St. Paul's Cathedral, Kolkata
|St. Paul's Cathedral|
|Location||1A, Cathedral Road, Kolkata|
|Denomination||Church of North India (Anglican)|
|Architect(s)||Major William Nairn Forbes, C.K. Robinson|
|Construction cost||Rs. 4,35,669|
|Length||247 feet (75 m)|
|Width||81 feet (25 m)|
|Spire height||201 feet (61 m)|
|Materials||Special bricks, steel trusses, and fine lime plaster|
|Bishop(s)||Rt. Rev. Ashoke Biswas|
|Priest(s)||Reverend Nigel Pope|
|Assistant priest||Reverend James Gomez|
St. Paul's Cathedral is an Anglican cathedral of the Victorian age, of the Church of North India – a united church which is part of the Anglican Communion – in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. It is the seat of the Diocese of Calcutta, and the incumbent bishop since June 2008 is the Rt. Revd. Ashoke Biswas. It was completed in 1847 after Bishop of Calcutta laid the foundation in 1839. It is said to be the largest cathedral in Kolkata and the first Episcopal Church of Asia. It was also the first cathedral that was built in the overseas territory of the British Empire. The edifice stands on the Cathedral Road on the "island of attractions" to provide for more space for the growing population of the European community in Calcutta in the 1800s.
Following the 1897 earthquake and the subsequent massive earthquake of 1934 when Calcutta suffered substantial damage, the cathedral was reconstructed to a revised design. The architectural design of the cathedral is "Indo-Gothic", a Gothic architectural style that was built to meet the climatic conditions of India. The cathedral complex has a library, built over the western porch. The cathedral has a display of many Plastic art forms and memorabilia.
Apart from Bishop Daniel Wilson, the founder of the cathedral, the other notable burial in the church is that of John Paxton Norman, an acting Chief Justice who was assassinated.
The cathedral is in front of the Bishop's Palace on Chowringhee Road, in direct line of vision of the edifice of the Victoria Memorial. It is to the east of the Victoria Memorial and at the southern extremity of the maidan, a park.
The objective of building this cathedral was to ensure more space for the growing population of the European community in Calcutta (4000 men and 300 women in Bengal in 1810), as the old "James Agg's St John's Church" built in 1787 did not have adequate space to accommodate the increasing Christian population in the city.
In 1762, the area where the cathedral exists now, was a forest infested with wild life such as tiger. In 1819 Bishop Middleton had first mooted the idea of building the cathedral here. However, he died in 1822 without realizing his dream, and the BishopsHeber, James and Turner who came after him also died without the cathedral getting built. It was then in 1832 that a decision was taken to build the cathedral at this location. Following this decision the area was developed and was known as "Fives Court." But the location was considered as "too far south" to build the cathedral.
The first design for the cathedral had been conceived in 1819 by William Nairn Forbes at the request of Marquess of Hastings, then Governor-General of Bengal but was not accepted as it was very expensive to build. It was in 1832, after Bishop Daniel Wilson came to Calcutta, that the project to build the cathedral was revived. Land to build the cathedral was identified and an area of 7 acres (2.8 ha) acquired. A Cathedral Committee was set up and designs to build the cathedral were drawn up. On 8 October 1839, construction was initiated by laying the cornerstone. The cathedral was completed after eight years and consecrated on 8 October 1847. It was built with the chancel, the sanctuary, the chapels and the 201 feet (61 m) tall spire; the cost of construction of the edifice was then Rs. 4,35,669. On the occasion of consecration, which was very largely attended by Europeans and local people, Queen Victoria had sent "ten pieces of silver-gilt plate" for the cathedral. The military engineer, Major William Nairn Forbes (1796–1855) (who later became a Major General of the Bengal Engineers), on a request by Bishop Daniel Wilson, designed the cathedral with the assistance of architect C. K. Robinson, modelling the tower and spire upon the Norwich Cathedral. The cathedral was built in Gothic revival style, but with modern construction elements, including an iron framework. The cathedral can accommodate about 800 to 1,000 people. 
In the 1897 earthquake the cathedral sufefred damages and was refurbished. In a subsequent massive earthquake of 1934, when Calcutta was devastated, the cathedral's steeple tower had collapsed. It was reconstructed to a revised design. The tower was rebuilt along the lines of the central Bell Harry tower of Canterbury Cathedral, following the 1934 Calcutta earthquake. On its completion, St Paul's replaced St. John's Church, Kolkata as the cathedral. The cathedral also has a statue of Bishop Heber (1783–1826), who was the Second Bishop of Calcutta; the statue was sculpted by Francis Leggatt Chantrey. The Bishop's House across the street is also architecturally notable.
The cathedral is well maintained in a serene and peaceful atmosphere. People of all religious denominations can visit the church. Service is held regularly. Christmas is a special occasion when a large number of people assemble here to participate in the festivities.
The Imperial Gazetteer defined the architectural design of the cathedral as "Indo-Gothic" to mean a Gothic architectural style built to meet the climatic conditions of India. It was then called a "spurious gothic adapted to the exigencies of the Indian climate." The cathedral's design, otherwise known as Gothic Revival style, is built with stained glass windows and and has two frescoes in Florentine Renaissance style; the West Window was designed in 1880 by Burne-Jones. The nave of the cathedral is very long at 247 feet (75 m) and its width is 81 feet (25 m). The nave is fitted with well crafted wooden pews and chairs. The central spire raises to a height of 201 feet (61 m) and the tower on which it stands is square in shape and was patterned on the lines of the 12th-century Canterbury Cathedral, England. The tower was fitted with five clocks, each of which weighed about three tons. The stained glass windows on the western side were the creation of Sir Edward Burne-Jones, a pre-Raphaelite master, which were fitted in half-sunk arches; these were designed in 1880 in memory of Lord Mayo who was assassinated in the Andaman Islands. When completed in 1847 the cathedral as a whole was compared to the Norwich Cathedral of England. The East window, which had original stained glass, was destroyed by a cyclone in 1964. This was substituted with a new one in 1968. The roof of the cathedral is in the shape of a "shallow curve" spanning (was the largest span when built) over iron trusses decorated with "Gothic tracery". The hall of the cathedral is built spaciously without any aisles on its flanks. The materials used in the construction of the cathedral consisted of special bricks, light in weight and with good compression strength. The dressed stones used were Chunar stones. The external and internal surfaces of the cathedral were plastered with fine chunam (lime plaster) in the form of a stucco.
The cathedral's interior has a display of many Plastic art forms and memorabilia. There is an "episcopal throne" on the southern flank of the altar and a decorative reredo or wall on its backside dated to 1879; it has carvings of episodes related to the life of St. Paul, annunciation, adoration of the Magi, and Flight into Egypt, all credited to Sir Arthur Blomfield. The parish hall within the premises of the cathedral is the venue for holding social functions. The eastern wall in the cathedral has paintings of the life of St. Paul, painted by Blomfield in 1886. Also notable is the font with the sculpture of Bishop Heber in a kneeling posture. The cathedral has an organ with 41 stops made by Joseph Willis and Sons of London, still in use.
The cathedral complex also has a library, built over the western porch, to dimensions of 61 by 22 feet (18.6 m × 6.7 m) with a height of 35 feet (11 m). It was built at the initiative of Bishop Wilson, who donated 8,000 of his books and manuscripts. Further donations of books to the library were from W. Gordon and Rev. J. Nath of the University of Oxford and the Calcutta Bible Society. The library also has a sculpture of Bishop Wilson made in marble.
Entry to the cathedral is from the north through a large gate made of wrought iron called the Sir William Prentice Memorai Gate, which is named after Sir William Prentice who was a member of cathedral's congregation for many years. The cathedral is surrounded by a well tended garden. In 1847, sixty three species of trees had been planted in this garden.
Bishop Daniel Wilson had desired that his body be interred in a vault placed under communion-table of the cathedral if he died in Calcutta. He had also expressed a desire that a plain mural tablet, without ornamentation, be placed on the walls of the communion-table not only at St. Pauls Cathedral but also in Bishop's College Chapel at Calcutta and in the Saint Mary's Church, Islington. His a coffin is located in an underground chamber of the cathedral and with a plaque conferred on him Queen Victoria is also on display. There is a memorial to John Paxton Norman, an acting Chief Justice who was assassinated. It is large and decorated, and is surmounted by a cross at the top, with an engraving that states "justice with her scales seated against a background of tiles inlaid with a bright floral pattern" denoting Judge Norman's interest in botany. It was established by the government. Arthur William Garnett, the English engineer who died in India in 1861 is also buried here. T. F. Middleton, the first Bishop of Calcutta (1814–1822) is buried here.
- "Bishops of our Diocese". Ashoke Biswas (Bishop of Calcutta, CNI 2008 – till date. Diocese of Calcutta CNI.
- Chakraborti, Manish. "The Historic Anglican Churches of Kolkata" (pdf). continuityarchitects.com.
- "St. Pauls Cathedral". Official website of Westengal Toiursim Department. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- Banerjee, Jacqueline. "St Paul's Cathedral, Kolkata, India, by William Nairn Forbes: The First Victorian Cathedral". The Victorian Web.
- "Place". St. Paul's Cathedral. Kednriya Vidya Sangathan:An autonomous organizatiomn of theGovernment of India.
- "St. Pauls Cathedral". The Diocese of Calcutta, CNI. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- Riddick 2006, p. 175.
- Earth 2011, p. 64.
- 100 Cities of the World. Parragon Pubishing India. 2010. pp. 57–. ISBN 978-1-4454-0665-7.
- Saran 2014, p. 252.
- "Saint Pauls Cathedral". Kolkta Irganization. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
- "St Paul's Cathedral". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- Betts & McCulloch 2013, p. 145.
- Earth 2011, p. 63-64.
- Dutta 2011, p. 90.
- Earth 2011, pp. 63–64.
- Bateman 1860, p. 727.
- "Art Galleries / Museums / Libraries". St. Paul's Cathedral. Kalakatta Municipal Corporation.
- Garnett, Frederick Brooksbank (1890). "Garnett, Arthur William". In Stephen, Leslie; Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography 21. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- Bateman, Josiah (1860). The Life of Daniel Wilson, D. D. Bishop of Calcutta and Metropolitan of India. Gould and Lincoln.
- Betts, Vanessa; McCulloch, Victoria (30 October 2013). Delhi to Kolkata Footprint Focus Guide. Footprint Travel Guides. ISBN 978-1-909268-40-1.
- Dutta, Krishna (3 June 2011). Calcutta: A Cultural and Literary History. Andrews UK Limited. ISBN 978-1-904955-87-0.
- Earth, Good (2011). Kolkata: City Guide. Goodearth Publications. ISBN 978-93-80262-15-4.
- Riddick, John F. (1 January 2006). The History of British India: A Chronology. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-32280-8.
- Saran, Renu (19 August 2014). Monuments of India. Diamond Pocket Books Pvt Ltd. ISBN 978-93-5165-298-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to St. Paul's Cathedral, Kolkata.|
Kolkata/Maidan travel guide from Wikivoyage