St. Patrick's Cathedral (Midtown Manhattan)

Coordinates: 40°45′31″N 73°58′35″W / 40.75861°N 73.97639°W / 40.75861; -73.97639
This is a good article. Click here for more information.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

St. Patrick's Cathedral
View of the cathedral from the south on Fifth Avenue
Location631 Fifth Avenue, Manhattan, New York, U.S.
CountryUnited States
DenominationCatholic Church
TraditionLatin Church
WebsiteSt. Patrick's Cathedral
DedicationSaint Patrick
DedicatedOctober 5, 1910
Earlier dedicationMay 25, 1879
ConsecratedOctober 5, 1910
Functional statusActive
Architect(s)James Renwick Jr.
Architectural typeChurch
StyleDecorated Neo-Gothic
Length396.7 feet (120.9 m)
Number of spires2
Spire height329.6 feet (100.5 m)[a]
MaterialsTuckahoe marble
Bells19 (29,122.73 lb (13,209.85 kg))
ArchdioceseArchdiocese of New York
DeanerySouth Manhattan
ArchbishopTimothy Cardinal Dolan
RectorVery Rev. Enrique Salvo
Director of musicJennifer Pascual, D.M.A.
Organist(s)Daniel Brondel
Mark Pacoe
OCIA coordinatorSueanne Nilsen
St. Patrick's Cathedral Complex
Coordinates40°45′31″N 73°58′35″W / 40.75861°N 73.97639°W / 40.75861; -73.97639
Area2 acres (0.81 ha)
NRHP reference No.76001250
NYSRHP No.06101.000367
NYCL No.0267
Significant dates
Added to NRHPDecember 8, 1976[3]
Designated NHLDecember 8, 1976[4]
Designated NYSRHPJune 23, 1980[1]
Designated NYCLOctober 19, 1966[2]

St. Patrick's Cathedral is a Catholic cathedral in the Midtown Manhattan neighborhood of New York City. It is the seat of the Archbishop of New York as well as a parish church. The cathedral occupies a city block bounded by Fifth Avenue, Madison Avenue, 50th Street, and 51st Street, directly across from Rockefeller Center. Designed by James Renwick Jr., it is the largest Gothic Revival Catholic cathedral in North America.

The cathedral was constructed starting in 1858 to accommodate the growing Archdiocese of New York and to replace St. Patrick's Old Cathedral. Work was halted in the early 1860s during the American Civil War; the cathedral was completed in 1878 and dedicated on May 25, 1879. The archbishop's house and rectory were added in the early 1880s, both designed by James Renwick Jr., and the spires were added in 1888. A Lady chapel designed by Charles T. Mathews was constructed from 1901 to 1906. The cathedral was consecrated on October 5, 1910, after all its debt had been paid off. Extensive restorations of the cathedral were conducted several times, including in the 1940s, 1970s, and 2010s.

St. Patrick's Cathedral is clad in marble and has several dozen stained glass windows. It measures 332 feet (101 m) long, with a maximum width of 174 feet (53 m) at the transepts. The bronze doors that form the cathedral's main entrance on Fifth Avenue are flanked by towers with spires rising 329.5 feet (100 m). The northern tower contains nineteen bells, and the interior has two pipe organs. Inside is a nave flanked by several chapels; two transepts; a chancel and apse; and a crypt. East of the apse are the rectory, Lady chapel, and archbishop's residence facing Madison Avenue. The cathedral is a New York City designated landmark and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.


The Diocese of New York was founded by Pope Pius VII in 1808.[5][6][7] St. Patrick's was founded shortly afterward to serve New York City's small, but growing, Catholic population, which could no longer fit in St. Peter's Church.[6] A site was selected on Mulberry Street in what is now Lower Manhattan, and St. Patrick's Old Cathedral was dedicated in 1815.[8][9] At the time, there were 15,000 Catholics in the diocese.[7]

Early site history[edit]

In March 1810, the Rev. Father Anthony Kohlmann bought the land on which the present cathedral stands. The site was bounded by what is now Fifth Avenue on the west, 51st Street on the north, Madison Avenue to the east, and 50th Street on the south.[10][11] The Jesuit community built a college on the site, which at the time was north of New York City proper.[12] It contained a "fine old house" which was fitted with a chapel of St. Ignatius.[13] In 1813, the Jesuits sold the lot to the Diocese of New York. The school closed in 1814 and the diocese gave the property to Dom Augustin LeStrange, the abbot of a community of Trappists who were fleeing persecution by French authorities. In addition to a small monastic community, they looked after orphans. With the downfall of Napoleon, the Trappists returned to France in 1815, but the neighboring orphanage was maintained by the diocese into the late nineteenth century.[14]

In 1828, trustees of St. Patrick's, St. Peter's, and St. Mary's met to discuss the feasibility of establishing a burial ground at Fifth Avenue between 50th and 51st Streets.[15] The trustees bought the property in 1829 but did not use it as a cemetery.[16][17] Bishop John Dubois reopened the chapel in 1840 for Catholics employed at the Deaf and Dumb Asylum and in the general neighborhood. A modest frame church was built for the parish of St. John the Evangelist and dedicated in 1841 by the Rev. John Hughes, administrator of the diocese.[16][18] Tickets were sold to the dedication to ease the parish's debt, but the mortgage was foreclosed upon, and in 1844 the church was sold at auction.[18] The church's pastor, the Rev. Felix Larkin, was said to have died from stress as a result.[19] The Rev. Michael A. Curran was appointed to raise funds for the devastated parish and used an old college hall as a temporary church. Curran continued raising funds to buy back the church during the Great Famine in Ireland, eventually succeeding and taking the deed in his own name.[19]


By the early 1840s, the number of Catholics in the Diocese of New York had increased to 200,000.[7][20] As a result, several additional dioceses were created in New York state. Most of New York state's Catholics at the time were Irish.[7] The Diocese of New York was made an archdiocese by Pope Pius IX on July 19, 1850.[21] Bishop John Joseph Hughes was raised to the level of archbishop soon afterward.[11][21] As early as 1850, Hughes determined that the growing Archdiocese of New York needed a large cathedral to replace the older cathedral in Lower Manhattan.[22][23][24] At the time, the Fifth Avenue site was still relatively rural.[25][26] The site faced the gardens of Columbia University to the west,[27] but the surrounding area was otherwise characterized by rocks and unopened streets.[25] Even so, Hughes believed the site would grow into a populous business area.[28]

In 1853, Hughes announced that he had hired the firm Renwick & Rodrigue to design a cathedral on Fifth Avenue between 50th and 51st Streets.[23] One partner in the firm, William Rodrigue, was Hughes's brother-in-law.[29][30] The other partner, James Renwick Jr., was largely responsible for designing the new St. Patrick's Cathedral.[23][29] Renwick spent three years in Europe to look for design influences for New York City's new Catholic cathedral.[31] He took particular inspiration from the unfinished Cologne Cathedral.[31][32] Renwick & Rodrigue originally planned a larger cathedral than the structure that was ultimately built. Hughes requested in 1857 that the firm reduce the dimensions of the new cathedral.[25][33] To make way for the clergy's and archbishop's residences, the ambulatory was removed from the plans.[33][34] The area behind the apse would have contained a chapel dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, but this was removed entirely.[35] The numerous heavy buttresses in the design were also removed.[31]

Plans for the cathedral were finalized in 1858.[23][36] To raise money for the effort, Hughes asked wealthy Catholics in the Archdiocese of New York to subscribe to a building fund for the new cathedral. One hundred and three subscribers donated $1,000 apiece,[23][37] and two subscribers were non-Catholics.[37] The first construction contracts for the new Fifth Avenue cathedral were issued in June 1858. The new St. Patrick's Cathedral was to take up the entire block bounded by Fifth and Madison Avenues between 50th and 51st Streets. The front facade on Fifth Avenue would have three large entrances, and the northwest and southwest corners of the cathedral would be topped by an octagonal spire. The interior was to be designed in a cruciform layout.[38][39][40] The cathedral was to be built in the Gothic Revival style.[41][42] In addition, an archbishop's house and a chapel would face Madison Avenue.[42] At the time, there were numerous hospitals, asylums, and other public institutions along the nearby section of Fifth Avenue.[43][38]


Initial work and hiatus[edit]

Exterior elevation drawing of the western facade, by James Renwick, architect

On August 15, 1858, the cornerstone was laid just south of the diocese's orphanage.[44][45] Archbishop Hughes laid the cornerstone in front of 100,000 spectators near the intersection of Fifth Avenue and 50th Street, though the precise location remains unclear.[46] That October, the architects presented cost estimates for making the cathedral out of white marble, brown freestone, olive freestone, or granite.[47] The white marble was the most expensive of the four options, with a projected cost of $850,000, and James Hall and William Joyce offered to supply the marble.[48][b] Even so, Renwick recommended that St. Patrick's be constructed of white marble, citing its durability and beauty.[23][48] The archdiocese formed a Bureau of Contracts, which first met in December 1858.[36]

The bureau awarded the marble contract to Hall and Joyce in March 1859; at the time, the work was supposed to be finished before January 1, 1867. The cost estimate of $867,500 for the entire cathedral (equivalent to $23,782,337 in 2023) was unusually low for a project of that size.[40] Construction progressed for two years after the cornerstone was laid.[23][26] The work consisted of laying stone blocks for the foundation, each weighing between one and four tons.[41] The foundation was excavated to a maximum depth of 20 feet (6.1 m), where it was laid on solid rock.[24][41][49] The excavations were relatively small because the underlying layer of bedrock was shallow,[50] rising nearly to the surface near the transept on Fifth Avenue.[24][49] White-marble walls were then constructed above the foundation.[41] By January 1860, the cathedral had been erected to about 7 feet (2.1 m) above ground level.[51] Work was slightly delayed by a stonecutters' strike that March.[52][53]

The walls had reached the water table when all $73,000 in funds had been exhausted.[26] As a result, in August 1860, Hughes decided to suspend all work on the new cathedral.[54][55] When work was suspended, the walls had been built to an average height of 12 feet (3.7 m) above ground.[41] The onset of the American Civil War in 1861 prevented the resumption of work for several years.[23][24][26] Hughes died in January 1864 before the work could resume.[26][56] John McCloskey was appointed to succeed Hughes as archbishop.[57][58] McCloskey created a plan to finance the construction of the new St. Patrick's Cathedral.[26]


By mid-1866, work had again resumed and the walls had been built to 20 feet (6.1 m) above ground. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle reported that the interior "looks like a large field" and said the cathedral would be "worthy to be regarded as one of the wonders of the Republic".[42] Some $100,000 was spent on the Catholic cathedral in 1867,[59] and the constituent churches of the Archdiocese of New York promised to spend $100,000 a year until the cathedral was complete.[60] Most funding for the cathedral came from the parishioners of these churches, who were mainly poor Irish immigrants. An editorial in the New York World described the cathedral as being constructed "not of the superfluity of wealth, but for the most part out of the offerings of poverty".[61]

The cathedral's masonry was laid during summer as the stonework could not be laid in the cold.[50] By late 1870, the marble walls had been built to a height of 54 feet (16 m) and the transept was finished.[50][62] The entrance on Fifth Avenue, measuring 70 feet (21 m) tall, had also been finished.[62] Over a hundred workers were busy quarrying marble from Pleasantville, north of New York City. The marble was transported down to New York City via the Harlem Railroad, where a branch track led to the new cathedral's site.[50] The construction of the new cathedral drew relatively little interest for New York City's non-Catholic population,[63] though several commentators praised the cathedral's design.[31] An anonymous author for the Real Estate Record and Guide wrote that the new St. Patrick's Cathedral was the "most gorgeous ecclesiastical edifice on this continent", though the critics perceived the buttresses on the north and south sides of the facade as "altogether unnecessary".[64] A reporter for the New York World, probably Montgomery Schuyler, wrote in 1871 that the cathedral would be "one of the leading ecclesiastical structures in the world".[31]

The trustees of St. Patrick's Cathedral borrowed $300,000 from the Emigrant Industrial Savings Bank for the new cathedral in 1874. The trustees gave the bank a first mortgage on the cathedral and site as collateral for the loan.[65] By late 1875, the roof had been covered with slate and all of the walls were finished, except for a small portion along Fifth Avenue.[66] The trustees borrowed another $100,000 from the Emigrant Bank in 1876.[65] Late that year, temporary scaffolding was erected so the interior could be plastered and decorated. Almost all the stained glass had been delivered and was being glazed; four of these windows had been exhibited at the Centennial Exposition. Only one worker had been killed during the construction process, according to the American Architect and Building News, due to his own carelessness.[67] McCloskey made contracts for furnishings in 1874 and again in 1878.[58]

On November 29, 1877, the incomplete St. Patrick's Cathedral was opened for public viewing.[68][31] A one-month-long fundraiser for the cathedral commenced on October 22, 1878.[69][70] In its first three weeks, the fundraiser had an average daily attendance of between ten and eleven thousand.[71] The fair ran for 36 nights and attracted about 250,000 total visitors when it closed on November 30.[72][73] Forty-five parishes of the Archdiocese of New York had exhibits at the fair.[73] The fundraiser sought to raise $200,000 for the cathedral,[69] but it ultimately netted $173,000.[23][73] Several months elapsed before the cathedral was readied for its dedication in early 1879.[74]

Opening and late 19th century[edit]

Stereoscopic view of the cathedral's appearance prior to the installation of spires

The new St. Patrick's Cathedral opened on May 25, 1879.[75][76][77] Thirty-five bishops and six archbishops attended the dedication.[75][77][78] St. Patrick's was met with a generally positive reception from the media.[61] The Baltimore Sun, for example, called it the "finest church edifice on the American continent".[79] Not all critics spoke of the cathedral positively; journalist Clarence Cook authored a criticism that architectural historian Robert A. M. Stern characterized as being "underpinned with religious and ethnic bigotry".[61] Cook perceived the facade as being full of "clumsy repetition", and he wrote of the interior: "Words cannot express the paltry character of the internal finish of this vaunted structure."[80] The new St. Patrick's Cathedral and Temple Emanu-El comprised the first non-Protestant houses of worship on the midtown section of Fifth Avenue.[81] At the time, the cathedral was far removed from the developed portions of the city.[82] The first bishop consecrated in the new cathedral was the Michael J. O'Farrell of Trenton, New Jersey, who became the first bishop of the Diocese of Trenton.[83]

The cathedral's parish originally extended from Seventh Avenue to the East River between 46th and 59th Streets, and the section between Madison and Sixth Avenues extended to 42nd Street.[84][85] In 1880, the section between Third Avenue and the East River was split to the parish of St. John the Evangelist.[84][86] During the early 1880s, Renwick designed the archbishop's house and rectory on Madison Avenue.[87] The Real Estate Record and Guide reported in December 1881 that Renwick had been hired to build a rectory at the southwest corner of Madison Avenue and 51st Street.[88] Shortly afterward, Renwick filed plans for a four-story marble rectory on the site,[89] to be built by E. D. Connoly & Son and P. Walsh.[90] The archbishop's house was completed the same year.[86] The rectory was completed on May 8, 1884.[86] A critic for the Real Estate Record characterized the rectory and archbishop's house as having "absurd" dormer windows in their mansard roofs.[91] A memorial marble pulpit was manufactured in Italy and installed in the cathedral in October 1885. The money for the pulpit came from the clergy of the archdiocese, who had offered Cardinal McCloskey $10,000 for his golden jubilee and commissioned the pulpit after he had declined the prize.[92]

A lack of funding precluded spires from being installed when the cathedral was completed.[31][79] By late 1885, spires were planned to be installed at a cost of $190,000.[93][94] Renwick filed plans for the cathedral spires in September 1885,[94][95] and the contract was awarded to George Mann & Co. of Baltimore.[96] Excavation of the stone commenced in January 1886 and the spires were constructed starting that September.[97] The last stones of the spires were erected in October 1888, at which point the cathedral was considered completed.[98][99] At the time several hundred niches remained to be filled with figures, and ten chapels did not have their altars yet.[99] At 329.5 feet (100.4 m),[100][101][a] the spires were the tallest structures in New York City.[101] The Evening World said the construction of the spires "completes a notable ornament to the city".[103] Within a year, the cathedral was surpassed in height by the New York World Building, whose spire rose to 349 feet (106 m).[104] The funding shortages at the building's completion had also required that a "temporary" plaster and wood ceiling be installed atop the cathedral,[79] rather than the marble or brick ceiling that Renwick had conceived.[79][100] The cathedral never replaced the plaster-and-wood ceiling.[100][105][106]

After the spires were finished, the trustees of St. Patrick's Cathedral decided that bells should be installed in one tower. No arrangements had yet been made for the bells because parts of the project, such as interior design, remained incomplete.[107] The cathedral tested a set of four bells in the north tower in July and August 1889 to determine the tower's acoustic properties.[108][109] The altar of the Holy Family was consecrated at the cathedral in 1893.[110] A set of bells for the cathedral was manufactured in the United States. After the archbishop consecrated them, the bells were found to be defective and were never hung in the belfry. In 1895, the cathedral ordered a second set of bells to be made by the Paccards in France.[111] The new bells were blessed by Archbishop Michael Corrigan on August 15, 1897, though they had not been installed yet.[112][113] The framework for the bells was installed in the north tower the next month.[114] At the time of completion, St. Patrick's had more bells than any other church in the city, with 19; by comparison, Trinity Church had ten bells and Grace Church had nine.[115] Also in 1897, the Spiritual Sons of De La Salle funded a new altar for the cathedral.[116]

20th century[edit]

Lady chapel and consecration[edit]

1913 photograph of the cathedral

Margaret A. Kelly, widow of banker Eugene Kelly, died in 1899 and left $200,000 to the cathedral for the construction of a Lady chapel, on the condition that the chapel not be constructed until after her death.[117][118] Kelly's sons pledged additional funds for the chapel as necessary.[119] The next year, the trustees of St. Patrick's Cathedral held an architectural design competition for the chapel, east of the cathedral's apse. The trustees received submissions from American, Canadian, French, and British architects before giving the commission to Charles T. Mathews of New York City.[120][121] After traveling to Europe to study architectural influences, Mathews prepared plans for the chapel by September 1900.[120][121] Work on the Lady chapel began in July 1901.[122]

Archbishop Corrigan was simultaneously paying off the debt on the cathedral with the intention of consecrating it after all the debts were paid off in 1908. This date was the centennial of the Archdiocese of New York's founding and the 50-year anniversary of the groundbreaking ceremony. However, he died in 1902 before the consecration or the retirement of the debt.[123][124] Following a construction delay of more than one year, the Lady chapel was nearly complete by early 1905.[125] The first Mass in the Lady chapel took place in Christmas 1906,[126] but the interior furnishings were not complete until 1908.[127] The chapel cost $800,000 in total.[128]

Additional changes to the cathedral took place in the first decade of the 20th century. These included the construction of an altar to St. Michael on the left side of the Lady chapel, as well as an altar to St. Joseph on the right side. By 1907, a movable bronze screen was to be installed at the transept, and the temporary wooden floor dating from the cathedral's construction was planned to be replaced with a permanent marble floor.[128] The bronze screens were a gift to celebrate the archdiocese's centennial,[129] which almost every archbishop in the United States celebrated at the cathedral in April 1908.[130] The Lady chapel was originally outfitted with transparent windows,[131] though its stained-glass windows were manufactured in Europe starting in 1909.[127] In the first half of 1910, the cathedral's debt of $800,000 was completely paid off.[132] St. Patrick's Cathedral was consecrated on October 5, 1910, with Archbishop John Murphy Farley officiating.[133][134] By that time, the surrounding area was quickly being developed.[135]

1920s through 1940s[edit]

View from Rockefeller Center

Monsignor Michael J. Lavelle started raising $625,000 from the congregation in 1926 to renovate the cathedral.[136] The next year, Robert J. Reiley was hired to conduct renovations, including replacing the wooden floor with a marble floor.[137] The floor was replaced between April and December 1927. The old organ was also replaced and new stained-glass windows, altar, and pews were being installed in the Lady chapel. The sanctuary was extended approximately 8 feet (2.4 m), the metal communion rail was replaced with a bronze and marble rail, and the wooden throne was replaced with one of marble.[138] Amplifiers,[139][140] wrought-iron doors,[141] and new bronze chandeliers were installed.[142] New pews were also installed,[143] as were two new organs.[144] English stained glass artist and designer Paul Vincent Woodroffe completed the Lady chapel's remaining windows by late 1930.[131][145] With the construction of Rockefeller Center to the west, several trees were planted around the cathedral in 1939 to complement Rockefeller Center's trees.[146]

The cathedral's rectory was closed in April 1940 for the first major renovation in its history,[147] and it reopened that December.[148][149] Archbishop Francis Spellman announced in February 1941 that an anonymous donor had provided funding for a new high altar, to be designed by Charles Maginnis. According to Spellman's announcement, the original high altar had been "architecturally inconsistent" with the cathedral's design ever since the Lady chapel was completed, but a lack of funds had prevented the altar's replacement for four decades.[150][151] The reredos behind the original high altar blocked the view of the Lady chapel from the nave, but the cathedral's trustees wished to avoid this.[152] The old main altar was removed in February 1942[153][154] and the new main altar of St. Patrick's Cathedral was consecrated that May.[155][156] A new altar in the Lady chapel, donated by George J. Gillespie, was also consecrated in May 1942.[157]

The George A. Fuller Company started renovating the exterior in August 1945[158] after blasting for a nearby building dislodged a stone from the facade.[159] The main doorway was narrowed, and some of the projecting Gothic ornamentation was eliminated because they were prone to cracks in New York City's climate, which was characterized by abrupt temperature decreases.[158][160] A bronze cross was placed atop the north tower, replacing the original stone cross there.[161] The project involved 350 workers at its peak.[158] Some funds for the renovation came from a 1946 bequest of $100,000 from radio personality Major Bowes.[162][163] By early 1947, the project was completed except for the Lady Chapel and a set of new entrance doors.[160] An anonymous donor gave the cathedral a $25,000 window, which was designed by Charles J. Connick Associates and unveiled in April 1947.[164] Work began on an interior renovation in mid-1948, with 17 of the cathedral's 19 altars being replaced.[165] Cardinal Francis Spellman blessed the new bronze doors in December 1949.[166][167]

1950s to 1990s[edit]

Detail of the entrance (October 2007)

In 1952, St. Patrick's Cathedral received five gifts. These funded the electrification of the cathedral chimes; an elevator to the main organ; kneeling cushions and guard cords in the pews; and new stained-glass windows.[168] The windows, depicting 12 male and 12 female saints, were installed at the clerestory in 1954. These windows were funded by a bequest by Atlas Portland Cement Company president John R. Morron, who left $200,000 for the archdiocese in his will.[169][170] The cathedral celebrated the 100th anniversary of its cornerstone-laying in 1958.[171] At the time, the cathedral had over three million visitors a year.[135] St. Patrick's celebrated the 50th anniversary of its consecration two years later.[172]

The New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission (LPC) considered designating St. Patrick's Cathedral as a New York City landmark in early 1966.[173] Later that year, the LPC designated the cathedral as a New York City Landmark.[2][174] Under Cardinal Terence Cooke's leadership, the interior of St. Patrick's Cathedral was restored starting in 1972.[127] That June, workers placed scaffolding on the cathedral to protect it from damage due to blasting for the construction of Olympic Tower across 51st Street. Afterward, over 100 workers cleaned and painted the interior while the cathedral remained open.[175] The $800,000 project was completed in April 1973.[175][176] The cathedral close, consisting of all structures on the same block as the cathedral, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places and declared a National Historic Landmark in 1976.[10][177][178]

St. Patrick's Cathedral celebrated the centennial of its opening in May 1979. The cathedral's popularity was attributed to its location in midtown, and about 6,000 people attended Mass on Sundays, ninety percent of whom were visitors.[179] The cathedral's exterior was cleaned the same year.[180][181] Further restoration began in 1984 during the episcopate of Cardinal John O'Connor. As part of the work, most of the roof was replaced, and the entrance steps, doors, and walls were also repaired.[127] The cathedral's two organs were restored in the mid-1990s.[182]

21st century[edit]

Under Cardinal Edward Egan, another renovation of the cathedral was planned in 2006[183][184] after chunks of rock started falling from the facade.[185] The project was conducted between 2012 and 2015 at a cost of $177 million.[186] The renovation was designed by Murphy Burnham & Buttrick and led by construction manager Structure Tone.[187][188] The renovation involved cleaning the exterior marble, repairing stained-glass windows, painting the ceiling, and replacing the flooring and steps.[184] In addition, the bronze doors were renovated and reinstalled.[189][190] Work was completed by September 17, 2015, before Pope Francis visited the cathedral the next week.[105][106] The scaffolding was removed in July 2016.[191] The cathedral and the renovations were featured on WNET's television program Treasures of New York.[192]

The LPC approved a garage on the 50th Street side of the cathedral in late 2015. The garage was designed to provide a secure entrance for Cardinal Timothy M. Dolan.[193] In 2017, MBB Architects and Structure Tone, Landmark Facilities Group, and P.W. Grosser completed a new geothermal system under St. Patrick's Cathedral, believed to be the largest in New York City.[194][195] The gardens adjoining the cathedral to the north and south were excavated for the system's construction, and they were replanted after installation was complete.[196] The same October, a shrine to the Lebanese Maronite Saint Charbel Makhlouf was dedicated at St. Patrick's Cathedral.[197] The cathedral was temporarily closed for in-person Mass in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City. The pandemic severely reduced the cathedral's finances as much of its income came from donations at Mass and the archdiocese did not fund the cathedral's maintenance.[198] It was reopened for full-capacity worship in May 2021.[199]

Following the rezoning of East Midtown in the late 2010s, the Archdiocese of New York began planning to sell the air rights attached to the cathedral's site.[200][201] In December 2023, Citadel LLC and Vornado Realty Trust agreed to pay as much as $164 million for up to 525,000 square feet (48,800 m2) of the cathedral's air rights, which would be transferred to a site at 350 Park Avenue.[202][203]

Main structure[edit]

Main archway of the cathedral

St. Patrick's Cathedral was designed by James Renwick Jr. with influences from English, French, and German Gothic architecture.[24][31] It is the largest Gothic Revival Catholic cathedral in North America,[204] as well as the first major Gothic Revival cathedral in the United States.[32] St. Patrick's Cathedral was described by CNN in 2020 as being an "essential part of New York City's architectural heritage".[205] The cathedral serves as the seat for the Archdiocese of New York and as a parish church for the archdiocese within Manhattan.[206] Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, over five million people visited the cathedral each year.[198]

The foundation stones are made of blue gneiss granite set within cement mortar.[24] The lowest horizontal course of the facade, as well as the lowest course under all the interior columns. is made of Dix Island granite from Maine.[25][49] The exterior is clad in marble quarried in Lee, Massachusetts, and Pleasantville, New York. The main section of the cathedral is made of Tuckahoe marble.[49][207] Behind the marble blocks are walls made of brick and stone laid in rough masonry, with hollow gaps for ventilation. The blocks were so closely laid that, decades after the cathedral's completion, no cracks had formed in them.[34][49] The side walls are between 3 and 4 feet (0.91 and 1.22 m) thick, and the clerestory walls above the nave are 3 feet thick.[62] Part of the interior is made of artificial Coignet stone.[25] The marble for the spires was sourced from Cockeysville, Maryland,[208] and the roof has 343 finials.[209]

There are 103 windows on the cathedral in total.[68][76][c] The windows are glazed by two thicknesses of sash and glass, set 2 inches (51 mm) apart, to regulate interior temperatures and prevent air drafts. The exterior sashes are glazed with figured glass in lead sash, while the interior sashes are glazed with stained glass.[25][212] The windows of the clerestory were made by Morgan Brothers.[212] The cathedral had been constructed with 57 stained-glass windows: 37 representing scenes from Scripture and 20 representing geometrical shapes.[210][211] Forty-five of the original windows were manufactured by Nicholas Lorin and Henry Ely in France.[213] Other stained glass windows were added later.[169][170] Renwick's original sketches show that the tracery near each window was designed with two grooves: one for stained glass and one for protective glazing.[196]

Location and dimensions[edit]

St. Patrick's Cathedral is in the Midtown Manhattan neighborhood of New York City. It takes up a full city block bounded by Fifth Avenue to the west, 51st Street to the north, Madison Avenue to the east, and 50th Street to the south. Clockwise from northwest, the cathedral is directly across from Olympic Tower, 11 East 51st Street, and 488 Madison Avenue to the north; the Villard Houses and Lotte New York Palace Hotel to the east; 18 East 50th Street and the Saks Fifth Avenue flagship store to the south; and the International Building of Rockefeller Center to the west.[87] St. Patrick's is directly across from the Atlas statue at the International Building.[214]

St. Patrick's is oriented west–east relative to the street grid and has a cruciform plan. From west to east, the cathedral contains a nave; transepts extending to the north and south; and a sanctuary and apse.[32][62][25] The entire structure measures 332 feet (101 m) long as measured along the exterior buttresses. The cathedral is 174 feet (53 m) wide at the transepts.[215][d] The main facade is oriented west along Fifth Avenue, with two towers measuring 32 feet (9.8 m) wide[34][102] and 329.5 feet (100.4 m) tall,[100][101][a] flanking a central section 105 feet (32 m) wide.[215] To the north and south are planted gardens,[196] which contain ten manholes for the cathedral's subterranean geothermal system.[194] The cathedral's total length is 396.7 feet (120.9 m).[100]

The cathedral's interior was designed to accommodate 14,000 seated guests or 19,000 in total.[76][216] It has a seating capacity for about 2,400 congregants.[217] There are about 300 wooden pews ranging from 10 to 20 feet (3.0 to 6.1 m) wide.[218] The underground geothermal system consists of ten wells, each 2,200 feet (670 m) deep, which could concurrently send hot and cold air to separate sections of the cathedral. The system is capable of producing 3.2 million British thermal units (3.4 GJ) of heat and 2.9 million British thermal units (3.1 GJ) of air conditioning hourly.[194][195] The geothermal system uses a computer to send cool or warm air based on thermostat readings. Heat and cool air are pumped through four water loops.[194]

Western facade[edit]

Central gable and doors[edit]

The central portion of the Fifth Avenue facade contains a 156-foot-tall (48 m) gable, which leads into the narthex.[34][102][210] The main entrance is an archway at the base of the gable, measuring 31 feet (9.4 m) wide and 51 feet (16 m) tall.[63] The actual entrance portal is recessed about 12 feet (3.7 m) into the archway and contains the main doors.[76][102] The top of the portal is slightly pointed, with carved spandrel panels on either side.[102] Above is a marble transom bar as well as elaborate floral tracery.[63][102] The portal is flanked by decorative jambs, which in turn are topped by foliage capitals. Atop the jambs are a set of buttresses, which converge to form pointed arches.[102] A gablet rises over the main portal and contains tracery paneling and a shield bearing the arms of the Archdiocese of New York.[76][102]

The main entrance originally contained a pair of square-headed marble doors.[102] The current bronze doors were designed by Charles Maginnis and sculpted by John Angel, and they were installed in 1949.[166][167] Each door is 16.5 by 5.5 feet (5.0 by 1.7 m) and weighs 9,200 pounds (4,200 kg).[189][219] The main doors are generally kept open to welcome visitors; to save energy, a second set of glass pocket doors is installed directly behind.[220] The main doors are decorated with relief sculptures representing three men and three women, with inscriptions indicating their significance to the cathedral and with particular focus on missionary work and assistance for migrants:[167][221]

The bronze doors of the cathedral, prior to restoration

Above the central opening is a balustrade made of rich pierced tracery; it contains a row of niches, measuring 7.5 feet (2.3 m) high, for statues.[76][102] These niches are decorated by columns with foliage capitals and gablets, with tracery and finials.[31][222] The niches depict six archangels: Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, Raphael, Chamuel, and Jophiel.[164] Above these niches is a rose window, measuring 26 feet (7.9 m) in diameter and designed by Charles Connick.[31][222] The rose window is blue with red, green, white, and gold panels. The window depicts eight types of leaves at its center, as well as trefoils with white doves.[164] The main gable is carried up to the roof lines, terminating at a cornice with crockets that support a foliated cross.[223][216] On either side of the jambs of the central window are buttresses, terminated by pinnacles, and between these and the buttresses of the tower are rich Gothic panels, terminated by crocketed gablets.[223]


The towers on either side of the central gable measure 32 by 32 feet (9.8 by 9.8 m) at the base and retain this square cross-section to a height of 136 feet (41 m).[63][210][223] The walls of the towers along Fifth Avenue are 12 to 14 feet (3.7 to 4.3 m) thick.[62] The ground story of the towers has portals similar in design to that at the center, but there are shields in the central panel of each gablet. The shield in the left tower has the arms of the United States and the shield in the right tower has the arms of New York.[63][223] The second story, at the same height as the rose window, has molded jambs and tracery and is topped by gablets with tracery. The third story has four small windows on each side, topped by a cornice and pierced battlement. The towers are flanked by massive buttresses decorated with tabernacles, and the tops of the towers' square portions have clustered pinnacles.[224] Above the square cross-sections are octagonal lanterns measuring 54 feet (16 m) tall.[63][210][224] Circular stone stairways and a chime of bells were installed in the towers.[224]

The towers are topped by spires measuring 140 feet (43 m) high.[63][210][224] The spires are composed of two tiers with elaborate molding and tracery; the upper tier of each tower had a foliate finial above it.[224] The spires were also planned with octagonal cross-sections, tapering from a base measuring 32 feet (9.8 m) across to a pinnacle measuring 2 feet (0.61 m) across. Also planned within the spires were floors, constructed at intervals of 20 feet (6.1 m).[94]


Stained glass example

The nave is about 164 feet (50 m) long as measured from the Fifth Avenue facade.[25][225] It measures 96 feet (29 m) wide if chapels are not included, or around 120 feet (37 m) wide if the chapels in the side aisles are included.[25][225] The nave consists of a center aisle and two side aisles running west–east. The center aisle is 48 feet (15 m) wide and 112 feet (34 m) high while the side aisles are 24 feet (7.3 m) wide and 54 feet (16 m) high.[49][63] Internally, the nave is divided into seven bays from west to east. The westernmost bay is part of the towers along Fifth Avenue and the easternmost bay is part of the transept. The westernmost bay is 26 feet (7.9 m) wide and the other bays are 23 feet (7.0 m) wide.[25][225] Just inside the entrances within the westernmost bay are busts of Pope Francis, Pope Benedict XVI, Pope John Paul II, and Pope Paul VI, all of whom have previously visited the cathedral.[226]

Thirty-two white marble columns divide the center and side aisles.[215] The marble columns are 5 feet (1.5 m) in diameter and are set up in sections weighing 8 short tons (7.1 long tons; 7.3 t) each.[68] Each column consists of multiple smaller columns: four at the corners, measuring 12 inches (300 mm) in diameter, and eight surrounding the central shaft, measuring 6 inches (150 mm) in diameter. The columns are 35 feet (11 m) tall to the bottom of the arches that support the nave's ceiling. Above the center aisle is a series of groin vaults supported by molded ribs, with foliate bosses at the intersection of each vault.[25][227] The ceiling has holes with diameters of 1.5 inches (38 mm); ropes could be threaded through these holes to allow repairs and cleaning.[228] The side aisles are similar to those at Saint-Ouen Abbey, Rouen, while the columns and ceiling are similar to British models such as Westminster Abbey.[32]

Looking east from the nave toward the altar in the sanctuary

The northern and southern facades are divided into five bays, with buttresses and pinnacles between each bay. The lower section of each bay contains an arched window measuring 13.5 feet (4.1 m) wide and 27 feet (8.2 m) wide. Mullions divide each of these windows vertically into three sections, and the top of each window has tracery.[224] Above these windows is the triforium, which is 56 feet (17 m) above the nave floor.[229] Four arches on either side of the nave support the triforium, which is 16 feet (4.9 m) tall. The clerestory level of the nave rises for 38 feet (12 m) above the triforium and contains six bays. Each clerestory window is 14.5 feet (4.4 m) wide and 26 feet (7.9 m) high.[25][228] The top of the clerestory is 104 feet (32 m) above ground.[230]

There are twelve chapels in the side aisles.[84] Located under the side aisles' windowsills, the chapels each measure 14 feet (4.3 m) wide and 18 feet (5.5 m) high.[25][225] The chapels have similar vaulted ceilings to the nave,[25] and each has its their own altars.[77][213] On the northern side-aisle is a dark-wood baptistery on a marble podium,[213] The baptistery was designed by John La Farge.[104] The chapels include one for St. Bernard and St. Bridget.[213] Among the altars are those for Saint Elizabeth, designed by Roman artist Paolo Medici; a Saint Jean-Baptiste de La Salle altar, sculpted by Dominic Borgia; and the Saint Louis and the Saint Michael altars, designed by Tiffany & Co.[231]


The transepts measure 144 feet (44 m) from north to south.[25][225] The transepts contain entrances facing north on 51st Street and south on 50th Street. These entrances are similar in design to the central gable on Fifth Avenue.[230] As planned, the transept doorways were to measure 26 feet (7.9 m) wide and 43 feet (13 m) high.[216] The large transept window over the 50th Street door represents St. Patrick, while that over the 51st Street door represents the Immaculate Conception.[66][232] The transept windows measure 28 feet (8.5 m) wide by 58 feet (18 m) tall and are divided by mullions into six vertical sections.[66][230] Over each transept window rises a paneled gablet. A row of niches crosses each of the transepts' facades at the eave line. Above this, each facade has a gable with pinnacles and pierced battlements, which in turn is topped by an octagonal pinnacle and foliated cross.[230]

On both sides of either entrance are tall windows. The windows are similar in design to those on the side aisles of the nave.[230] The side windows depict the Four Evangelists.[68] These windows are flanked by octagonal buttresses, which contain spiral stairs leading to the triforium and roofs.[230] The roof at the intersection of the nave and transept contains a central finial 15 feet (4.6 m) high, which is gilded and is decorated with foliage and flowers.[25][212]

Inside the transepts are the Stations of the Cross, which are carved in stone and were manufactured by the Stoltzenberg Company in Roermond, the Netherlands.[233] There are five Stations of the Cross in total.[234] Three of them received prizes from the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893 before they were installed at the cathedral.[235][234] In 1908, bronze screens were installed at both transept entrances, measuring 17 feet (5.2 m) tall and 14 feet (4.3 m) wide. The bronze screens were designed so the transepts' wooden doors could open directly into them. Each screen had six wrought-bronze panels with ornamentation.[129] The south transept contained the Altar of the Sacred Heart, which was made of bronze and had an elaborate tabernacle.[236] The north transept contained the Holy Family altar, made of white Carrara marble and dedicated in 1893.[110][237]


Apsidal stained glass windows in the clerestory

The sanctuary floor is raised six steps above the floor of the nave, connected to it via a set of gray marble steps.[238] The sanctuary is 95 feet (29 m) long and measures 124 feet (38 m) wide.[25][210][225] The roof is made of slate, though the clerestory roof has a metal cresting 5.5 feet (1.7 m) high.[212] There is a 15-foot-high (4.6 m) cross at the east end of the roof, which has flowers and foliage ornaments.[25][212]


The ambulatory, or side aisle of the sanctuary, is divided from west to east into three bays, similar to those in the nave. The apse has a convex polygonal wall with five bays, which are divided by buttresses with pinnacles.[230] Each bay of the apse has a window 14.5 feet (4.4 m) wide and 26 feet (7.9 m) high. The windows are divided by mullions into four vertical sections; they are surmounted by paneled gablets with traceries. The walls between the gablets and pinnacles are finished by pierced battlements.[212] The south ambulatory has a marble Pietà sculpture designed by William Ordway Partridge[221] and completed in 1905.[239] The south ambulatory also contains St. Joseph's Altar, which is made of bronze and mosaic.[240] The first four Cardinals' galeros,[e] or brimmed red felt hats, are mounted at the back of the sanctuary;[241] the Catholic Church stopped issuing galeros to its cardinals in 1969.[242]

There are eleven windows on the sanctuary's clerestory, of which six represent sacrifice (three each on the north and south sides).[243] The three windows on the north side represent the sacrifices of Abel, Noe, and Melchisedech, while the three on the south side represent the sacrifices of Abraham, the Paschal Lamb, and the Mount of Calvary.[25][244] The five windows on the convex portion of the apse represent subjects from the history of the Lord.[243] The apsidal windows represent the resurrection of Lazarus, the communion of St. John, the resurrection of Jesus, the giving of the keys of heaven to St. Peter, and Jesus meeting the disciples going to Emmaus.[25][245]

Chancel and high altar[edit]

The original chancel and high altar, donated by Cardinal McCloskey,[84] were three steps above the sanctuary floor and contained a platform of richly colored marble.[35][246] The altar was made in Rome[84][246] and designed in the Italian Gothic style.[247][248] The altar steps intersected a marble tabernacle inlaid with precious stones and mosaics.[246][248] Three bas-reliefs on the sides and front of the altar were carved in white marble.[210][247] The archbishop's pulpit, on the north side of the altar, was made of wood.[213] In 1885, a Gothic-style octagonal pulpit was installed at the south side of the high altar. Weighing 16 short tons (14 long tons; 15 t) and measuring 14 feet (4.3 m) tall, the pulpit was made mostly of Carrara marble, except for six supporting pillars, which were made of Vienna marble.[92] A heavy marble balustrade with carved panels surrounded the main pulpit, which itself was accessed by six marble steps.[92][249] The altar was compared to a wedding cake when it was first consecrated.[150] In 1930, a 50-foot-long (15 m) marble altar rail was designed by Robert J. Reiley and installed in front of the altar. The rail had carvings of saints.[141]

At the rear of the original high altar was a stylobate with a reredos, or altar screen, measuring 30 feet (9.1 m) long and 10 feet (3.0 m) high.[246] The clergy of the Archdiocese of New York gifted the altar screen,[77][84] which was carved from Poitiers stone in France.[77] The reredos was divided vertically into five parts: a central portion measuring 6 feet (1.8 m) wide, flanked on either side by panels measuring 7.5 feet (2.3 m) and 4.5 feet (1.4 m) wide. The base of the reredos was made of white marble, inlaid with alabaster and decorated with a bas-relief on each side. The reredos was topped by three towers, one at the center and one on each extreme end. The center tower ascended 48 feet (15 m) above the sanctuary floor while the corner towers ascended 18.5 feet (5.6 m) above the sanctuary floor.[246] The center spire had a statue of Christ, while the other spires had statues of St. Peter and St. Paul.[77][246] Between the towers were placed six niches with angels, three on either side of the center spire.[246]

In 1942, the original high altar was removed from St. Patrick's Cathedral and consecrated at Fordham University Church in the Bronx.[250][251] It was replaced with the current high altar, which is made of gray-white Italian marble and topped by a bronze baldachin.[155][156] Maginnis & Walsh designed the high altar. It lacks a tabernacle and a reredos, similarly to other high altars in cathedrals. The altar table measures 4 feet (1.2 m) deep and about 12 feet (3.7 m) long. The baldachin is supported by four piers; it slopes upward to a pinnacle with a statue of Christ the King. The statue is flanked by smaller pinnacles with angelic figures.[152][252] The pulpit is along the south (right) side of the right altar.[221]


Under the high altar is a crypt in which notable Catholic figures that served the Archdiocese of New York are entombed. It is accessed by a set of doors behind the high altar.[253] Originally, the entrance to the crypt was hidden by a heavy stone slab that required six people to lift. A stone staircase descended to a vault behind a set of slate doors.[254] Large bronze letters with the names of those buried in the crypt are inscribed in the crypt doors.[255] The crypt is about 21 feet (6.4 m) long and 10 feet (3.0 m) high, with a width of 10 feet (3.0 m) between the rows of coffins on either side. The crypt is square in plan except for a ventilating pipe at the southeast corner.[254] It has space to bury either 24[256] or 42 people.[236][254]

The crypt's interments include all nine past deceased Archbishops of New York:

The bas relief above the main entrance in 2016

Other interments include:

Fulton J. Sheen, Auxiliary Bishop of New York from 1951 to 1965 and later Bishop of Rochester, was interred in the crypt in 1979.[278] During the late 2010s, the Archdiocese of New York and his relatives were involved in a three-year court dispute to keep his remains at St. Patrick's Cathedral. On June 27, 2019, Sheen's remains were disinterred from St. Patrick's and transferred to St. Mary's Cathedral in Peoria, Illinois, where he had been ordained.[279][280]

Cathedral close[edit]

Lady chapel[edit]

Map of the cathedral close of St. Patrick's Cathedral in 1916. At right are depicted (from top to bottom) the rectory, Lady chapel, and archbishop's residence.

The Lady chapel, designed by Charles T. Mathews, is east of the apse, facing along Madison Avenue.[87] It was designed in a 13th-century Gothic style. The rear wall of the apse was partly removed in the first decade of the 20th century to allow the construction of an ambulatory around the choir's outer wall.[120][121] The removed section of the apse's wall became part of Our Lady of Lourdes Church at that time.[281][282] The chapel was designed with a roof and belfry made of green bronze, as well as walls surrounded by statues. The walls of the chapel were designed to be plain at the bottom, becoming progressively more elaborately designed at the top.[120][121] Several gargoyles were designed as decoration for the chapel's exterior.[283] The chapel contains fifteen stained-glass windows depicting the mysteries of the rosary, five each for glorious, joyful, and sorrowful scenes. The Lady chapel has nine tall windows, as well as two side chapels with three windows each.[131]

The chapel is separated from the apse by a 48-foot-tall (15 m) glass wall that rests on a 23-foot-wide (7.0 m) glass beam. The glass wall is designed with a minimalist bronze frame.[220][284] The interior of the Lady chapel was designed with carved stonework. The original altar, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, had a high carved reredos, a mosaic floor, and a blue color scheme.[120][121] The altar was replaced in 1942. The new altar is reached by three brown-marble steps. It consists of a white-marble reredos, an altar table, with a multicolored inlaid marble frontal named "Annunciation" designed by Hildreth Meiere,[285] and a statue of the Lady on top.[157] Under the Lady chapel is a crypt for the Kelly family, which had paid for the chapel.[131]


The rectory (originally the Vicar General's house[89]) is at the southwest corner with 51st Street, on the northeastern section of the cathedral close.[87][126] It carries the address 460 Madison Avenue.[87] The Gothic-style building is three and a half stories high[2] and is clad with Tuckahoe stone and white marble.[89][90] As designed, it covers a lot measuring 54 by 47 feet (16 by 14 m). The basement was originally designed as the kitchen, laundry, and servants' quarters. The first floor had a hall clad with marble tiles; the reception and dining rooms were on the left and two parlors were on the right of the hall. The second and third floors were designed as bedrooms. White oak and black walnut was used throughout the building. The rectory had ceilings of 14 feet (4.3 m) on the first and second floors, 12 feet (3.7 m) on the third floor, and 12 feet (3.7 m) on the fourth.[89] It had 30 rooms in total.[148]

The rectory was substantially unchanged from its early-1880s construction until 1940. A new window was installed on the southern facade at ground level; new plumbing, electric wiring, an elevator, and a telephone switchboard were installed; and the curtains were replaced.[148] The two first-floor parlors were converted into four offices and a waiting room, and the upper stories were divided into smaller bedrooms and studies.[149] The rectory retained some original design features such as its black-walnut fireplace mantels.[148]

In 1920, the rectory also hosted the marriage of F. Scott Fitzgerald and Zelda Fitzgerald.[253]

Archbishop's residence[edit]

Archbishop's Residence
Plaque commemorating Pope Paul VI's visit to the cathedral in 1965.
Plaque commemorating Pope Paul VI's visit to the cathedral in 1965.

The archbishop's residence is at the northwest corner with 50th Street, occupying the southeastern section of the cathedral close.[87][126] It carries the address 452 Madison Avenue.[87] The archbishop's residence covers 15,000 square feet (1,400 m2).[286][287] The Gothic-style building is three and a half stories high and is also clad with white marble.[2] A plaque commemorating Pope Paul VI's 1965 visit to the cathedral[288] is mounted on the facade.[289]

As of 2015, Cardinal Dolan shares the archbishop's house with three other priests.[287] On the third floor is a chapel for John the Apostle. The right-side wall has a plaque measuring 18 by 12 inches (460 by 300 mm) with a holy water font made of silver. The Assumption of Mary, flanked by cherubs, is depicted atop the holy water font. The font was given by Pope Paul VI to Cardinal Cooke in 1971.[290]


As of 2023, Cardinal Timothy M. Dolan is the archbishop of St. Patrick's Cathedral,[291] having served in this position since 2009.[292] Since November 2021, Enrique Salvo has served as the rector of the cathedral.[293] In addition, Rev. Andrew King is the master of ceremonies, and Rev. Donald Haggerty, Rev. Arthur Golino, and Rev. Ed Dougherty are also on staff. Rev. Stephen Ries serves as Cardinal Dolan's Priest Secretary.[294]

The director of music is Jennifer Pascual.[295] The associate directors of music, who also serve as organists, are Daniel Brondel[296] and Michael Hey.[297] In addition, Robert M. Evers is the Music Administrator and Programs Editor.[294]


There are nineteen bells at St. Patrick's Cathedral.[298][299] The bells were created by the firm of Messrs. Paccard in France and installed in 1897.[300][301] They hang in the northern tower of St. Patrick's Cathedral 180 feet (55 m) above ground.[298][302] Since there are fewer than 23 bells, the minimum needed to be able to ring two octaves, they hang in a chime instead of a carillon. A 1983 New York Times article reported that the chime was rung every day at 8 a.m., noon, and 6 p.m. Additionally, on Sundays, the chime was rung every 15 minutes between 10 a.m. and noon and every 15 minutes between 5 p.m. and 7 p.m.[303]

Originally, the bells were powered by a compressed air mechanism in the basement.[304] Pressing a key on the keyboard in the sacristy would activate an electric signal, which in turn would release the compressed air to ring each bell.[305][306] According to The New York Times, St. Patrick's bells were the first to be operated by compressed air.[306] Until 1952, the bells could also be rung using tracker action; the bell-ringer would pull a 110-foot-long (34 m) rod between the lever and clapper of each bell.[298]

Each of the bells was donated by a different person or organization. The name of the bell, its donor, and the figure of the crucifixion is carved on each respective bell.[113]

Name Tone Approximate Weight[f] Donor[113]
St. Patrick B♭ 6,608 pounds (2,997 kg) Congregation of St. Patrick's Cathedral
Blessed Virgin[g] C 4,626 pounds (2,098 kg) John B. Manning
St. Joseph D 3,260 pounds (1,480 kg) Joseph J. O'Donohue
Holy Name E♭ 2,693 pounds (1,222 kg) Holy Name Society
St. Michael E 2,319 pounds (1,052 kg) M. C. Coleman
St. Anne F 1,956 pounds (887 kg) Henry McAleenan
St. Elizabeth G 1,357 pounds (616 kg) Marquise di San Marzano
St. Augustine of Hippo A♭ 1,163 pounds (528 kg) Augustin Daly
St. Anthony of Padua A 971 pounds (440 kg) I. L. Fox
St. Agnes B♭ 802 pounds (364 kg) Lydia Fox
St. John the Evangelist B 668 pounds (303 kg) John D. Crimmins
St. Bridget C 574 pounds (260 kg) Perry and Catherine I. Minister
St. Francis Xavier C♯ 476 pounds (216 kg) Congregation of St. Francis Xavier Church
St. Peter D 402 pounds (182 kg) George B. Coleman
St. Cecilia E♭ 345 pounds (156 kg) Mrs. Thomas I. Ryan
St. Helena E 286 pounds (130 kg) Leonora and Agnes Keyes
St. Alphonsus Liguori F 241 pounds (109 kg) Mary A. Mills
St. Thomas Aquinas F♯ 204 pounds (93 kg) Thomas Kelly
St. Godfrey G 173 pounds (78 kg) Children of Godfrey Amend


Organ manual for the Gallery Organ

St. Patrick's Cathedral has two pipe organs with more than 9,000 pipes, 206 stops, 150 ranks, and 10 divisions between them.[144] The two organs are the Gallery Organ, completed in 1930, and the Chancel Organ, completed in 1928; both were manufactured by George Kilgen & Son. Since the mid-1990s, the two organs have been able to operate as a single unit.[182][307] The two organs are controlled by twin 5-manual drawknob consoles and have 207 registers, 116 stops, and 142 ranks between them.[144]

The Chancel Organ is in the north ambulatory of the sanctuary, adjoining the Chapel of St. Joseph.[144][307] It originally had three manuals, which controlled four divisions. The Chancel Organ originally had 46 registers, 18 stops, and 18 ranks.[144] There were 1,480 pipes, placed inside an oak case with Gothic-style carvings.[307] The Gallery Organ is in the western part of the nave below the Fifth Avenue rose window, as well as in the triforium near the south transept.[144][307] The Gallery Organ had a four-manual stopkey console with 157 registers and 114 ranks.[144] There were 7,855 pipes; the shortest measured 0.5 inches (13 mm) long and the longest, 32 feet (9.8 m) long, crossed the triforia.[307]

Organ history[edit]

The first organ was built by George Jardine & Son and installed in 1879.[210] It was composed of four manuals, 51 stops, and 56 ranks.[144] In 1880, J.H. & C.S. Odell installed an organ in the chancel[210] with 2 manuals, 20 stops and 23 ranks.[144]

George Kilgen & Son designed the two current organs after Pietro Yon was hired to the music staff in the late 1920s.[144][307] The Chancel Organ was dedicated on January 30, 1928,[308] while the Gallery Organ was dedicated on February 11, 1930.[309] Tonal modifications were made in the 1940s and 1950s, and additional renovations occurred in the 1970s and 1980s.[307] In 1993, while John-Michael Caprio was music director, a major restoration of the organs commenced, and the old three-manual consoles were replaced with twin five-manual consoles.[182] The Peragallo Pipe Organ Company removed the cathedral's organ for cleaning in early 1994.[310] The next year, the Chancel Organ was restored.[182] The restoration was completed after the Echo Organ in the triforium was restored.[307] All the organs of the cathedral were removed from the cathedral during the 2012–2015 restoration, and were restored, cleaned and re-voiced by the Peragallo Company before being reinstalled in 2015.[311]

Directors of music[edit]

In the first nine decades of St. Patrick's Cathedral's history, it only had four music directors.[307][312] The first organist and director of music at the current St. Patrick's Cathedral was William F. Pecher, who had been hired at the Old Cathedral in 1862 and served at the current cathedral from 1879 to his death in 1904.[313][314] Afterward, Jacques C. Ungerer served as the director of music until 1929. He was succeeded by Pietro Yon, who at the time was an assistant director.[307] When Yon suffered a stroke in 1943, Dr. Charles Marie Courboin was temporarily appointed to Yon's position.[315][316] Yon died the same year[317] and Courboin served as music director until 1970.[318]

The cathedral's fifth music director, John Grady, served as a music director and organist from 1970 to his death in 1990.[319] Grady was succeeded by John-Michael Caprio, who also served until his death, in 1997.[320] Four people served as directors over the following six years: John C. West (1997–1999), Robert Long (1999–2001), Don Stefano Concordia (2001), and Johannes Somary (2001–2003).[307] Since 2003, Jennifer Pascual has served as the music director,[295] being the first woman to hold this position.[321]


Facade detail (September 2006)

Over the years, St. Patrick's Cathedral has been targeted by bombings and threats:

  • On October 13, 1914, a bomb exploded on the northwest corner of the cathedral. It tore an 18-inch hole in the floor. One injury was reported: a boy whose head was grazed by a flying piece of metal.[322][323]
  • In March 1915, Italian anarchists Frank Abarno and Carmine Carbone of the Bresci Circle were arrested for attempting to detonate a bomb in the cathedral.[324]
  • In January 1951, a letter threatened that a bomb would be set off at a Sunday Mass, but the Mass continued without any disruption.[325] Another, telephoned bomb threat occurred in June 1953.[326]
  • On April 18, 2019, just two days after a fire damaged the Notre-Dame de Paris, a 37-year-old New Jersey man carrying a pair of full two-gallon cans of gasoline, two bottles of lighter fluid, and two extended butane lighters was arrested after attempting to enter the cathedral.[327] The man was a philosophy professor at nearby Seton Hall University who suffered from schizophrenia.[328][329]

In addition, there have been numerous instances of vandalism:

Other incidents have included:

  • A 2020 report by the Vatican accepted earlier reports that the laicized Cardinal Theodore McCarrick committed acts of sex abuse at the cathedral between 1971 and 1972.[334][335]
  • On September 21, 1988, a mentally ill man killed an usher and seriously injured an officer before being fatally shot.[336]
  • On December 10, 1989, ACT UP, a pressure group that advocates for AIDS awareness, led a demonstration of 4,500 people outside the cathedral as part of their Stop the Church campaign. About 130 infiltrated the church and disrupted the Mass, forcing Cardinal John O'Connor to abandon his sermon.[337][338]
  • In 2002, "shock jocks" Opie and Anthony held a promotion that encouraged listeners of their radio show to have sex in risky places. Two listeners were caught in a vestibule of the church doing so; they were arrested, along with comedian Paul Mecurio.[339]
  • On February 15, 2024, a funeral service was held for LGBTQ activist Cecilia Gentili, during which eulogies were delivered, which were denounced as irreverent and the behavior by attendees was denounced as sacrilegious and scandalous by the New York Archdiocese. Cardinal Dolan ordered a Mass of Reparation to be offered in reparation for the incident.[340]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ a b c A less precise measurement of 330 feet (100 m) is given by several sources.[98][34][102]
  2. ^ Albert stone would have cost $800,000, Belleville stone would have cost $805,000, and Dorchester stone would have cost $830,000.[48]
  3. ^ Some sources prior to the cathedral's expansion gave a figure of 70 windows.[210][211]
  4. ^ Harper's gives a different measurement of 330 feet (100 m) for the outside length and 172 feet (52 m) for the width at the transept.[216]
  5. ^ Those belonging to John McCloskey, John Murphy Farley, Patrick Joseph Hayes, and Francis Spellman.[241]
  6. ^ Weight is rounded to the nearest pound according to St. Patrick's website.[298] Compressed Air gives slightly different weight notations for all of these bells.[302]
  7. ^ Also originally named Our Lady's[302]


  1. ^ "Cultural Resource Information System (CRIS)". New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. November 7, 2014. Retrieved July 20, 2023.
  2. ^ a b c d "Saint Patrick's Cathedral Complex" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. October 19, 1966. Retrieved July 28, 2019.
  3. ^ "National Register of Historic Places". National Park Service. Archived from the original on May 25, 2016. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
  4. ^ "National Register Digital Assets". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. Archived from the original on July 25, 2015. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
  5. ^ "The Archdiocese; History". The New York Times. February 1, 1984. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 23, 2021.
  6. ^ a b Lafort 1914, p. 303.
  7. ^ a b c d Jackson 2010, p. 216.
  8. ^ Harpaz, Beth J. (March 13, 2019). "History, Hollywood and a wall at New York's first St. Patrick's Cathedral". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 23, 2021.
  9. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (December 6, 2010). "Cathedral With a Past; Basilica With a Future". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 23, 2021.
  10. ^ a b Pitts, Carolyn. "St. Patrick's Cathedral, Lady Chapel, Rectory, and Cardinal's Residence". National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination. August 1976. National Park Service.
  11. ^ a b Lafort 1914, p. 304.
  12. ^ Lafort 1914, p. 276.
  13. ^ Lafort 1914, pp. 339–340.
  14. ^ Farley 1908, p. 111.
  15. ^ Farley 1908, p. 112.
  16. ^ a b Farley 1908, p. 113.
  17. ^ Lafort 1914, pp. 304–305.
  18. ^ a b Lafort 1914, p. 339.
  19. ^ a b Lafort 1914, p. 340.
  20. ^ Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1999, p. 314.
  21. ^ a b Farley 1908, p. 91.
  22. ^ Farley 1908, pp. 114–115.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lafort 1914, p. 305.
  24. ^ a b c d e f National Park Service 1976, p. 2.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "St. Patrick's Cathedral". The Sun. May 25, 1879. p. 6. Retrieved June 25, 2021 – via
  26. ^ a b c d e f Farley 1908, p. 127.
  27. ^ Balfour, Alan (1978). Rockefeller Center: Architecture as Theater. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-07003-480-8.
  28. ^ "St. Patrick's Cathedral Turns 100 Tomorrow". The New York Times. August 14, 1958. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  29. ^ a b Farley 1908, pp. 153–154.
  30. ^ Sturges, Walter Knight (1981). "Renwick, Rodrigue and the Architecture of St. Patrick's Cathedral, N.Y.C." U.S. Catholic Historian. Vol. 1, no. 2. pp. 68–72. ISSN 0735-8318. JSTOR 25153646.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1999, p. 315.
  32. ^ a b c d Federal Writers' Project 1939, p. 344.
  33. ^ a b Farley 1908, p. 153.
  34. ^ a b c d e National Park Service 1976, p. 5.
  35. ^ a b Farley 1908, p. 163.
  36. ^ a b Farley 1908, p. 115.
  37. ^ a b Farley 1908, p. 122.
  38. ^ a b "The New Catholic Cathedral on Fifth Avenue". New York Daily Herald. June 30, 1858. p. 3. Retrieved June 24, 2021 – via
  39. ^ "New York City; Attempted Incendiarism in Forty-first Supposed Suicide". The New York Times. July 12, 1858. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  40. ^ a b Farley 1908, pp. 118–119.
  41. ^ a b c d e "New Buildings in the Metropolis". New York Daily Herald. August 15, 1860. p. 8. Retrieved June 24, 2021 – via
  42. ^ a b c "The New Catholic Cathedral in New York—Its Size, Situation and General Appearance". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. June 7, 1866. p. 4. Retrieved June 24, 2021 – via
  43. ^ "John Peirce Residence" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. June 23, 2009. p. 2. Retrieved April 28, 2021.
  44. ^ "New-York City.; Police Intelligence. A Card. Laying the Corner-stone of the New St. Patrick's Cathedral". The New York Times. August 11, 1858. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  45. ^ "Laying the Corner Stone of the New Catholic Cathedral: Address by Archbishop Hughes". New-York Tribune. August 16, 1858. p. 5. ProQuest 570484519.
  46. ^ Roberts, Sam (October 13, 2011). "At St. Patrick's, a Cornerstone That Has Long Eluded Searchers". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  47. ^ Farley 1908, p. 116.
  48. ^ a b c Farley 1908, p. 117.
  49. ^ a b c d e f Farley 1908, p. 155.
  50. ^ a b c d "Progress of the Work on the FifthAvenue Cathedral". The New York Times. November 20, 1870. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  51. ^ "St. Patrick's Cathedral". New-York Daily Tribune. January 11, 1860. p. 6. ProQuest 570531955.
  52. ^ "City Intelligence". The New York Times. March 30, 1860. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  53. ^ "City Intelligence". New York Daily Herald. April 13, 1860. p. 10. Retrieved June 24, 2021 – via
  54. ^ "The New Catholic Cathedral.; Work Suspended by Order of Archbishop Hughes". The New York Times. August 9, 1860. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  55. ^ "The News". New York Daily Herald. August 8, 1860. p. 4. Retrieved June 24, 2021 – via
  56. ^ Smith 1905, p. 275.
  57. ^ Smith 1905, p. 277.
  58. ^ a b Farley 1908, p. 128.
  59. ^ "Our Architectural Progress; Great Buildings in Progress of Construction—Homes of Religion, Music and the Drama—The Catholic Cathedral of New-York and St. Ann's Episcopal Church of Brooklyn". The New York Times. April 5, 1868. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  60. ^ "Topics of To-day". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. November 11, 1867. p. 2. Retrieved June 24, 2021 – via
  61. ^ a b c Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1999, p. 317.
  62. ^ a b c d e "Fifth Avenue Cathedral: a Description of the Finest Church Edifice, as Far as Completed, in the United States". The Hartford Courant. January 19, 1871. p. 1. ProQuest 553736058.
  63. ^ a b c d e f g h "The Catholic Cathedral.: Description of the Edifice. The Style of Its Architecture the Beauties of the Interior the Exterior a Work Unfinished in Seventeen Years". The New York Times. August 24, 1875. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  64. ^ "An Architectural Ramble". The Real Estate Record: Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide. Vol. 6, no. 131. September 17, 1870. p. 3 – via
  65. ^ a b "St. Patrick's Cathedral's Debt". The New York Times. July 2, 1880. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
  66. ^ a b c "St. Patrick's Cathedral: Progress Made in the Interior—Description of the Transept Windows". New-York Tribune. November 26, 1875. p. 2. ProQuest 572669032.
  67. ^ "Notes and Clippings". American Architecture and Building News. Vol. 1. November 18, 1876. p. 376. Retrieved October 20, 2023.
  68. ^ a b c d "Opening the New Cathedral". New-York Tribune. November 30, 1877. p. 3. ProQuest 572739957.
  69. ^ a b "The Big Cathedral Fair.; a Brilliant Opening Last Evening. Twenty Thousand Visitors on the First Night—addresses by Mayor Ely and Cardinal M'closkey—Formal Opening of the Fair by the Mayor". The New York Times. October 23, 1878. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  70. ^ "The Great Cathedral Fair: Its Formal Opening by the Cardinal". New-York Tribune. October 23, 1878. p. 5. Retrieved June 24, 2021 – via
  71. ^ "St. Patrick's Great Fair: Crowds of Children in the Afternoons". New-York Tribune. November 11, 1878. p. 3. ProQuest 572758199.
  72. ^ "The Great Catholic Fair: Closing Scenes at the Cathedral Success of the Various Tables". New-York Tribune. November 30, 1878. p. 3. ProQuest 572780861.
  73. ^ a b c Farley 1908, p. 129.
  74. ^ "The Catholic Cathedral: Preparing for Its Dedication" (PDF). The New York Times. May 18, 1879. p. 10. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  75. ^ a b "An Imposing Ceremonial: Blessing of the New Roman Catholic Cathedral. An Immense Attendance of the Clergy and Laity" (PDF). The New York Times. May 26, 1879. p. 5. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  76. ^ a b c d e f "St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York: Dedication of a Magnificent Edifice". The Sun. Baltimore. May 26, 1879. p. 1. ProQuest 534434626.
  77. ^ a b c d e f "The New Cathedral: Dedication by the Cardinal a Great Multitude Fills the Building and the Neighborhood". New-York Tribune. May 26, 1879. p. 1. ProQuest 572797988.
  78. ^ Farley 1908, pp. 130–131.
  79. ^ a b c d Thompson, Ginger (November 24, 1996). "'An awesome place to pray'; Church: St. Patrick's Cathedral on Fifth Avenue has drawn visitors through the century, from the pope from Rome to city dwellers right across the street". The Sun. Baltimore. p. 2A. ProQuest 406941196.
  80. ^ Cook, Clarence (February 1879). "The New Catholic Cathedral in New York". Atlantic Monthly. Vol. 43. pp. 173–177.
  81. ^ Stern, Robert A. M.; Gilmartin, Gregory; Massengale, John Montague (1983). New York 1900: Metropolitan Architecture and Urbanism, 1890–1915. New York: Rizzoli. p. 109. ISBN 0-8478-0511-5. OCLC 9829395.
  82. ^ Duggan, Dennis (November 2, 1978). "St. Patrick's Marks Hundredth Year". Newsday. p. 6. Retrieved June 27, 2021 – via
  83. ^ Farley 1908, p. 133.
  84. ^ a b c d e f Lafort 1914, p. 306.
  85. ^ Farley 1908, p. 150.
  86. ^ a b c Farley 1908, p. 151.
  87. ^ a b c d e f g White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot; Leadon, Fran (2010). AIA Guide to New York City (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 328–329. ISBN 978-0-19538-386-7.
  88. ^ "Out Among the Builders". The Real Estate Record: Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide. Vol. 28, no. 716. December 3, 1881. p. 1120 – via
  89. ^ a b c d "Vicar-general Quinn's New House". The New York Times. January 26, 1882. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
  90. ^ a b "Buildings Projected". The Real Estate Record: Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide. Vol. 29, no. 724. January 28, 1882. p. 89 – via
  91. ^ "Some Up-Town Buildings". The Real Estate Record: Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide. Vol. 33, no. 825. January 5, 1884. p. 2 – via
  92. ^ a b c "Howard's Gossip; Opening of the New York Opera Season. Many of the Brightest Dramatic Stars to Shine This Week. A Memorial Marble Pulpit for St. Patrick's Cathedral". Boston Daily Globe. October 19, 1885. p. 1. ProQuest 493444104.
  93. ^ "Current Events". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 4, 1885. p. 4. Retrieved June 26, 2021 – via
  94. ^ a b c "Spires for the Cathedral". The New York Times. September 25, 1885. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 26, 2021.
  95. ^ "Alterations New York City". The Real Estate Record: Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide. Vol. 36, no. 915. September 26, 1885. p. 1064 – via
  96. ^ "Out Among the Builders". The Real Estate Record: Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide. Vol. 36, no. 913. September 12, 1885. p. 1000 – via
  97. ^ "The Cathedral Spires". The Post-Star. September 11, 1886. p. 1. Retrieved June 26, 2021 – via
  98. ^ a b "The Spires Completed". The Sun. October 5, 1888. p. 4. Retrieved June 26, 2021 – via
  99. ^ a b "The Spires Completed; but Much Work Still Remains Undone on St. Patrick's Cathedral". The New York Times. October 7, 1888. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 26, 2021.
  100. ^ a b c d e McDonald, Martha (December 12, 2015). "The Restoration of St. Patrick's Cathedral". Traditional Building. Retrieved July 30, 2021.
  101. ^ a b c "St. Patrick's Cathedral History & Restoration Facts" (PDF). Archdiocese of New York. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 2, 2017. Retrieved July 4, 2016. The spires were finished in 1888 and were the tallest in New York City from 1880–1890 and the second tallest in the United States (p. 2). Height to the top of the Spires: 329 feet, 6 inches (p. 3).
  102. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Farley 1908, p. 156.
  103. ^ "Our Highest Spires". The Evening World. October 8, 1888. p. 2. Retrieved June 26, 2021 – via
  104. ^ a b "The Top 10 Secrets of St. Patrick's Cathedral in NYC". Untapped New York. August 24, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  105. ^ a b "A Gift to New York, in Time for the Pope". The New York Times. September 17, 2015. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  106. ^ a b "The restoration of St. Patrick's Cathedral". CBS News. September 27, 2015. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  107. ^ "Bells of St. Patrick's". The New York Times. December 6, 1888. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 26, 2021.
  108. ^ "Cathedral Chimes.; a Test of Bells in the Tower of St. Patrick's Cathedral". The New York Times. July 23, 1889. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 26, 2021.
  109. ^ "Music and Musicians". Buffalo Morning Express and Illustrated Buffalo Express. July 28, 1889. p. 10. Retrieved June 26, 2021 – via
  110. ^ a b "Consecration of the New Altar: Several Priests Take Part in the Impressive Ceremonies at St. Patrick's Cathedral". New-York Tribune. November 12, 1893. p. 22. ProQuest 573922855.
  111. ^ "St. Patrick's New Chimes". The Sun. July 13, 1897. p. 6. Retrieved June 28, 2021 – via
  112. ^ "Blessing the Chimes: an Interesting Ceremony Performed in St. Patrick's Cathedral". New-York Tribune. August 16, 1897. p. 1. ProQuest 574336260.
  113. ^ a b c "St. Patrick's New Chimes; Archbishop Corrigan, with Impressive Ceremony, Blesses the Cathedral Bells" (PDF). The New York Times. August 16, 1897. p. 5. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  114. ^ "Putting Up the Bells". The New York Times. September 9, 1897. p. 12. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 27, 2021 – via
  115. ^ "The Cathedral Chimes". The New York Times. August 22, 1897. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  116. ^ "New Altar for the Cathedral". The New York Times. August 14, 1897. p. 5. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2021 – via
  117. ^ "New Chapel for St. Patrick's: Mrs. Margaret A. Kelly Leaves $200,000 for This Purpose". New-York Tribune. April 16, 1899. p. A2. ProQuest 574592943.
  118. ^ "Margaret a. Kelly's Will.: Bequests by Widow of Well-known New York Banker". The Washington Post. April 17, 1899. p. 4. ISSN 0190-8286. ProQuest 144128955.
  119. ^ "Religious News and Views; Plans for New Lady Chapel of St. Patrick's Approved". The New York Times. May 19, 1900. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  120. ^ a b c d e "Plans for the Lady Chapel: Building to Be Erected at the Rear of St. Patrick's Cathedral". New-York Tribune. September 1, 1900. p. 7. ProQuest 570915451.
  121. ^ a b c d e "Religious News and Views: Plans for New Lady Chapel of St. Patrick's Cathedral". The New York Times. September 1, 1900. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  122. ^ "Religious News and Views; Work on the Lady Chapel of St. Patrick's Cathedral Begun". The New York Times. July 27, 1901. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  123. ^ "Religious News and Views; Plans for Lifting St. Patrick's Cathedral Debt". The New York Times. June 21, 1902. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  124. ^ "To Finish Archbishop's Plans: Catholic Clergy and Laity Will Try to Consecrate the Cathedral in 1908". New-York Tribune. June 21, 1902. p. 5. ProQuest 571194111.
  125. ^ "Lady Chapel Nearing Completion". New-York Tribune. April 3, 1905. p. 9. ProQuest 571557920.
  126. ^ a b c Federal Writers' Project 1939, p. 346.
  127. ^ a b c d "Historical Timeline". St. Patrick's Cathedral. October 5, 1910. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  128. ^ a b "To Remodel Cathedral: Interior of St. Patrick's, in New York, Will Receive Gifts". The Sun. Baltimore. August 27, 1907. p. 5. ProQuest 537417071.
  129. ^ a b "Rich Bronze Work is Being Done at St. Patrick's". Catholic Union and Times. April 16, 1908. p. 1. Retrieved June 28, 2021 – via
  130. ^ "Full Century in New York: Catholics Celebrate Event Splendidly". Boston Daily Globe. April 29, 1908. p. 2. ProQuest 501028705.
  131. ^ a b c d "Kelly to Complete the Lady Chapel; Papal Chamberlain Expects to Place Windows in St. Patrick's This Fall". The New York Times. August 3, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  132. ^ "Holland's Letter.: St. Patrick's Cathedral May Be Freed From Debt and Consecrated Next October or November". Wall Street Journal. June 7, 1910. p. 1. ISSN 0099-9660. ProQuest 129238446.
  133. ^ "Three Princes of the Catholic Church: Participate in Consecration of St. Patrick's Cathedral Picture of Remarkable Splendor in New York Cardinals Arrayed in Gold". Courier-Journal. Louisville. October 6, 1910. p. 9. ProQuest 1021546826.
  134. ^ "Mgr. Farley Officiates at the Consecration: Princes and Prelates of Church Gather at St. Patrick's in Honor of Occasion". New-York Tribune. October 6, 1910. p. 16. ProQuest 572363691.
  135. ^ a b "St. Patrick's Will Mark Centenary: 100th Year Of Its Cornerstone". New York Herald Tribune. August 9, 1958. p. 10. ProQuest 1338145850.
  136. ^ "St. Patrick's Plans Big Improvements; Marble Floor and $125,000 Organ Included, Mgr. Lavelle Announces". The New York Times. November 22, 1926. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  137. ^ "St. Patrick's Cathedral To Have Marble Floor". New York Herald Tribune. June 23, 1927. p. 37. ProQuest 1113623291.
  138. ^ "Improvements At St, Patrick's To Cost Million: Cathedral Lxulersroing Alterations for 50th Anniversary of Dedication in May many Changes in Inferior Famous Old Wooden Throne Yields to One of Marble". New York Herald Tribune. August 14, 1928. p. 10. ProQuest 1113606700.
  139. ^ "Topics of Interest to the Churchgoer; New Amplifiers in St. Patrick's Cathedral Will Have First Public Test Tomorrow". The New York Times. August 31, 1929. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  140. ^ "Topics of Interest to the Churchgoer". The Hartford Courant. November 17, 1929. p. A7. ProQuest 557762687.
  141. ^ a b "St. Patrick's to Get Marble Rail Soon; Cathedral Altar Decoration Is Parishoner's Gift—Figures of 13 Saints on It". The New York Times. September 7, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  142. ^ "St. Patrick's Lights to Be in Use Today: 43 New Bronze Chandeliers Are Installed as Part of Embellishment for Jubilee". The New York Times. March 1, 1931. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  143. ^ "Organ for St. Patrick's; To Be Installed Soon, Mgr. Lavelle Says—Cathedral to Have New Pews". The New York Times. June 10, 1928. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  144. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. Patrick". New York City Chapter of the American Guild of Organists. August 1, 1927. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  145. ^ "Pagan Evils Held Present Peril by Father Hammer: Warns St. Patrick's Congregation Selfishness Bars Way to Christian Life Pleads for New Sincerity Last Two Windows for Lady Chapel Near Completion". New York Herald Tribune. August 4, 1930. p. 8. ProQuest 1113695268.
  146. ^ "First of 15 Trees to Surround St. Patrick's Cathedral Planted". New York Herald Tribune. September 29, 1939. p. 21A. ProQuest 1321997881.
  147. ^ "St. Patrick's Plans Rectory Modernization: CollectionWill BeTakcn Up April 28 to Build Offices and Replace Equipment". New York Herald Tribune. April 1, 1940. p. 12. ProQuest 1261203881.
  148. ^ a b c d "Rebuilt Rectory Awaits 9 Priests: Staff of St. Patrick's Returns Today to Modernized Home—Victorian Style Kept". The New York Times. December 10, 1940. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  149. ^ a b "St. Patrick's Rectory, Modernized, Reopens: Elevator, Switchboard, Private Offices Among Additions". New York Herald Tribune. December 11, 1940. p. 19. ProQuest 1320115412.
  150. ^ a b "New High Altar Will Be Erected At St. Patrick's: Archbishop Spellman Tells Plan for Structure More Fitting in Architecture". New York Herald Tribune. February 10, 1941. p. 9. ProQuest 1322000127.
  151. ^ "Cathedral Altar Is to Be Replaced; New Structure at St. Patrick's Gift of Anonymous Donor, Archbishop Announces". The New York Times. February 10, 1941. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  152. ^ a b "New High Altar To Widen View In St. Patrick's: Gothic Structure t Reveal Lady Chapel From Nave; Full Design Made Public". New York Herald Tribune. March 1, 1942. p. 24. ProQuest 1259332051.
  153. ^ "Central Altar's Removal Starts At St. Patrick's: 3-Story-High Structure, Part of Cathedral Since 1879, To Be Gone in 3 Weeks". New York Herald Tribune. February 19, 1942. p. 16. ProQuest 1264403906.
  154. ^ "Last Mass Is Said at Cathedral Altar: Marble Shrine at St. Patrick's to Be Moved to Fordham". The New York Times. February 16, 1942. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  155. ^ a b "New Main Altar Is Consecrated At St. Patrick's: 3 1/2 Hour Ceremony Marks Virtual End of Sweeping Alterations in Cathedral". New York Herald Tribune. May 10, 1942. p. 35. ProQuest 1256783923.
  156. ^ a b "Altar Dedicated in St. Patrick's: Spellman Presides in 3-hour Pageant at Consecration Before 3,000 in Edifice". The New York Times. May 10, 1942. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  157. ^ a b "Altar in Chapel At St. Patrick's Is Consecrated: Permanent Structure Has Statue of Blessed Virgin as Our Lady of New York". New York Herald Tribune. April 14, 1942. p. 17. ProQuest 1263586673.
  158. ^ a b c "St. Patrick's to Get New Rose Window; Anonymous Gift to Be Ready by Easter, When Facade Is to Be Free of Scaffolds". The New York Times. February 20, 1947. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  159. ^ "The Repairing of St. Patrick's Cathedral Makes Progress". New York Herald Tribune. October 4, 1945. p. 25. ProQuest 1287100746.
  160. ^ a b "End of Repairs To St. Patrick's Is Within Sight: Work on Lady Chapel Will Finish $3,000,000 Job Started, 19 Months Ago First 1948 Model Convertible Introduced by Packard". New York Herald Tribune. March 30, 1947. p. 33. ProQuest 1268010549.
  161. ^ "Cross of Bronze Is Put on Spire Of St. Patrick's: Stone Cross Is Replaced After 57 Years as Work of Renovation Continues". New York Herald Tribune. December 8, 1945. p. 14. ProQuest 1322157013.
  162. ^ "$2,400,000 Left In Bowes Will To St. Patrick's: Cardinal to Allot $100,000 of Bequest at Once for Cathedral's Renovation An English Church Holds a Mass Baptismal Service". New York Herald Tribune. July 15, 1946. p. 28. ProQuest 1313645667.
  163. ^ "Cathedral to Get $100,000 of Legacy: Cardinal Allots Part of Fund Left by Major Bowes to Help Pay for St. Patrick Repairs". The New York Times. July 15, 1946. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  164. ^ a b c "St. Patrick's Gets New Rose Window: Scaffolding Will Be Removed From Front of Cathedral in Time for Easter". The New York Times. April 2, 1947. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  165. ^ McDowell, Rachel K. (July 8, 1948). "Renovation Begun Inside St. Patrick's; 17 of Cathedral's 19 Altars to Be Cleaned and Repaired, New Bronze Doors Hung". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
  166. ^ a b "Five New Doors at St. Patrick's Blessed by Cardinal Spellman: Blessing the New Bronze Doors at St. Patrick's". New York Herald Tribune. December 24, 1949. p. 4. ProQuest 1326903819.
  167. ^ a b c Dugan, George (December 24, 1949). "Cardinal Blesses Cathedral Doors; Presides Over Hour Ceremony at Five New Bronze Portals of Fifth Ave. Entrance". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  168. ^ "Tribute Is Paid To St. Patrick's Fund Raisers: Bishop Flannelly Recounts Guts in Debts Incurred for Restoration Work". New York Herald Tribune. August 4, 1952. p. 7. ProQuest 1323039961.
  169. ^ a b "St Patrick's Will Install 12 Windows". New York Herald Tribune. July 12, 1954. p. 9. ProQuest 1322385806.
  170. ^ a b "Saints' Windows Adorn Cathedral; Six of 12 Portraying Virtues in Holy Lives Are Being Put in St. Patrick's Clerestory". The New York Times. July 12, 1954. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  171. ^ Dugan, George (August 16, 1958). "St. Patrick's 100; 2,500 Hear Mass". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  172. ^ "Cathedral Hails Its Consecration; St. Patrick's Mass Marks Half a Century – Preacher Recalls Heroic Acolytes". The New York Times. October 10, 1960. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  173. ^ "31 Buildings Urged as City Landmarks". The New York Times. April 28, 1966. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  174. ^ "St. Patrick's Chosen With St. Thomas For Preservation". The New York Times. November 8, 1966. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  175. ^ a b O'Grady, Daniel (April 19, 1973). "Cathedral is the Place to Go". New York Daily News. p. 148. Retrieved June 29, 2021 – via
  176. ^ "Metropolitan Briefs". The New York Times. April 19, 1973. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  177. ^ St. Patrick's Cathedral, Lady Chapel, Rectory and Cardinal's Residence Archived October 22, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. National Historic Landmark summary listing, September 18, 2007. National Park Service.
  178. ^ St. Patrick's Cathedral, Lady Chapel, Rectory, and Cardinal's Residence. National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination. August 1976. National Park Service.
  179. ^ "Centennial Celebration Set At St. Patrick's Cathedral". Newsday. May 11, 1979. p. 7. Retrieved June 29, 2021 – via
  180. ^ Silver, Allison (October 14, 1979). "Building Cleaning Washes Off Years". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  181. ^ "St. Patrick's gets historic facelift". The Post-Star. August 14, 1979. p. 16. Retrieved June 29, 2021 – via
  182. ^ a b c d Tommasini, Anthony (December 24, 1996). "Eyes and Ears Rejoice At a Musical Renewal". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 23, 2021.
  183. ^ West, Melanie Grayce (July 13, 2015). "Repairs Almost Done, St. Patrick's Cathedral Is Set to Shine". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  184. ^ a b "St. Patrick's Cathedral Gets an Update Fit for the Pope". Architect. September 11, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  185. ^ Jones, Bart (June 9, 2015). "Most St. Patrick's renovations to be complete before Pope Francis' NYC visit". Newsday. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  186. ^ "St. Patrick's Cathedral In Midtown Manhattan Set To Undergo $177 Million Restoration". CBS New York. July 7, 2012. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  187. ^ "AIA Names 18 Projects as Best New Architecture in US". ArchDaily. January 15, 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  188. ^ Cochran, Sam (November 11, 2015). "St. Patrick's Cathedral Is Born Anew After a $177 million Restoration". Architectural Digest. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  189. ^ a b "St. Patrick's Cathedral Shows Off Restored Bronze Doors". CBS New York. August 14, 2013. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  190. ^ "St. Patrick's Cathedral gets saintly door redo with newly restored bronze". New York Daily News doors. August 14, 2013. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  191. ^ "Majestic! Restored St. Patrick's Cathedral Unveiled". NBC New York. July 12, 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  192. ^ "St. Patrick's Cathedral". Thirteen. August 25, 2015. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  193. ^ "Alterations to St. Patrick's Cathedral Approved". CityLand. January 6, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  194. ^ a b c d Otterman, Sharon (March 14, 2018). "The New, Green Pride of St. Patrick's Cathedral Is Underground". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  195. ^ a b "New geothermal system will heat and cool historic St. Patrick's Cathedral". The Architect's Newspaper. March 14, 2017. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  196. ^ a b c "St. Patrick's Cathedral Conservation, Renovation and Systems Upgrade by Murphy Burnham & Buttrick". Architect. January 15, 2016. Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  197. ^ "St. Charbel shrine revealed in prominent New York cathedral". The Daily Star Newspaper. October 29, 2017. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  198. ^ a b Stack, Liam (July 19, 2020). "With Tourists Gone, St. Patrick's Cathedral Pleads for Help". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  199. ^ "Catholic Churches In New York City Open To 100% Capacity". CBS New York. May 23, 2021. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  200. ^ Gunts, Edward (February 27, 2018). "St. Patrick's Cathedral planning to sell its air rights". The Architect's Newspaper. Retrieved December 25, 2023.
  201. ^ "St. Patrick's Cathedral prepares for air-rights sale". Crain's New York Business. February 22, 2018. Retrieved December 25, 2023.
  202. ^ "Trio pays $164M for St. Patrick's Cathedral air rights". Crain's New York Business. December 11, 2023. Retrieved December 25, 2023.
  203. ^ "Citadel Agreed to Buy Air Rights for 350 Park Ave Office Tower". The Real Deal. December 11, 2023. Retrieved December 25, 2023.
  204. ^ "St. Patrick's Cathedral". Emporis. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  205. ^ Brown, Forrest (February 17, 2020). "20 famous buildings in New York City – CNN Style". CNN. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  206. ^ "Our Parishes". Archdiocese of New York. January 20, 2020. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  207. ^ Kaese, Diane S.; Lynch, Michael F. (Autumn 2008). "Marble in (and Around) the City Its Origins and Use in Historic New York Buildings" (PDF). Common Bond. Vol. 22, no. 2. p. 7.
  208. ^ "Baltimore County Marble: Building the Towers of St. Patrick's Cathedral with It". The Sun. Baltimore. January 22, 1887. p. 6. ProQuest 534962918.
  209. ^ Barron, James (June 19, 2013). "Spires at St. Patrick's Cathedral, Cleaned Up, Come Back in View". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
  210. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "An Imposing Edifice.: Interior and Exterior Views of St. Patrick's Cathedral, N.Y.". The Washington Post. November 23, 1884. p. 3. ISSN 0190-8286. ProQuest 137886476.
  211. ^ a b Farley 1908, p. 181.
  212. ^ a b c d e f Farley 1908, p. 160.
  213. ^ a b c d e Federal Writers' Project 1939, p. 345.
  214. ^ "The Titan and the Dictator". The New York Public Library. February 2, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  215. ^ a b c Farley 1908, p. 154.
  216. ^ a b c d "St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York". Harper's Weekly. Vol. 13. October 18, 1869. p. 808. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  217. ^ Breen, Virginia (March 15, 2020). "'An Eerie Quiet' at NYC Churches as Clergy Cancel Services". THE CITY. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  218. ^ Hicks, Jennifer (June 16, 2014). "New pews for St. Patrick's Cathedral". Woodshop News. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  219. ^ "NYC's St. Pat's cathedral gets restored doors". AP NEWS. August 14, 2013. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  220. ^ a b "Minimalist Glass Insertions to Improve and Preserve St. Patrick's Cathedral". Preservation Leadership Forum. National Trust for Historic Preservation. November 26, 2018. Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  221. ^ a b c Bergman, Edward F. (2001). The Spiritual Traveler: New York City : the Guide to Sacred Spaces and Peaceful Places. The Spiritual Traveler Series. HiddenSpring. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-58768-003-8. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  222. ^ a b Diamonstein-Spielvogel, Barbaralee (2011). The Landmarks of New York (5th ed.). Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. pp. 194–195. ISBN 978-1-4384-3769-9.
  223. ^ a b c d Farley 1908, p. 157.
  224. ^ a b c d e f Farley 1908, p. 158.
  225. ^ a b c d e f Farley 1908, p. 161.
  226. ^ Stoltz, Marsha A. (November 21, 2018). "Saddle River sculptor's bronze pope busts installed at St. Patrick's Cathedral". USA Today. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  227. ^ Farley 1908, pp. 161–162.
  228. ^ a b Farley 1908, p. 162.
  229. ^ Federal Writers' Project 1939, pp. 344–345.
  230. ^ a b c d e f g Farley 1908, p. 159.
  231. ^ Snodgrass, M.E. (2000). Religious Sites in America: A Dictionary. ABC-CLIO. p. 356. ISBN 9781576071540.
  232. ^ Farley 1908, pp. 182–185.
  233. ^ "To Adorn the Cathedral.; Three of a Set of Stations of the Cross Finished – Now in Chicago". The New York Times. June 23, 1893. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  234. ^ a b Farley 1908, pp. 177–178.
  235. ^ Carthy, Margaret (1984). A Cathedral of Suitable Magnificence: St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York. Michael Glazier. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-89453-372-3.
  236. ^ a b Farley 1908, p. 174.
  237. ^ Farley 1908, pp. 174–175.
  238. ^ Farley 1908, pp. 162–163.
  239. ^ Searl, M.B. (2006). Seeing America: Painting and Sculpture from the Collection of the Memorial Art Gallery of the University of Rochester. University of Rochester Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-1-58046-246-4.
  240. ^ Farley 1908, p. 175.
  241. ^ a b "Cardinal Spellman's Red Hat Hangs in St. Patrick's". The New York Times. January 3, 1968. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  242. ^ Timothy Michael Cardinal Dolan (2012). "A Cardinal's Coat of Arms" (PDF). Cathedra. Vol. 1, no. 1. p. 3. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  243. ^ a b Farley 1908, pp. 185–186.
  244. ^ Farley 1908, pp. 186–190.
  245. ^ Farley 1908, pp. 190–192.
  246. ^ a b c d e f g "A Gorgeous Throne and Altar" (PDF). New York Daily Graphic. January 8, 1876. p. 537. Retrieved January 1, 2021 – via
  247. ^ a b "The Altar for the New-York Cathedral" (PDF). The New York Times. May 7, 1875. p. 9. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
  248. ^ a b Farley 1908, p. 173.
  249. ^ Federal Writers' Project 1939, pp. 345–346.
  250. ^ "Fordham Altar Consecrated on Campus Today: Archbishop Spellman Will Lead Church Ceremony at University at 9 A. M Fordham Altar To Be Consecrated Today". New York Herald Tribune. December 19, 1942. p. 11. ProQuest 1267951454.
  251. ^ "Consecration of Altar at Fordham University". The New York Times. December 20, 1942. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  252. ^ "Cathedral to Use New Altar May 13; First Solemn Pontifical Mass Will Be Celebrated Then, Archbishop Reveals". The New York Times. March 1, 1942. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  253. ^ a b Schroder, Jessa (January 28, 2017). "Hidden secrets of NYC's St. Patrick's Cathedral, which include an underground crypt and 9/11 graffiti markings". New York Daily News. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  254. ^ a b c "Tombs Under the City; Catacombs for the Dead Beneath Several Churches" (PDF). The New York Times. August 2, 1896. p. 20. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  255. ^ "Mass to Memorialize Mgr. Lavelle Wednesday: Monthly Service Will Be Held at St. Patrick's". New York Herald Tribune. April 15, 1940. p. 9A. ProQuest 1320019967.
  256. ^ "The Cardinal's Funeral: Impressive Services Held at the Cathedral". The New York Times. October 16, 1885. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  257. ^ "Finally Laid at Rest: Services Over the Remains of Archbishop Hughes". The New York Times. January 31, 1883. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  258. ^ "New York News: Funeral of Archbishop Hughes Slade and Sullivan Fox and Harding Arrested Railroad Directors Chosen". The Hartford Courant. January 31, 1883. p. 3. ProQuest 552853964.
  259. ^ "Thousands Turned Away; Great Crowds Gather to View the Dead Cardinal's Body. Men and Women Climb Over Fences to Rear Doors of the Episcopal Residences to Obtain Tickets". The New York Times. October 15, 1885. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  260. ^ "Leo XIII. Mourns for Mgr. Corrigan; Cardinal Rampolla Sends the Message of the Pope". The New York Times. May 8, 1902. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  261. ^ "Entomb Cardinal in the Cathedral; Paying the Final Tribute to Cardinal Farley". The New York Times. September 25, 1918. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  262. ^ "350 See Cardinal Hayes Buried Under Altar Steps of Cathedral: Apostolic Delegate Performs Blessing at Service in Vault". New York Herald Tribune. September 10, 1938. p. 10A. ProQuest 1244523365.
  263. ^ "Cardinal Buried as Church and City Pay Last Homage; 74 Prelates With High Public Officials Attend Solemn Rites in Cathedral". The New York Times. September 10, 1938. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  264. ^ Hofmann, Paul (December 4, 1967). "Thousands Mourn Spellman at St. Patrick's; Throngs of Mourners Pass Cardinal Spellman's Bier at St. Patrick's Cathedral". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  265. ^ "Cardinal Cooke, 'Priest's Priest,' Buried at St. Patrick's Cathedral". The Hartford Courant. October 11, 1983. p. A4. ProQuest 547055899.
  266. ^ Bell, Charles W. (October 8, 1983). "Austere goodby to Cooke". New York Daily News. p. 131. Retrieved June 27, 2021 – via
  267. ^ Howell, Ron (May 10, 2000). "Stream of Tourists at St. Patrick's". Newsday. p. 29. Retrieved June 27, 2021 – via
  268. ^ McCarthy, Hanna Rosin; Colman (May 4, 2000). "Cardinal John J. O'Connor Dies". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved June 27, 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  269. ^ Schlossberg, Tatiana (March 9, 2015). "Crypt at St. Patrick's Cathedral Is Made Ready to Receive a Cardinal". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  270. ^ Chicoine, Christie L. (March 11, 2015). "Cardinal Egan Laid to Rest at St. Patrick's Cathedral". Catholic New York. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  271. ^ "Mission Sunday Pageant Given At St. Patrick's: Archbishop Thanks Public for Notes of Sympathy in Death of Mgr. Lavelle". New York Herald Tribune. October 23, 1939. p. 16. ProQuest 1252306613.
  272. ^ "Lavelle Is Buried in the Cathedral; Prelates of Catholic Church, Lesser Clergy and Prominent Laymen Attend Rites". The New York Times. October 22, 1939. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  273. ^ "Joseph F. Flannelly, 78, Dies; Auxiliary Bishop of New York". The New York Times. May 25, 1973. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  274. ^ a b c Forero, Juan (May 8, 2000). "For Cardinal's Funeral, Ancient Ritual and Vivid Spectacle". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  275. ^ Steinfels, Peter (July 8, 1989). "Archbishop John J. Maguire, 84, Longtime Spellman Aide, Is Dead". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  276. ^ "Archbishop John J. Maguire, 84, of New York". Newsday. July 8, 1989. p. 15. Retrieved June 29, 2021 – via
  277. ^ English, Merle (August 29, 1999). "In the Name of Sainthood". Newsday. p. 241. Retrieved June 27, 2021 – via
  278. ^ "Sheen Rites at St. Patrick's". The New York Times. December 14, 1979. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  279. ^ Kaergard, Chris (June 27, 2019). "Archbishop Fulton Sheen's remains return to Peoria". Peoria Journal-Star. Peoria. Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  280. ^ "Archbishop Sheen's remains moved to Illinois from NY church". AP NEWS. June 27, 2019. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  281. ^ "A Patchwork Church in New York". The Hartford Courant. September 22, 1903. p. 15. ProQuest 555169583.
  282. ^ Dunlap, David W. (2004). From Abyssinian to Zion: A Guide to Manhattan's Houses of Worship. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-231-12543-7.
  283. ^ "Gargoyles on Mediaeval and Modern Churches: How the Use of These Hideous Creatures Arose—to Be Employed on the Lady Chapel of St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Cathedral". New-York Tribune. March 20, 1904. p. C6. ProQuest 571404242.
  284. ^ "St. Patrick's Cathedral Lady Chapel". MBB Architects. January 16, 2020. Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  285. ^ "St. Patrick's Cathedral New York, NY Lady Chapel altar frontal". International Hildreth Meiere Assoc. Retrieved January 23, 2022.
  286. ^ Grunlund, Maura (May 8, 2015). "South Shore churches pushed to keep St. John Neumann open". silive. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  287. ^ a b "The lavish homes of American archbishops". CNN. August 5, 2014. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  288. ^ Otis, Ginger Adams (September 19, 2015). "Pope Paul VI's 14-hour 1965 NYC visit marks first time a pontiff left Italy for the West". New York Daily News. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  289. ^ "25 blocks 25 stops". The Journal News. December 16, 2000. p. 44. Retrieved June 29, 2021 – via
  290. ^ Edward Cardinal Egan (October 16, 2008). "Blessed". Archdiocese of New York. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  291. ^ "His Eminence, Timothy Cardinal Dolan". St. Patrick's Cathedral. February 23, 2009. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  292. ^ "Rinuncia Dell'Arcivescovo Metropolita di New York (U.S.A.) e Nomina Del Successore". Holy See. February 23, 2009. Archived from the original on February 28, 2009.
  293. ^ "Father Enrique Salvo Named Rector of St. Patrick's Cathedral". Catholic New York. November 5, 2021. Retrieved November 16, 2021.
  294. ^ a b "Contact Us". St. Patrick's Cathedral. Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  295. ^ a b "Dr. Jennifer Pascual". St. Patrick's Cathedral. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  296. ^ "Daniel Brondel". St. Patrick's Cathedral. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  297. ^ "Michael Hey". St. Patrick's Cathedral. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  298. ^ a b c d "The Cathedral Bells". St. Patrick's Cathedral. March 14, 1901. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
  299. ^ Steel and Iron. National Iron and Steel Publishing Company. 1901. p. 403.
  300. ^ "One of the Finest.: St Patrick's Cathedral in New York to Have a Set of Chimes". Boston Daily Globe. July 12, 1897. p. 2. ProQuest 498654646.
  301. ^ "New Bells for St. Patrick's Cathedral—Largest in the U.S." The World. July 18, 1897. p. 12. Retrieved June 27, 2021 – via
  302. ^ a b c Compressed Air 1898, p. 648.
  303. ^ Pareles, Jon (December 23, 1983). "Church Bells: Tintinnabulation Around the City". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 4, 2021.
  304. ^ Compressed Air 1898, pp. 649–650.
  305. ^ Compressed Air 1898, p. 650.
  306. ^ a b "Chimes Rung by New Method; Compressed Air and Electricity Set St. Patrick's Nineteen Bells Pealing". The New York Times. March 15, 1901. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 27, 2021.
  307. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "The Cathedral Organs". St. Patrick's Cathedral. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  308. ^ "Music Dedicates St. Patrick's Organ; Opera Singers Join in Program at Ceremonies in the Cathedral". The New York Times. January 31, 1928. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  309. ^ "Cardinal Hayes Dedicates St. Patrick Organ Tonight: Ready for Dedication Services Tonight in St. Patrick's Cathedral". New York Herald Tribune. February 11, 1930. p. 25. ProQuest 1114014402.
  310. ^ "At St. Patrick's Cathedral, a Restoration to Benefit the Ears". The New York Times. January 29, 1994. p. 1.21. ISSN 0362-4331. ProQuest 429426930.
  311. ^ "St. Patricks Cathedral's Gallery Organ Reinstalled After Two Years of Restoration". Viewing NYC. January 22, 2015. Retrieved November 16, 2021.
  312. ^ Phillips, McCandlish (August 31, 1970). "St. Patrick's Names Met Organist as Musical Director". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  313. ^ "Death of William F. Pecher; Veteran Organist of St. Patrick's Passes Away in Morristown". The New York Times. February 23, 1904. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  314. ^ "William F. Pecher Dead: Organist of St. Patrick's Cathedral Expires in Morristown". New-York Tribune. February 23, 1904. p. 9. Retrieved July 7, 2021 – via
  315. ^ "Dr. Courboin To Be Organist At St. Patrick's: Will Fill Position. During Illness of Pietro Yon; Known for Concert Work New St. Patrick's Organist". New York Herald Tribune. October 2, 1943. p. 6. ProQuest 1289081384.
  316. ^ "Gets St. Patrick's Post; Dr. C.M. Courboin Is Named Organist During Yon's Illness". The New York Times. October 2, 1943. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  317. ^ "Pietro Yon Dead; a Noted Organist; St. Patrick's Cathedral Music Director Since 1926 Had Played in the Vatican". The New York Times. November 23, 1943. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  318. ^ "Charles Courboin, Church Organist". The New York Times. April 14, 1973. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  319. ^ Cook, Joan (September 30, 1990). "John Grady, Leader Of Cathedral Music Since '70, Dies at 56". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  320. ^ Basile, Salvatore (2010). Fifth Avenue Famous. New York City: Fordham University Press. pp. 291–292. ISBN 978-0-8232-3187-4.
  321. ^ Nestor, Emer (June 2015). "Jennifer Pascual". Final Note Magazine. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  322. ^ "Bombs Exploded in Two Churches: Dynamite Used in St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York and Also in St. Alphonsus' Catholic Church". The Atlanta Constitution. October 14, 1914. p. 1. ProQuest 496736863.
  323. ^ "Bombs Exploded in St. Patrick's and at a Church; Attempt to Wreck Cathedral Is Followed by Another at St. Alphonsus's" (PDF). The New York Times. October 14, 1914. pp. 1, 18. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  324. ^ "Detective Lit Bomb, Abarno Tells Court; Alleged Plotter Swears Cigar Polignani Bought for Him Had Gone Out". The New York Times. April 3, 1915. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  325. ^ "Bomb Threat Fails to Affect Services; Masses at St. Patrick's Are Conducted Without Incident --Attendance Is Normal". The New York Times. January 29, 1951. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  326. ^ "Bombing Threat Sends 30 Police To N.Y. Cathedral". The Washington Post. June 22, 1953. p. 1. ISSN 0190-8286. ProQuest 152581607.
  327. ^ Chokshi, Niraj (April 18, 2019). "Man With Two Full Gas Cans Arrested After Entering St. Patrick's Cathedral". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 23, 2021.
  328. ^ Watkins, Ali; Winston, Ali (April 18, 2019). "Man Arrested With Gas Cans and Lighters at St. Patrick's Cathedral Is a Philosophy Teacher". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 23, 2021.
  329. ^ "Professor arrested with gas cans at St. Patrick's Cathedral dies by suicide after release from Rikers due to COVID-19". ABC7 New York. April 23, 2020. Retrieved October 14, 2022.
  330. ^ "N.Y. Vandals Smear Paint On St. Patrick's". The Washington Post. February 19, 1944. p. 3. ISSN 0190-8286. ProQuest 151740959.
  331. ^ "St. Patrick's Cathedral Vandalized With Graffiti Amid George Floyd Protests". CBS New York. May 31, 2020. Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  332. ^ "Suburban teens nabbed for NYC St. Patrick's Cathedral Black Lives Matter graffiti". New York Daily News. June 18, 2020. Archived from the original on June 7, 2021. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
  333. ^ "NYPD: Vandals Tagged St. Patrick's Cathedral During New Year's Protest". NBC New York. January 1, 2021. Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  334. ^ Winfeld, Nicole (November 9, 2020). "McCarrick: What's known about the abusive US ex-cardinal". Associated Press. Retrieved December 5, 2020.
  335. ^ "Report on the Holy See's Institutional Knowledge and Decision-making Related to Former Cardinal Theodore Edgar Mccarrick (1930 to 2017)]" (PDF). November 10, 2020. Retrieved December 5, 2020.
  336. ^ McQuiston, John T. (September 22, 1988). "Naked Man Slays Usher In Cathedral and Is Killed". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  337. ^ Jenkins, Philip (2003). The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-19-803527-5. OCLC 57138137.
  338. ^ Deparle, Jason (December 11, 1989). "111 Held in St. Patrick's AIDS Protest". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  339. ^ Berkowitz, Harry; Goodman, Peter (August 22, 2002). "Pair charged after radio sex stunt in St. Patrick's Cathedral". The Grand Rapids Press. ProQuest 285240844.
  340. ^ "New York Archdiocese denounces transgender activist's funeral held at St. Patrick's Cathedral". AP News. February 19, 2024. Retrieved March 6, 2024.


Further reading[edit]

  • Casey, Marion R. (2015). "Cornerstone of Memory: John Hughes & St. Patrick's Cathedral: Sixteenth Ernie O'Malley Lecture, 2014". American Journal of Irish Studies. 12. Glucksman Ireland House, New York University: 10–56. ISSN 2165-3224. JSTOR 43657249.
  • Feighery, Kate (2015). "'Everything Depends on the First Year': Archbishop John Hughes and His Fundraising Plan for St. Patrick's Cathedral". American Journal of Irish Studies. 12. Glucksman Ireland House, New York University: 57–76. ISSN 2165-3224. JSTOR 43657250.

External links[edit]