|Formed||30 June 1945|
|Dissolved||1 February 1990|
|Parent agency||National Security Corps|
State Security (Czech: Státní bezpečnost, Slovak: Štátna bezpečnosť) or StB / ŠtB, was a plainclothes communist secret police force in the former Czechoslovakia from 1945 to its dissolution in 1990. Serving as an intelligence and counter-intelligence agency, it dealt with any activity that could possibly be considered anti-state or western influence.
From its establishment on June 30, 1945, the StB was bound to and controlled by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. The Party used the StB as an instrument of power and repression; State Security spied on and intimidated political opponents of the Party and forged false criminal evidence against them, facilitating the Communists' rise to power in 1948. Even before Czechoslovakia became a Communist state, the StB forced confessions by means of torture, including the use of drugs, blackmail and kidnapping. After the coup d'état of 1948, these practices developed under the tutelage of Soviet advisers. Other common practices included telephone tapping, permanent watching of apartments, intercepting private mail, house searches, surveillance, arrests and indictment for so-called "subversion of the republic".
The StB's part in the fall of the regime in 1989 remains uncertain. The reported murder of a student by police during a peaceful demonstration in November 1989 was the catalyst for wider public support and further demonstrations, leading to the overthrow of the Communist regime. The StB were alleged to have used agent Ludvík Zifčák as the dead student Martin Šmíd. This was based mainly on Zifčák's testimony. However, in 1992, the Czechoslovak parliamentary commission for investigation of events of November 17, 1989 has ruled out this version, stating that "the role of former StB lieutenant L. Zifčák was only marginal, without any connection to critical events and without any active effort to influence these events. Investigation of related circumstances has indisputably proved that L. Zifčák's testimony that attributes a key role in November's events to himself is based on facts, which are either technically impossible and unfeasible, or contradict actions of persons mentioned by him, which aimed to completely different goals."
State Security was dissolved on February 1, 1990. The current intelligence agency of the Czech Republic is the Security Information Service, although it is not a successor to StB. The former employees and associates (informers) of the StB are currently banned from taking certain jobs, such as legislators or police officers.
The Act on Lawlessness of the Communist Regime and on Resistance Against It states that StB, as an organisation based on the ideology of the Communist Party, was "aimed to suppress human rights and democracy through its activities" and thus based on a criminal ideology.
Organization within the Czechoslovak government
The State Security was a part of the National Security Corps (Czech: Sbor národní bezpečnosti, SNB; Slovak: Zbor národnej bezpečnosti, ZNB) along with Public Security (Czech: Veřejná bezpečnost, VB; Slovak: Verejná bezpečnosť, VB) – a uniformed force that performed standard police duties. Both forces worked at regional and district levels, supervised by the Ministries of the Interior of the Czech and Slovak Socialist Republics, but operationally directed by the federal Ministry of Interior.
List of StB agents and collaborators
In the early 1990s former dissident and "StB hunter" Petr Cibulka published the names of over 200,000 alleged StB officers and collaborators, who spied and reported on family members, friends, neighbours, and colleagues.
Pavel Bret, a deputy director of the Office for the Documentation and the Investigation of the Crimes of Communism, criticized Cibulka's lists, saying: "It's dangerous to apply sweeping blacklisting. We shouldn't forget who compiled them. If [Cibulka] wants to be objective, he should also inform the public how people had been recruited -- that it was often through compromising documents, extortion, beatings -- or their collaboration was falsified."
In 2003, the Czech Interior Ministry released an official list of 75,000 StB agents and collaborators, including 3,000 names of collaborators from abroad. According to the Radio Prague, "The Ministry says it contains less names than that of Petr Cibulka because it only lists those who collaborated with the StB knowingly, and not people who were considered as potential informants."
- Alfred Frenzel, who infiltrated West Germany during the 1950s.
- Josef Frolik, who defected to the West in the 1960s.
- Karl Koecher, who infiltrated the CIA in the 1970s.
- Vratislav Kulhánek, Czech business manager and former Chairman of the Czech Ice Hockey Association, accused of cooperating with the StB before 1989.
- Andrej Babiš, who was cooperating with the StB before 1989 and who has become Czech prime minister after 2017 parliametary election.
- Milan Hlavsa, the founder of the Czech band Plastic People of the Universe, accused of cooperating with the StB before 1989.
- Jan Tříska, Czech actor who has been accused of cooperating with the StB before 1989.
- Jaromír Nohavica, Czech songwriter who has been accused of cooperating with the StB before 1989.
- Bronislav Poloczek, Polish-Czech actor who has been accused of cooperating with the StB before 1989.
- Josef Dvořák, Czech actor who has been accused of cooperating with the StB before 1989.
- Vojtěch Jasný, Czech-American director who has been accused of cooperating with the StB before 1989.
- Pavel Kohout, Czech-Austrian novelist, founding member of the Charter 77 movement, who has been accused of cooperating with the StB before 1989.
- Richard Müller, Slovak singer who has been accused of cooperating with the StB before 1989.
- Václav Neckář, Czech singer and actor who has been accused of cooperating with the StB before 1989.
- Jeremy Corbyn, The Sun made accusations based on former StB agent Ján Sarkocy that Jeremy Corbyn knowingly co-operated with the StB in the 1980s. Svetlana Ptacnikova, Director of the Czech Security Forces Archive, said that "Mr Corbyn was neither registered [by the StB] as a collaborator, nor does this [his collaboration] stem from archive documents." Radek Schovanek, Czech historian and former researcher from the Institute for the Study of Totalitarian Regimes, rejected Sarkocy's claims as 'untrue'.
In popular culture
Monster, a manga written by Naoki Urasawa from 1994 to 2001 that later received an anime adaptation, uses the StB as a plot element and involves the idea that they still operated in the shadows after their alleged dissolution. Several former members of the StB are secondary characters in the manga.
- Závěrečná zpráva vyšetřovací komise Federálního shromáždění pro objasnění událostí 17. listopadu 1989, část II - Historický přehled (Final report of Investigation commission of the Federal Parliament for clarifying events of November 17, 1989, Part II - Historical Overview), [cit. 2008-11-29]. Available online. (in Czech)
- Závěrečná zpráva vyšetřovací komise Federálního shromáždění pro objasnění událostí 17. listopadu 1989, část VI - Závěr (Final report of Investigation commission of the Federal Parliament for clarifying events of November 17, 1989, Part VI - Conclusion), [cit. 2008-11-29]. Available online. (in Czech)
- Petr Blažek, "Transitions to Democracy and the 'Lustration' Screening Process", p. 173, Transformation: The Czech Experience, Prague 2006, published by People in Need/Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic
- "Czechs wait thirteen years for official names of secret police collaborators." Radio Prague. 23 March 2003.
- "Blowing the Whistle on the Past". TIME. 24 April 2000
- "StB incorporated". Prague Tribune. 2003
- "Důvěrníci a agenti komunistické Státní bezpečnosti ve sdělovacích prostředcích nadále formují české veřejné mínění". Cibulkovy seznamy (in Czech).
- "Jeremy Corbyn Was a Communist Spy". Observer. 2018-02-15. Retrieved 2018-02-17.
- "Jeremy Corbyn denies allegation he was a paid Communist informant in the 1980's". Business Insider. 16 February 2018.
- "Corbyn nemohl spolupracovat s StB ani kdyby chtěl. Šéf naší rezidentury byl britský agent, říká vědec" (in Czech). Czech Radio. 16 February 2018.