St. Olaf College

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St. Olaf College
St. Olaf Logo and Seal.png
MottoFram! Fram! Kristmenn, Krossmenn (Nynorsk)
Motto in English
Forward! Forward! Men of Christ, Men of the Cross
TypePrivate liberal arts college
Religious affiliation
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
Endowment$530.8 million (2018)[1]
Budget$186.6 million (2016)[2]
PresidentDavid R. Anderson
Undergraduates3,048 (Fall 2018)[3]
Location, ,
United States

44°27′34″N 93°10′50″W / 44.45944°N 93.18056°W / 44.45944; -93.18056Coordinates: 44°27′34″N 93°10′50″W / 44.45944°N 93.18056°W / 44.45944; -93.18056
CampusRural 3.72 km2 (1.44 sq mi)
or 372 ha (920 acres)[4]
ColorsBlack and Gold          
AthleticsNCAA Division IIIMIAC
Nickname"Oles" /ˈlz/ OH-leez
MascotSt. Olaf Lion, "Ole"

St. Olaf College is a private liberal arts college in Northfield, Minnesota. Founded in 1874 by Bernt Julius Muus and a group of Norwegian-American immigrant pastors and farmers, led by Pastor Bernt Julius Muus. The college is named after the King and the Patron Saint Olaf II of Norway and is affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. The college was visited by King Olav in 1987[6] and King Harald V and Queen Sonja of Norway in 2011.[7][8]

As of 2017, the college enrolled 3035 undergraduate students and 256 faculty. [9] The campus, including its 325-acre natural lands, lies 2 miles west of the city of Northfield, Minnesota. Between 1995 and 2016, 118 St. Olaf graduates were named Fulbright Scholars and 33 received Goldwater Scholarships. Of the nation's 267 baccalaureate colleges, St. Olaf ranks 12th in the number of graduates who have gone on to earn doctorate degrees. [10]


Herman Amberg Preus, (1825–1894), a key figure in organizing the Norwegian Synod.

Seal and motto[edit]

The seal of the St. Olaf College displays the Coat of arms of Norway, which includes the axe of St. Olaf.

The motto Fram! Fram! Kristmenn, Krossmenn, written in New Norwegian, is adapted from the Old Norse battle cry of King Olaf. It means "Forward! Forward! Men of Christ, Men of the Cross".


Many Norwegian immigrants arrived in Rice County, Minnesota, and the surrounding area in the late 19th century. With nearly all the immigrants being Lutheran Christians, they desired a non-secular post-secondary institution in the Lutheran tradition that offered classes in all subjects in both Norwegian and English. The catalyst for founding St. Olaf was the Reverend Bernt Julius Muus; he sought out the help of the Rev. N. A. Quammen and H. Thorson. Together they petitioned their parishes and others to raise money in order to buy a plot of land on which to build this new institution. The three men succeeded in receiving around $10,000 in pledges, and thus went on to form a corporation and to buy a plot of land and four buildings (old Northfield schoolhouses) for accommodations for the school.[11][12] Muus came under scrutiny after a divorce case revealed extensive acts of domestic abuse.[13] While he fell out of favor with many of his predecessors, his abuses were not officially denounced by the school.[14]

St. Olaf, then called St. Olaf's School, opened on January 8, 1875, at its first site under the leadership of its first president, Thorbjorn N. Mohn, a graduate of Luther College. Herman Amberg Preus, President of the Norwegian Synod, laid this foundation stone of the St. Olaf School on July 4, 1877. During 1887 the Manitou Messenger was founded as a campus magazine and has since evolved into the college's student newspaper.[15]


St. Olaf has had 11 presidents since its founding:

  • Thorbjorn N. Mohn, 1874–99
  • John N. Kildahl, 1899–1914
  • Lauritz A. Vigness, 1914–18
  • Lars W. Boe, 1918–42
  • Clemens M. Granskou, 1943–63
  • Sidney A. Rand, 1963–80
  • Harlan F. Foss, Ph.D. 1980–85
  • Melvin D. George, Ph.D. 1985–94
  • Mark U. Edwards Jr., Ph.D. 1994–2000
  • Christopher M. Thomforde, D.Min. 2001–06
  • David R. Anderson, Ph.D. 2006 to Present

Church affiliations[edit]

1912 stained glass window honoring St. Olaf in the college chapel


Old Main, St. Olaf College
Old Main
LocationSt. Olaf College campus, Northfield, Minnesota
Arealess than one acre
ArchitectLong & Haglin
Architectural styleGothic
NRHP reference #76001073[17]
Added to NRHPJune 3, 1976

Known as “The Hill”, St. Olaf College's picturesque 300-acre (120 ha) campus is home to 17 academic and administrative buildings, 29 student residences and 10 athletic facilities. St. Olaf is a residential college; 96 percent of St. Olaf students reside in one of the 11 residence halls and 18 academic and special interest group houses. Adjacent to campus are 325 acres (132 ha) of restored wetlands, woodlands, and native tall grass prairie owned and maintained by St. Olaf, and a utility-grade wind turbine that supplies up to one-third of the college's daily electrical needs.

Two buildings on the campus are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Old Main, designed by Long and Haglin; and Steensland Library, designed by Omeyer and Thori.[18] In 2011, Travel+Leisure named St. Olaf as one of the most beautiful college campuses in the United States.[19]

Edward Sövik, a liturgical architect and St. Olaf professor of art until his death in 2014, designed or assisted in the design of 20 campus buildings.[20]

The Flaten Art Museum at St. Olaf College was founded as the Steensland Art Gallery in 1976. In 2002, the gallery was moved to The Center for Art and Dance and renamed to honor Arnold Flaten, a past professor of art, and his family.[21] The museum holds a collection of regional, national, and international works and exhibits these as well as faculty and student work.



Before graduating, St. Olaf students complete nearly 20 required courses in foundation studies (writing, a second language, oral communication, mathematical reasoning, physical well-being, as well as other courses) and core studies that include studies in Western culture, human behavior and society, biblical and theological studies, artistic and literary studies, and studies in natural science. Many of the courses are interdisciplinary. St. Olaf offers 39 major areas of study for the bachelor of arts degree, 4 for the bachelor of music degree and 19 areas of concentration.

The average student-to-faculty ratio is 12:1.


For the Class of 2022 (enrolling fall 2018), St. Olaf received 5,496 applications, accepted 2,743 (49.9%), and enrolled 809.[22] For enrolled first-year students the middle 50% range of SAT scores was 600-700 for critical reading and 590-710 for math, while the ACT Composite range was 25–32. Of the 40% of enrolled first-year students who submitted high school class rank, 41% were in the top 10% of their high school classes and 72% ranked in the top quarter.[22] The average high school GPA was 3.67.[22]


University rankings
Forbes[23] 116
Times/WSJ[24] 176
Liberal arts colleges
U.S. News & World Report[25] 62
Washington Monthly[26] 60

The 2020 annual ranking by U.S. News & World Report rates St. Olaf College as the 62nd best among "National Liberal Arts Colleges", 33rd for "Best Value", tied at 35th for "Most Innovative" and tied at 62nd for "Best Undergraduate Teaching" among liberal arts colleges.[27]

Forbes in 2019 rated St. Olaf 116th overall in its America's Top Colleges ranking of 650 military academies, national universities, and liberal arts colleges, and 50th among liberal arts colleges.[28]

Washington Monthly ranked St. Olaf 60th in 2019 among 214 liberal arts colleges in the U.S. based on its contribution to the public good, as measured by social mobility, research, and promoting public service.[29]

St. Olaf College is ranked 47th for liberal arts colleges on's 2016-17 list of highest-paid graduates.[30]

Steensland Library--St. Olaf College
Steensland Hall in 2015
LocationOff St. Olaf Ave., Northfield, Minnesota
Arealess than one acre
ArchitectOmeyer & Thori
Architectural styleClassical Revival
MPSRice County MRA
NRHP reference #82003020[17]
Added to NRHPApril 6, 1982
The center of St. Olaf's campus.
St. Olaf's utility-grade wind turbine directly supplies up to 20 percent of campus energy needs.
Senior art show at Dittmann Center, home of art galleries, classrooms, and studios.

Student life[edit]

Student organizations[edit]

More than 250 registered student organizations are registered at St. Olaf, including academic, athletic, awareness, multicultural, political, religious, service (Alpha Phi Omega) and other special interest groups. Club sports include rowing, men's and women's Ultimate Frisbee, men's and women's rugby, men's and women's lacrosse, badminton, cycling, judo, and fencing. The Manitou Messenger is the student newspaper and KSTO 93.1 FM is the student-operated radio station. Other groups include an on-campus organic farm (STOGROW), an improv comedy troupe (Scared Scriptless), and an EMT (emergency medical technician) organization that is the first responder for campus emergencies. St. Olaf students edit and publish several journals each year, including The Reed, the world's only international undergraduate journal for existential philosophy.

Student government[edit]

St. Olaf's Student Government Association (SGA) finances many student activities and organizations on campus. It operates through 10 branches, each of which is managed by an elected executive: Diversity Celebrations Committee, Volunteer Network, Music Entertainment Committee, Student Activities Committee, Student Organizations Committee, Board of Regents Student Committee, Student Alumni Association, The Pause, After Dark Committee, and Political Awareness Committee. Besides these committees, students can serve on Student Senate to vote on issues such as constitutional bylaws changes and dorm capital improvement funds and communicate with college administrators about campus issues. SGA also maintains, a website containing information about student activities.[31]

Student protests[edit]

Ytterboe the Dog[edit]

Ytterboe, named after former professor H.T. Ytterboe, was a black dog who became a facet of campus life at St. Olaf in 1942.[32] Fed and taken care of by students, the dog became an unofficial mascot. In 1957, Ytterboe the Dog "allegedly" bit the son of a local police officer Peter Morris. In response, Morris sent two officers to St. Olaf's campus to capture the dog. After evading capture, Ytterboe was shot with a shotgun by the police on the library hill, in front of students who were studying for finals. In response, St Olaf and Carleton students protested, gaining the attention of local and national news. At the protests, an effigy of the officer who shot Ytterboe was hung from a streetlight and burned. The Minnesota highway patrol was called in to control the protest as students continued demonstrating in Northfield. In response to the protests, the chief of police said "Nobody loves a dog more than I do. We didn't mean to kill him".[33] St. Olaf President Clemens M. Granskou commented, "As far as I could see, this is one of these tempests in a teacup that usually take place once in a while in the springtime on a college campus". [33]

Initially, the Northfield Police sent Ytterboe's body to a local landfill, but the students later retrieved it. Afterwards, Ytterboe's head was sent to Minneapolis to be tested for rabies, which later came back negative. His body was buried on a slope of Manitou Heights the day after he was shot as a crowd of 2000 students and members of the community gathered to pay their respects. [34]


Between 50-75 students from St. Olaf, accompanied by some Carleton Students, occupied the St. Olaf administration building on April 16th, 1970, demanding that the school cut ties with the ROTC. Students occupied the building until Friday afternoon. Students ended their occupation after President Sidney Rand came to an agreement with the leaders of the protest. The school moved forward on votes within the administration and the board of regents in return for the cease of all "obstructive demonstration". [35] The protests at St. Olaf coincided with a similar occupation at Macalaster College. [36]

Sexual misconduct[edit]

In 2016, students protested the school's policies on sexual harassment through a T-shirt campaign.[37] Students donned grey shirts reading "Ask me how my college is protecting my rapist" to draw attention to the school's policies surrounding sexual misconduct. [38] Information about the T-shirt campaign was circulated through social media and was soon picked up by local news sources. In response to the campaign, the Office of Civil Rights of the U.S. Education Department launched an investigation into the sexual misconduct policies of St. Olaf College. Soon after, the school officially announced an overhaul of its policies surrounding Title IX. [39]


Following the emergence of a series of notes containing threats and racial slurs 2017, students protested for systematic changes within the school on issues like diversity and inclusion, cultural sensitivity, and hate crimes. [40] As of May 1, 2017 there had been 9 reported acts of hate speech during the school year. [40] Through occupying campus buildings, blocking entrances the cafeteria, and boycotting classes, demonstrators pushed school administration for action on a number of demands.[41] While the protests were able to prompt administration into a reevaluation of their policies, an investigation revealed that one of the notes was forged. While the forgery of one of the notes undermined the movement for some, others saw this as the actions of a rogue individual which did not take away from the progress made. [42]

Music program[edit]

St. Olaf's music program was founded by F. Melius Christiansen in 1903. Its band, choir and orchestra tour the continental United States annually and have made many international tours, typically occurring triennially.[43] The St. Olaf Band, currently under the direction of Timothy Mahr '78, was the first American college musical organization to conduct a concert tour abroad when it traveled to Norway in 1906.

The St. Olaf Orchestra is conducted by Steven Amundson. Under Amundson's direction, the Orchestra has performed Mahler’s Symphony No. 2 (Resurrection),[44] Stravinsky’s Petrouchka and Rite of Spring, Ravel’s La valse, and tone poems by Richard Strauss.

The St. Olaf Choir, conducted by Anton Armstrong ’78, was founded by Christiansen in 1907 as the St. John’s Lutheran Church Choir in Northfield, a collegiate ensemble.[45] It has toured Europe several times, as well as China, Korea, and Australia, performing before heads of state and producing more than a dozen recordings. The choir performs in the nationally broadcast annual St. Olaf Christmas Festival, along with the St. Olaf Orchestra and four of the college's other choirs. In 2005 the St. Olaf Choir was invited to perform at the White House for President George W. Bush, First Lady Laura Bush, and guests to commemorate the National Day of Prayer.

The St. Olaf Jazz I ensemble was awarded the DownBeat magazine award for top undergraduate large ensemble in 2011.[46] Led by St. Olaf music faculty member Dave Hagedorn, the ensemble toured Cuba during March 20–25, 2016.[47]

Other student musical ensembles include Chapel Choir, Cantorei, Manitou Singers, Viking Chorus, Collegiate Chorale, Philharmonia, Norseman Band, and many smaller vocal and instrumental ensembles. There are also student-run music ensembles at St. Olaf: Valhalla Band, Naknefeler Orchestra, and the men's and women's a cappella groups: The Limestones, Agnes, and Krossmen. These groups are not a part of the college's music program and operate independently.

In 2005 the St. Olaf Band, St. Olaf Orchestra, and St. Olaf Choir toured throughout Norway to celebrate its independence centennial.

A few ensembles that were founded at St. Olaf include the Minnesota Symphonic Winds, the Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra, the Copper Street Brass and the a cappella choral groups Cantus, Inpulse, and Magnum Chorum.

St. Olaf is also the location of the sacred choral music radio show Sing for Joy.[48]


St. Olaf College is a member of the Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (MIAC) in NCAA Division III.

Twenty-seven varsity teams (14 for men and 13 for women) participate in NCAA Division III intercollegiate sports in baseball, basketball, cross country, football, golf, hockey, skiing (both Nordic and Alpine), soccer, softball, swimming and diving, tennis, track and field (both indoor and outdoor), volleyball, and wrestling. Athletic colors are black and gold, and the nickname for St. Olaf teams is the Oles. All varsity athletic teams compete in the Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (MIAC) with the exception of wrestling and Alpine and Nordic skiing.

St. Olaf competes in the following sports:

Fall Sports:

Winter Sports:

Spring Sports:

St. Olaf also has many student-coached club and intramural teams that compete within the student body and also inter-college. Notable are the St. Olaf Ultimate teams, The Berzerkers and Durga, which make an annual trip to a national collegiate tournament (Spring Ultimax) in North Carolina. This year Durga played at the Division III Nationals tournament in Buffalo, New York, finishing at 7th place. The St. Olaf Dance Team supports St. Olaf athletic teams (Football, Men's/Women's Soccer and Basketball) with half-time performances and also competes in intercollegiate events every year. They have previously performed in the Minnesota Swarm lacrosse team's half-time show and were awarded third place in their division at the 2011 St. Thomas Invitational.

Rivalry with Carleton College[edit]


Football at St. Olaf in 2009.

St. Olaf is a traditional athletic rival of its crosstown neighbor Carleton College. The annual American football game between the Knights and the Oles was recently dubbed the "Cereal Bowl" in honor of the Malt-O-Meal production facility that is located in Northfield. The annual winner receives the "Goat Trophy", which was created by Minneapolis dentist Ranthus B. Fouch in 1931.[49]

The rivalry between St. Olaf and Carleton began with a Carleton victory over St. Olaf in 1919. A statue of an eagle in Northfield's Civil War Veterans' Memorial (located in Bridge Square) is turned to face the college that wins the annual football match between the two schools.[citation needed]

These football teams are also significant for having played the only NCAA-sanctioned "Liter Bowl" metric football game in history, which St. Olaf won in 1977.[50]

Cross Country[edit]

The Great Karhu Shoe Race is an annual rivalry between the cross country teams of Carleton and St. Olaf College. The race was founded in 1972 when Carleton Coach Bill Huyks was in search of a new championship course for the Midwest Conference Meet. St. Olaf coach Bill Thornton agreed to a competition between the runners on each team who were not on the varsity top 7. The varsity athletes were still racing later in the season. The trophy for the 1972 race was a pair of Karhu Shoes worth $10. These shoes have remained the trophy to this day. [51]

Several traditions exist between the St. Olaf and Carleton runners at the race. As the race typically falls near Halloween, many of the runners will often don costumes. [52] The runners for the St. Olaf men use safety pins to attach gummy bears to their shorts, which the Carleton runners attempt to rip off. [53]

Fight song[edit]

Based on a Norwegian folk tune, the college song, "Um! Yah! Yah!", is the only college fight song in the United States to be in 3/4 (waltz) meter. It is also one of the few college songs to mention another college in its lyrics.

The lyrics to the St. Olaf song include the unofficial St. Olaf "Um! Yah! Yah!" battle cry. The most common version uses the name of traditional cross-town rival, Carleton College, but the current opposing institution's name is inserted when sung at athletic competitions.

We come from St. Olaf, we sure are the real stuff.
Our team is the cream of the colleges great.
We fight fast and furious, our team is injurious.
Tonight Carleton College will sure meet its fate.

Um Yah Yah! Um Yah Yah!
Um Yah Yah! Um Yah Yah!
Um Yah Yah! Um Yah Yah!
Um Yah Yah YAH!

Um Yah Yah! Um Yah Yah!
Um Yah Yah! Um Yah Yah!
Um Yah Yah! Um Yah Yah!
Um Yah Yah YAH!

Kierkegaard Library[edit]

The Hong Kierkegaard Library was established with funds from St. Olaf College and Kierkegaard scholars Howard and Edna Hong. As curator, Howard Hong acquired books owned by Kierkegaard, Kierkegaard's complete works in many languages, and secondary bibliographies about Kierkegaard. A subsequent curator of the library was philosopher C. Stephen Evans.

Each year, the library hosts a summer fellowship program. Activities in the summer include Danish courses and a symposium every other year. Year-long Kierkegaard Fellowships see scholars living in St. Olaf's Kierkegaard House.

St. Olaf students edit and publish The Reed, an undergraduate journal of existential philosophy, from the library. The Reed began in 1998, and since then has published articles from undergraduates across the globe every year.

Notable alumni[edit]

Notable St. Olaf alumni include civil rights activist James Reeb, AIA Gold Award-winning architect Edward Sövik '39, Minnesota Governor Al Quie '50, Oscar-winning screenwriter Barry Morrow '70, Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Gretchen Morgenson '76, and writers Ole Rolvaag 1905, Siri Hustvedt '77 (winner of the Princess of Asturias Award in Letters), and Traci Lambrecht '89 (of P.J. Tracy). Game designer Jonathan Tweet studied at the college, as did the first female major league baseball coach, Justine Siegal. Raffi Freedman-Gurspan graduated in 2009 with a Bachelor of Arts in political science and Norwegian.[54]

Ernest Lawrence, recipient of the 1939 Nobel Prize in Physics, studied for a year at St. Olaf.[55]

In popular culture[edit]

St. Olaf is mentioned in the works of Minnesota author F. Scott Fitzgerald, whose character Jay Gatsby of The Great Gatsby attended the college briefly and worked as a janitor. The college is also frequently mentioned in Garrison Keillor's radio program A Prairie Home Companion, which broadcast its show from St. Olaf on November 17, 2001, and November 19, 2011.

The fictional Minnesota city of St. Olaf was the hometown of Rose Nylund in the TV show The Golden Girls. In the TV show the fictional city's sister city was St. Gustav, Minnesota, a nod to Gustavus Adolphus College, located in nearby St. Peter, Minnesota. Betty White, the actress who played Rose, visited the St. Olaf campus on one occasion and was given an honorary membership in St. Olaf's chapter of the theater honorary society.

The St. Olaf Choir can be heard performing Mozart's Requiem with the St. Paul Chamber Orchestra in Nike's "Jordan XXII-Takeover" commercial. The St. Olaf Choir was also heard on the soundtrack of the 1972 film The Great Northfield Minnesota Raid.[56]

In October 2008 the Coen Brothers shot scenes at St. Olaf for their film A Serious Man.[57][58] After a long search of many campuses, the Coen brothers chose St. Olaf's old Science Center because it had the late 1960s look of the movie. St. Olaf has since built a new science center and remodeled the old facility into Tomson Hall.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ As of June 30, 2018. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year (FY) 2018 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2017 to FY 2018" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute. 2018. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
  2. ^ Kennedy, Patrick. "Minnesota Nonprofit 100". StarTribune News. Minneapolis StarTribune. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  3. ^ "St. Olaf College Common Data Set 2018-2019" (PDF). St. Olaf College. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
  4. ^ "St. Olaf College | Northfield, Minnesota, USA". Archived from the original on 2013-10-13. Retrieved 2013-07-16.
  5. ^ NAICU – Member Directory Archived 2015-11-09 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "King Olav's Minnesota Thanksgiving". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  7. ^ "The Visit of Their Majesties King Harald V and Queen Sonja of Norway". Streaming from St. Olaf College. Retrieved 2019-11-15.
  8. ^ "USA 2011". Retrieved 2019-11-15.
  9. ^ St. Olaf Profile 2017 (PDF). St. Olaf College Retrieved 27 November 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  10. ^ St. Olaf Profile 2017 (PDF). St. Olaf College Retrieved 27 November 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. ^ "Thorbjorn N. Mohn, First President of St. Olaf College". St. Olaf College. Retrieved 2013-06-02.
  12. ^ "Dear Old Hill". St. Olaf College. Retrieved 2013-06-02.
  13. ^ Kathryn Ericson. "JEOPARDY The Muus vs. Muus Case in Three Forums" (PDF). MN History. Retrieved 2019-11-24.
  14. ^ "The Reverend Bernt Muus". St. Olaf College. Retrieved 2019-11-24.
  15. ^ David T. Nelson, Luther College, 1861–1961 Decorah, Iowa: Luther College Press, 1961.
  16. ^ "History of St. Olaf College". Archived from the original on 2013-04-07. Retrieved 2013-07-16.
  17. ^ a b "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. July 9, 2010.
  18. ^ "Steensland Hall: A century of service". St. Olaf College. 2008. Archived from the original on 2007-03-18. Retrieved 2008-07-04.
  19. ^ "America's most beautiful college campuses", Travel+Leisure (September 2011)
  20. ^ "Retired art professor, campus architect Edward Sövik dies". St. Olaf College. May 6, 2014. Retrieved December 18, 2014.
  21. ^ "History of the Museum". St. Olaf College. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
  22. ^ a b c "Common Data Set 2018-2019" (PDF). St. Olaf College. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
  23. ^ "America's Top Colleges 2019". Forbes. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  24. ^ "U.S. College Rankings 2020". Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
  25. ^ "Best Colleges 2020: National Liberal Arts Colleges Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
  26. ^ "2019 Liberal Arts Rankings". Washington Monthly. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
  27. ^ "St. Olaf College Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 13, 2019.
  28. ^ "America's Top Colleges". Forbes. August 15, 2019.
  29. ^ "2019 Liberal Arts College Rankings". Washington Monthly. Retrieved September 13, 2019.
  30. ^ "Best Liberal Arts Colleges | PayScale". Retrieved 2017-08-02.
  31. ^ "Oleville". Oleville. Retrieved 2013-07-16.
  32. ^ Manitou Messenger (November 16, 2017). "The stories they don't tell you on your admissions tour". Manitou Messenger. Retrieved December 1, 2019.
  33. ^ a b "Shooting Ytterboe the Dog". Shaw-Olson Center for College History. Retrieved December 1, 2019.
  34. ^ Catherine Roberts (April 18, 2008). "Ytterboe: Star of screen and St. Olaf". Northfield News. Retrieved December 1, 2019.
  35. ^ "50 Students End Anti-ROTC Occupation of St. Olaf Building". The Star Tribune. 18 April 1970. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  36. ^ "Protestors at Two Colleges Gain Ground". The Minneapolis Star. 18 April 1970. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  37. ^ "St. Olaf student protests sexual misconduct policy with T-shirt". Star Tribune. 7 April 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  38. ^ Amy Mihelich (April 9, 2016). "Survivor Speaks Out". Manitou Messenger. Retrieved December 1, 2019.
  39. ^ Dylan Walker (April 30, 2016). "Sexual misconduct policies under revision". Manitou Messenger. Retrieved December 1, 2019.
  40. ^ a b Lindsey Bever (May 1, 2017). "Protests erupt, classes canceled after racist notes enrage a Minnesota college". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 1, 2019.
  41. ^ Doualy Xaykaothao (May 1, 2017). "With classes canceled, St. Olaf addresses race concerns". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved December 1, 2019.
  42. ^ Jennifer Brooks and Paul Walsh (May 11, 2017). "St. Olaf: Report of racist note on black student's windshield was 'fabricated'". Star Tribune. Retrieved December 1, 2019.
  43. ^ "The St. Olaf Choir: A Narrative". St. Olaf College. Retrieved 2013-06-03.
  44. ^ "St. Olaf College — Spring Concert". 2012-04-01. Retrieved 2013-07-16.
  45. ^ [1] Archived February 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  46. ^ "St. Olaf jazz band recognized by Downbeat magazine | Minnesota Public Radio News". 2011-04-29. Retrieved 2013-07-16.
  47. ^ "St. Olaf Jazz to tour Cuba | St. Olaf College". 2015-10-26. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  48. ^ "Sing For Joy® from St. Olaf College". Sing For Joy from St. Olaf College.
  49. ^ "Historic Goat Up for Grabs on Saturday". Northfield Patch. 2012-10-18. Retrieved 2014-11-27. See also "Local Colleges Seek Custody of New Goat," Oct. 16, 1931, Northfield News, and "Historic Happenings," by Susan Hvistendahl, Northfield Entertainment Guide, November and December, 2009.
  50. ^ "Metric Game a Rout". The New York Times. 1977-09-18. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-11-15.
  51. ^ Stephen Nolan (November 15, 2013). "Cross country upholds tradition: Carls and Oles clash at annual Great Karhu Shoe Race". Manitou Messenger. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
  52. ^ SARAH FORZLEY AND CHRIS MARSHALL (November 15, 2008). "XC competes in Karhu Shoe Race". Carletonian. Retrieved November 21, 2019..
  53. ^ CHAS KARCH (November 11, 2011). "Men warm up against St. Olaf in a comical costumed race". Carletonian. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
  54. ^ "St. Olaf alum becomes first transgender woman hired by White House". The Column.
  55. ^ "Youth and Early Life". American Institute of Physics. February 2015. Archived from the original on 2013-10-14.
  56. ^ "The St. Olaf's College Choir".
  57. ^ Henke, David (2008-08-19). "Coen brothers will use St. Olaf for movie". Northfield News.
  58. ^ Gonnerman, David (2008-10-09). "St. Olaf gets 'Serious'". St. Olaf College News. Archived from the original on 2010-08-08.

External links[edit]