
  2. ^ a b FAA Airport Form 5010 for STL PDF. Effective December 30, 2021.
  3. ^ "STL airport data at skyvector.com". skyvector.com. Retrieved September 6, 2022.
  4. ^ Departure Statistics (Report). St. Louis: St. Louis City Airport Commission. January 29, 2019. Archived from the original on January 30, 2019. Retrieved January 29, 2019.
  5. ^ a b c "The History of Lambert – St. Louis International Airport". Lambert-St. Louis International Airport. Lambert-St. Louis International Airport. 2005. Archived from the original on February 4, 2005. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
  6. ^ Schlinkmann, Mark. "Illinois to pay for long-sought MetroLink extension to MidAmerica Airport". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. St. Louis: Lee Enterprises. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  7. ^ Gonzales, Daniel (January 2, 2018). "At St. Louis' Kinloch Field, Theodore Roosevelt became the first U.S. President to travel by plane". St. Louis Magazine. St. Louis. Retrieved January 6, 2022.
  8. ^ Wright, John Aaron (2000). Kinloch: Missouri's First Black City. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-0777-4.
  9. ^ a b c d Gonzales, Daniel (January 2, 2018). "At St. Louis' Kinloch Field, Theodore Roosevelt became the first U.S. President to travel by plane". www.stlmag.com. Retrieved January 6, 2022.
  10. ^ Reichhardt, Tony. "Berry's Leap". Air & Space/Smithsonian. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on November 1, 2021. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  11. ^ a b "Lambert History". Lambert-Saint Louis International Airport. Archived from the original on August 22, 2011. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
  12. ^ Christensen, Lawrence O. (1999). Dictionary of Missouri Biography. University of Missouri Press. p. 469. ISBN 0-8262-1222-0. Archived from the original on June 30, 2014. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
  13. ^ Mola, Roger. "Aircraft Landing Technology". Washington: Centennial of Flight Commission. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g "Lambert – St. Louis International Airport > About Lambert > History > Timeline". July 22, 2012. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  15. ^ a b "The Navy at Lambert Field, 1925–1958 by George Everding, LCDR USN (ret)". Usgennet.org. Archived from the original on August 24, 2011. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
  16. ^ "Robertson Air Lines". www.timetableimages.com. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  17. ^ "Robertson Air Lines". www.timetableimages.com. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  18. ^ "Timetable" (JPG). www.timetableimages.com. Archived from the original on August 15, 2008. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  19. ^ "Timetable" (JPG). www.timetableimages.com. Archived from the original on August 15, 2008. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  20. ^ "Timetable" (JPG). www.timetableimages.com. Archived from the original on September 10, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  21. ^ "Timetable" (JPG). www.timetableimages.com. Archived from the original on September 10, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  22. ^ "Timetable" (JPG). www.timetableimages.com. Archived from the original on September 10, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  23. ^ "Curtis Wright airline factory" (PDF). Jefferson City: Missouri Department of Natural Resources. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 24, 2017. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  24. ^ a b "History – St. Louis Lambert International Airport". St. Louis: St. Louis City Airport Commission. July 12, 2016. Archived from the original on November 15, 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  25. ^ "Lambert expansion: the never-ending story". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. St. Louis: Lee Enterprises. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  26. ^ Hampel, Paul. "Main Lambert terminal gets shiny, new roof". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. St. Louis: Lee Enterprises. Archived from the original on July 13, 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  27. ^ St Louis Post-Dispatch 22 July 1959 p3
  28. ^ "Facility Orientation Guide – St. Louis Air Traffic Control Tower" (PDF). Washington: Federal Aviation Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 9, 2017. Retrieved August 8, 2017 – via Point Sixty Five.
  29. ^ Continuing Progress at Lambert. City of St. Louis Airport Authority. 1977.
  30. ^ "Timeline". City of St. Louis Airport Authority. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  31. ^ "Lambert International: Architectural Creativity in Steel" (PDF). Modern Steel Construction. Chicago: American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. 26 (1): 5–9. 1986. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 14, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  32. ^ Handbook of Airline Statistics (biannual CAB publication)
  33. ^ "Airlines and Aircraft Serving Saint Louis Effective November 15, 1979". DepartedFlights.com. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
  34. ^ "STL: How To Build A Hub". TWA Mainliner. October 11, 1982. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
  35. ^ "History". Lambert-St. Louis International Airport. Archived from the original on August 13, 2016. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
  36. ^ Fare and Service Changes at St. Louis Since the TWA-Ozark Merger Archived August 5, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, United States General Accounting Office. September 21, 1988. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
  37. ^ "TWA to relocate headquarters to St. Louis". Archived from the original on July 24, 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  38. ^ a b c "Historical Passenger Statistics Since 1990" (PDF). www.flystl.com. STL Airport. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 30, 2019. Retrieved January 29, 2019.
  39. ^ "The Expansion Story". Archived from the original on May 1, 2008. Retrieved July 25, 2007.
  40. ^ a b Stoller, Gary (January 9, 2007). "St. Louis' Airports Aren't Too Loud: They're Too Quiet". USA Today. Archived from the original on January 18, 2007. Retrieved July 25, 2007.
  41. ^ "Airport/Mass Transit November 2005 – Feature Story". Engineering News-Record. November 1, 2005. Archived from the original on February 16, 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2007.
  42. ^ "Airports and Cities: Can they coexist?". SD Earth Times. Archived from the original on March 16, 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2007.
  43. ^ "Historical Operation Statistics by Class for the Years: 1985–2006". Lambert–St. Louis International Airport. Archived from the original on July 11, 2007. Retrieved July 25, 2007.
  44. ^ a b "New $1 Billion Runway Opens This Week, But It's Not Needed Anymore". USA Today. April 11, 2006. Archived from the original on August 30, 2007. Retrieved July 25, 2007.
  45. ^ Hirschfeld, Simon (April 10, 2001). "AMR's Takeover of TWA Finalized". Archived from the original on October 12, 2015. Retrieved November 16, 2018 – via LA Times.
  46. ^ "TWA's Last Flight". twaseniorsclub.org. Archived from the original on November 16, 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  47. ^ "Stories" (PDF). www.bizjournals.com. December 24, 2001. Archived from the original on August 30, 2008. Retrieved September 2, 2018.
  48. ^ "The Last Day of TWA – A Sad Day For Aviation — Avgeekery.com – News and stories by Aviation Professionals". www.avgeekery.com. August 18, 2016. Archived from the original on September 2, 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  49. ^ "TWA to be bought by American – Jan. 10, 2001". money.cnn.com. Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  50. ^ "Bureau of Transportation Statistics". Bureau of Transportation. Archived from the original on July 19, 2017. Retrieved August 6, 2017.
  51. ^ "American Airlines, a History of Unsuccessful Mergers". Dallas News. Archived from the original on May 23, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
  52. ^ "AA to cut back St. Louis operations: Travel Weekly". www.travelweekly.com.
  53. ^ "Info" (PDF). www.airtimes.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 26, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2018.
  54. ^ Grant, Elaine X. (July 28, 2006). "TWA – Death Of A Legend". Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  55. ^ "Info" (PDF). www.airtimes.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 18, 2006. Retrieved September 2, 2018.
  56. ^ "Airtimes for early 2000s American Airlines flights at Lambert Airport" (PDF). airtimes.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 18, 2006. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  57. ^ "Last two F-15's leave Lambert". St. Louis Public Radio. June 15, 2009. Archived from the original on September 10, 2018. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  58. ^ "Missouri Air National Guard celebrates End of Era with final F-15 departure". Whiteman AFB Home Page. July 6, 2016. Archived from the original on April 8, 2019. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  59. ^ "American Airlines Flight 2470 – First Commercial Airliner to Land on …". February 22, 2013. Archived from the original on February 22, 2013. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  60. ^ Hinton, Christopher. "American Airlines to trim capacity, add new bag fee". Archived from the original on September 2, 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  61. ^ USA Today, Fuel-Cost Fallout: American Airlines is the latest carrier to cut routes, flights, retrieved July 26, 2013 Archived March 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  62. ^ Mutzabaugh, Ben (September 18, 2009). "With AA's Cuts, St. Louis Will Fall From the Ranks of Hub Cities". USA Today. St. Louis: Gannett. Archived from the original on May 24, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2009.
  63. ^ "American Airlines' "cornerstone" worldview". Archived from the original on September 2, 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  64. ^ Maxon, Terry (April 26, 2012). "Consultants: We studied possibility of closing down one of American Airlines 'cornerstone' cities". The Dallas Morning News. Dallas. Archived from the original on November 20, 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  65. ^ Moseley, Jace (August 7, 2017). "The Near Death and Resurgence of St. Louis International Airport". AirlineGeeks.com. Archived from the original on September 14, 2017. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  66. ^ "Thirty years since arriving at Lambert, Southwest's dominance takes hold". Archived from the original on June 2, 2021. Retrieved June 1, 2021.
  67. ^ April 22nd Tornadic Supercell Greater St. Louis Metropolitan Area Archived April 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, National Weather Service, St. Louis, Missouri. (April 23, 2011).
  68. ^ Held, Kevin (April 23, 2011). "St. Louis Airport Storm Caught on Camera". KSDK. Archived from the original on January 3, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  69. ^ Gay, Malcolm; Harris, Elizabeth A. (April 23, 2011). "Tornadoes Tear Through St. Louis, Shutting Down the Airport". The New York Times. St. Louis. Archived from the original on October 27, 2017. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  70. ^ Bowers, Cynthia (April 23, 2011). "Residents: St. Louis Was "Bedlam" During Tornado". CBS News. St. Louis. Archived from the original on April 25, 2011. Retrieved April 24, 2011.
  71. ^ Salter, Jim; Suhr, Jim (April 23, 2011). "Tornado Cleanup Starts Quickly in St. Louis Area". Yahoo! News. St. Louis. Associated Press. Archived from the original on April 24, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  72. ^ Moore, Bryce (April 23, 2011). "Lambert Passengers Watch Plane Move, Then Evacuate Terminal". Archived from the original on April 25, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  73. ^ Mann, Jennifer (April 23, 2011). "UPDATE: Lambert Reopening Today, Expects to Be at 70 Percent Capacity Sunday". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. St. Louis: Lee Enterprises. Archived from the original on April 25, 2011. Retrieved April 24, 2011.
  74. ^ a b Leiser, Ken. "Lambert Opens Refurbished C Concourse After Twister". St. Louis Post Dispatch. Archived from the original on July 6, 2012. Retrieved July 1, 2012.
  75. ^ "Retrieved September 9, 2016". Bizjournals.com. Archived from the original on September 15, 2016. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  76. ^ Post-Dispatch store. "Retrieved September 9, 2016". Stltoday.com. Archived from the original on September 9, 2016. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  77. ^ On Air 9:52AM (September 7, 2016). "Retrieved September 9, 2016". Ksdk.com. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  78. ^ Mutzabaugh, Ben (August 23, 2017). "WOW Air, known for $99 Europe fares, adds four new U.S. cities". USA Today. Archived from the original on August 24, 2017. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  79. ^ Thorsen, Leah. "Wow, that was quick: Wow Air to end flights from Lambert in January". St. Louis Post Dispatch. Archived from the original on October 16, 2018. Retrieved October 16, 2018.
  80. ^ Lambert, St Louis (October 15, 2018). "Announcement Regarding WOW air – St. Louis Lambert International Airport". Archived from the original on October 17, 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  81. ^ "New airline offering direct flights from St. Louis to Tampa and Ft. Myers". June 26, 2018. Archived from the original on June 29, 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  82. ^ St Louis, Lambert (March 11, 2021). "Spirit Airlines Sets its…". St. Louis Lambert International Airport. Archived from the original on May 24, 2021. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
  83. ^ Barker, Jacob (December 21, 2021). "Germany's Lufthansa to launch nonstop service from St. Louis to Frankfurt". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. St. Louis: Lee Enterprises.
  84. ^ a b Bush, Mike (January 6, 2022). "Proposed plan would get rid of Terminal 2 at St. Louis Lambert Airport". Retrieved January 6, 2022.
  85. ^ "Airport Layout Plan Update" (PDF) (Press release). St. Louis: St. Louis City Airports Commission. Retrieved January 6, 2022.
  86. ^ a b "STL Airport Diagram" (PDF). St. Louis: St. Louis City Airports Commission. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  87. ^ "American Airlines Admirals Club St. Louis Airport". sleepinginairports.net. Archived from the original on August 4, 2017. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
  88. ^ James S. McDonnell USO Archived January 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  89. ^ Clever, Boxing (January 4, 2018). "Wingtips St. Louis Lounge Opens in STL's Terminal 2 – St. Louis Lambert International Airport" (Press release). St. Louis: St. Louis City Airports Commission. Archived from the original on January 6, 2018. Retrieved January 6, 2018.
  90. ^ "AirNav: KSTL – St Louis Lambert International Airport". www.airnav.com. Archived from the original on November 15, 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  91. ^ "World's sky-high civilian air traffic control towers". wordpress.com. February 22, 2014. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
  92. ^ "Lambert St. Louis Airport Control Tower, Bridgeton". emporis.com. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
  93. ^ "MetroLink". Metrostlouis.org Site. April 8, 2019. Archived from the original on April 8, 2019. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  94. ^ Brownlee Jr., Henry T. (February 2010). "Linking the Past to the Future" (PDF). Chicago: The Boeing Company. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 12, 2012. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
  95. ^ "Many St. Louis Sites Significant in Black History: "Black Americans in Flight" Mural". St. Louis Convention & Visitors Commission. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
  96. ^ Gooden, Christian. "Lambert rededicates its "Black Americans In Flight" mural". Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  97. ^ "Charles Lindbergh's Monocoupe – St. Louis, MO – Static Aircraft Displays". Groundspeak, Inc. December 15, 2008. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
  98. ^ "Lindbergh Monocoupe Exhibit Ending its Run at STL Airport". Lambert Airport. June 7, 2018. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  99. ^ Mullen, Robert; Smith, Sharon (Spring 2008). "Midnight Maintenance: Caring for Lindbergh's Monocoupe". Missouri History Museum. Archived from the original on April 19, 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
  100. ^ "Air Canada flight schedules". Air Canada. Archived from the original on September 25, 2019. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  101. ^ "Alaska Airlines flight timetable". alaskaair.com. Alaska Airlines. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  102. ^ a b "American Airlines flight schedules and notifications". aa.com. American Airlines. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  103. ^ "Cape Air schedules". Cape Air. Archived from the original on September 23, 2019. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  104. ^ a b "Flight schedules for Delta". Delta Air Lines. Archived from the original on June 21, 2015. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  105. ^ "Frontier Airlines announces nonstop flight from St. Louis to Jamaica". St. Louis Post. October 4, 2022. Retrieved October 4, 2022.
  106. ^ "Frontier Airlines schedule". Frontier Airlines. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  107. ^ "Timetable & flight status | Lufthansa". Retrieved December 14, 2021.
  108. ^ https://www.regulations.gov/document/DOT-OST-2001-8731-0154
  109. ^ https://www.regulations.gov/document/DOT-OST-2003-14492-0121/
  110. ^ "Southern Route Map". Southern Airways Express. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  111. ^ https://wieck-swa-production.s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com/page-3b00a21770a21c5c30a52599d18aed48/attachment/562083c97b2493e09a2e00b955ed8671dd7292e8[bare URL]
  112. ^ https://wieck-swa-production.s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com/page-3b00a21770a21c5c30a52599d18aed48/attachment/562083c97b2493e09a2e00b955ed8671dd7292e8[bare URL]
  113. ^ https://wieck-swa-production.s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com/page-3b00a21770a21c5c30a52599d18aed48/attachment/562083c97b2493e09a2e00b955ed8671dd7292e8[bare URL]
  114. ^ "Southwest Flight schedules". Southwest Airlines. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 9, 2017.
  115. ^ "St. Louis Nearly Doubles its Nonstop Options with Spirit Airlines as Spirit Celebrates First Flight with Expansion Announcement". Archived from the original on May 27, 2021. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  116. ^ "Sun Country Expands Minneapolis Network in NS23". Aeroroutes. Retrieved November 16, 2022.
  117. ^ "United Airlines timetable". United Airlines. Retrieved October 20, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  118. ^ "ABX Air 3943 ✈ FlightAware". Flightaware.com. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
  119. ^ a b "Bureau of Transportation Statistics – St. Louis International Airport". BTS. Retrieved January 17, 2023.
  120. ^ Accident description for NC17315 at the Aviation Safety Network
  121. ^ Bowers, Peter M., "Breezing Along with the Breeze", Wings, Granada Hills, California, December 1989, Volume 19, Number 6, p. 19.
  122. ^ Diehl, Alan E., PhD, "Silent Knights: Blowing the Whistle on Military Accidents and Their Cover-ups", Brassey's, Inc., Dulles, Virginia, 2002, Library of Congress card number 2001052726, ISBN 978-1-57488-412-8, pages 81–82.
  123. ^ Mesko, Jim (2002). FH Phantom/F2H Banshee in action. Carrollton, Texas, United States: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc. pp. 4–5. ISBN 0-89747-444-9.
  124. ^ Accident description for N53596 at the Aviation Safety Network
  125. ^ "Losing The Moon". St. Louis Magazine. May 2006. Archived from the original on March 19, 2014. Retrieved June 3, 2012.
  126. ^ CriticalPast (May 6, 2014). "US Navy F-4J Phantom II aircraft takeoff and crash in St. Louis, Missouri; Fireme...HD Stock Footage". Archived from the original on April 11, 2016. Retrieved April 5, 2019 – via YouTube.
  127. ^ "Accident report" (PDF). 1968. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 15, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
  128. ^ St. Louis, MO Airliner Crashes On Landing, July 1973 | GenDisasters ... Genealogy in Tragedy, Disasters, Fires, Floods Archived May 7, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. .gendisasters.com. Retrieved on August 16, 2013.
  129. ^ Accident description for N280F at the Aviation Safety Network
  130. ^ "C-GSCA Accident Description". Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved July 27, 2010.
  131. ^ "F-4 crashes; no fatalities". UPI. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  132. ^ Aircraft Accident Report, Runway Collision Involving Trans World Airlines Flight 427 And Superior Aviation Cessna 441, Bridgeton, Missouri, November 22, 1994 (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. August 30, 1995. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.

External links[edit]