St Albans (UK Parliament constituency)

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Coordinates: 51°44′24″N 0°20′13″W / 51.740°N 0.337°W / 51.740; -0.337

St Albans
County constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Boundary of St Albans in Hertfordshire.
Outline map
Location of Hertfordshire within England.
County Hertfordshire
Electorate 70,298 (December 2010)[1]
Current constituency
Created 1885
Member of parliament Anne Main (Conservative)
Number of members One
Created from Hertfordshire
1554–1852
Number of members Two
Type of constituency Borough constituency
Replaced by Hertfordshire
Overlaps
European Parliament constituency East of England

St Albans is a constituency[n 1] represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2005 by Anne Main, a Conservative.[n 2]

This article also describes the parliamentary borough (1554-1852) of the same name, consisting only of the city of St Albans, which elected two MPs by the bloc vote system.

Current Boundaries[edit]

The seat is in Hertfordshire, England. Specifically, it comprises the cathedral city of St Albans and some of the surrounding countryside, mainly to the south of the city.

Constituencies were most recently redrawn in 2007, with the new boundaries taking effect at the 2010 general election. The Boundary Commission for England decided to retain the existing 11 seats in Hertfordshire, making relatively minor adjustments to bring the parliamentary boundaries in line with those of local government wards, which had changed since the 1995 review.[2]

The seat now comprises the following electoral wards:[3]

History[edit]

The constituency elected a borough representative for over 300 years, until it was disenfranchised as a result of electoral corruption in 1852.[4] The constituency was re-established in an enlarged form in 1885 with an alternative pseudonym, the Mid Division of Hertfordshire. Both names were used in the Redistribution of Seats Act, which dovetailed with the Third Reform Act.

1885 to date[edit]

Political history

The constituency was until 1997 held by a Conservative with the exception of five years of the Attlee ministry and early 20th century opposition of Henry Campbell-Bannerman and the first part of his premiership which was when he was in a minority.

Following boundary changes in 1997, and the founding of the New Labour movement which sought public sector reform and investment with expansion based on economic growth, the seat stood the possibility of, on the expected national swing led by Tony Blair, a win by a Labour politician, which took place when it was won for the party for the first time since the 1945 election.

Despite the former Labour MP for the seat, Kerry Pollard, standing there in 2015 and 2017, she has not come close to regaining it. This is in no small part due to the seat showing an unusually high level of support for the Liberal Democrats and their predecessor parties; they have only twice (in 2001 and 2015) failed to win at least 20% of the vote in St Albans since 1974, and in 2010 and 2017 came a strong second (4.4% and 10.7%) behind the Conservatives.

Prominent members

The noble and local landowning Grimston family have produced nine members throughout the seat's history. The three first heirs to the Earldom of Verulam have won election in the seat - the latest MP from the family was John Grimston who later became the 6th Earl.

Sir Hildred Carlile was a textiles entrepreneur and generous benefactor of Bedford College, University of London.

Francis Fremantle was chairman of the Parliamentary Medical Committee from 1923 to 1943.

Peter Lilley was a frontbench minister in government from 1992 until 1997, the Secretary of State for Social Security, after two years as Secretary of State for Trade and Industry.

Constituency profile[edit]

Workless claimants (registered jobseekers) were in November 2012 significantly lower than the national average of 3.8%, at 1.9% of the population based on a statistical compilation by The Guardian.[5]

MPs since 1885[edit]

Election Member[6] Party[7][8]
1885 Viscount Grimston Conservative
1892 Vicary Gibbs Conservative
1904 by-election John Slack Liberal
1906 Sir Hildred Carlile Conservative
1919 by-election Sir Francis Fremantle Conservative
1943 by-election[9] John Grimston Conservative
1945 Cyril Dumpleton Labour
1950 John Grimston Conservative
1959 Sir Victor Goodhew Conservative
1983 Peter Lilley Conservative
1997 Kerry Pollard Labour
2005 Anne Main Conservative

Election Result[edit]

General Election 2017: St Albans
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Anne Main 24,571 43.1 -3.5
Liberal Democrat Daisy Cooper 18,462 32.4 +13.9
Labour Kerry Pollard 13,137 23.0 -0.2
Green Jack Easton 828 1.5 -2.3
Majority 6,109 10.7 -12.7
Turnout 56,998 78.3 +6.3
Conservative hold Swing -8.65
General Election 2015: St Albans[10][11]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Anne Main 25,392 46.6 +5.9
Labour Kerry Pollard 12,660 23.3 +5.7
Liberal Democrat Sandy Walkington 10,076 18.5 -17.9
UKIP Chris Wright 4,271 7.8 +4.0
Green Jack Easton 2,034 3.7 +2.3
Majority 12,732 23.4 +19.0
Turnout 54,433 72.0 -3.4
Conservative hold Swing +0.1
General Election 2010: St Albans[12][13][14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Anne Main 21,533 40.8 +3.5
Liberal Democrat Sandy Walkington 19,228 36.4 +11.0
Labour Roma Mills 9,288 17.6 -16.7
UKIP John Stocker 2,028 3.8 +2.2
Green Jack Easton 758 1.4 N/A
Majority 2,305 4.4 +1.4
Turnout 52,835 75.4 +5.4
Conservative hold Swing -3.74

Elections in the 2000s[edit]

General Election 2005: St Albans[15][16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Anne Main 16,953 37.3 +2.1
Labour Kerry Pollard 15,592 34.3 -11.1
Liberal Democrat Michael Green 11,561 25.4 +7.5
UKIP Richard Evans 707 1.6 +0.2
St Albans Party Janet Girsman 430 0.9 N/A
Independent Mark Reynolds 219 0.5 N/A
Majority 1,361 3.0 N/A
Turnout 45,462 70.00 +3.7
Conservative gain from Labour Swing +6.6
General Election 2001: St Albans[17][18]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Kerry Pollard 19,889 45.4 +3.4
Conservative Charles Elphicke 15,423 35.2 +2.0
Liberal Democrat Nick Rijke 7,847 17.9 -3.1
UKIP Chris Sherwin 602 1.4 N/A
Majority 4,466 10.2 +1.4
Turnout 43,761 66.3 -11.2
Labour hold Swing +0.7

Elections in the 1990s[edit]

General Election 1997: St Albans[19][20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Kerry Pollard 21,338 42.0 +22.6
Conservative David Rutley 16,879 33.2 -19.6
Liberal Democrat Anthony Rowlands 10,692 21.0 -5.3
Referendum Jim Warrilow 1,619 3.2 N/A
Rainbow Dream Ticket Sari Craigen 166 0.3 N/A
Natural Law Ian Docker 111 0.2 -0.1
Majority 4,459 8.8 N/A
Turnout 50,805 77.5 -6.0
Labour gain from Conservative Swing +21.1
General Election 1992: St Albans[21][22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Peter Lilley 32,709 52.8 +0.3
Liberal Democrat Monica Howes 16,305 26.3 -8.2
Labour Kerry Pollard 12,016 19.4 +7.9
Green Craig Simmons 734 1.2 -0.1
Natural Law David Lucas 161 0.3 N/A
Majority 16,404 26.5 +8.5
Turnout 61,925 83.5 +3.3
Conservative hold Swing -4.3

Elections in the 1980s[edit]

General Election 1987: St Albans[23][24]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Peter Lilley 31,726 52.5 +0.5
Liberal Alexander Walkington 20,845 34.5 -2.5
Labour Tony McWalter 6,922 11.5 +0.6
Green Elaine Field 788 1.3 N/A
CPRP William Pass 110 0.2 N/A
Majority 10,881 18.0 +3.0
Turnout 60,391 80.2 +2.0
Conservative hold Swing +1.5
General Election 1983: St Albans[25][26]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Peter Lilley 29,676 52.1 -1.0
Liberal Alexander Walkington 21,115 37.0 +13.2
Labour R Austin 6,213 10.9 -12.2
Majority 8,561 15.0 -14.2
Turnout 57,004 78.3 -2.1
Conservative hold Swing -7.1

Elections in the 1970s[edit]

General Election 1979: St Albans[27][28]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Victor Goodhew 31,301 53.1 +8.1
Liberal David Michael Picton 14,057 23.8 -3.1
Labour Ronald John Greaves 13,638 23.1 -5.0
Majority 17,244 29.2 +12.4
Turnout 58,996 80.4 +2.4
Conservative hold Swing +5.6
General Election, October 1974: St Albans[29][28]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Victor Goodhew 24,436 45.0 -0.2
Labour Edwin Hudson 15,301 28.2 +4.1
Liberal Charles Anthony Shaw 14,614 26.9 -3.8
Majority 9,135 16.8 +2.4
Turnout 54,351 78.0 -6.6
Conservative hold Swing -2.15
General Election, February 1974: St Albans[30][28]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Victor Goodhew 26,345 45.2 -6.4
Liberal Charles Anthony Shaw 17,924 30.7 +17.2
Labour Daniel Lipman Bernstein 14,077 24.1 -10.8
Majority 8,421 14.4 -2.2
Turnout 58,356 84.6 +8.4
Conservative hold Swing -11.8
General Election 1970: St Albans [31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Victor Goodhew 24,503 51.5 +3.8
Labour Christopher Hubert Beaumont 16,629 35.0 -6.7
Liberal Charles Anthony Shaw 6,439 13.5 +2.9
Majority 7,874 16.6 +10.5
Turnout 47,571 76.2 -6.8
Conservative hold Swing +5.3

Elections in the 1960s[edit]

General Election 1966: St Albans [32]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Victor Goodhew 22,260 47.7 -0.3
Labour Keith Kyle 19,428 41.6 +5.4
Liberal Julian J Wates 4,977 10.7 -5.1
Majority 2,832 6.1 -5.7
Turnout 46,665 83.0 +0.4
Conservative hold Swing -2.8
General Election 1964: St Albans [33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Victor Goodhew 22,063 48.0 -4.9
Labour Bruce Douglas-Mann 16,672 36.3 +2.8
Liberal William Glanville Brown 7,231 15.7 +2.1
Majority 5,391 11.7 -7.7
Turnout 45,966 82.6 -0.2
Conservative hold Swing -3.9

Elections in the 1950s[edit]

General Election 1959: St Albans [34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Victor Goodhew 23,157 52.9 -4.6
Labour Lawrence William Carroll 14,650 33.5 -9.0
Liberal WA Newton Jones 5,948 13.6 N/A
Majority 8,507 19.4 +4.4
Turnout 52,823 82.8 +3.5
Conservative hold Swing +2.2
General Election 1955: St Albans [35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Grimston 21,828 57.5 +3.0
Labour Renée Short 16,107 42.5 -3.0
Majority 5,721 15.1 +6.2
Turnout 37,935 79.3 -4.8
Conservative hold Swing +3.0
General Election 1951: St Albans[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Grimston 28,602 54.5 +7.2
Labour John McKnight 23,911 45.5 +2.9
Majority 4,691 8.9 +4.4
Turnout 52,513 84.1 -0.8
Conservative hold Swing +2.2
General Election 1950: St Albans [37]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Grimston 24,733 47.2 +4.4
Labour Cyril Dumpleton 22,351 42.7 -3.8
Liberal Deryck Abel 5,280 10.1 -0.6
Majority 2,382 4.6 N/A
Turnout 52,464 85.0 +12.4
Conservative gain from Labour Swing -4.1

Elections in the 1940s[edit]

General Election 1945: St Albans[38][8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Cyril Dumpleton 22,421 46.5 +14.0
Conservative John Grimston 22,362 42.8 -24.7
Liberal Enid Lakeman 5,601 10.7 N/A
Majority 1,879 3.7 N/A
Turnout 50,384 72.6 +10.0
Labour gain from Conservative Swing +19.35
St Albans by-election, 1943 [8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Grimston Unopposed
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1930s[edit]

General Election 1935: St Albans[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Francis Fremantle 33,743 67.5 -10.6
Labour Hugh Franklin 16,233 35.5 +10.6
Majority 17,510 35.0 -21.2
Turnout 49,976 62.6 -9.3
Conservative hold Swing -10.6
General Election 1931: St Albans[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Francis Fremantle 36,690 78.1 +30.0
Labour Monica Whately 10,289 21.9 -5.7
Majority 26,401 56.2 +35.7
Turnout 46,979 71.9 -0.7
Conservative hold Swing +17.8

Elections in the 1920s[edit]

General Election 1929: St Albans[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Francis Fremantle 20,436 48.1 -19.4
Labour Monica Whately 11,699 27.6 -4.9
Liberal George Gordon Honeyman 10,299 24.3 N/A
Majority 8,737 20.5 -14.5
Turnout 41,434 72.6 +2.3
Unionist hold Swing -7.25
General Election 1924: St Albans[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Francis Fremantle 18,004 67.5 +19.8
Labour Frank Herbert 8,862 32.5 +6.0
Majority 9,322 35.0 +13.8
Turnout 26,864 70.3 +1.5
Unionist hold Swing +6.9
General Election 1923: St Albans[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Francis Fremantle 11,968 47.7 -10.1
Labour Christopher Thomson 6,640 26.5 -15.7
Liberal Harry Krauss Nield 6,469 25.8 N/A
Majority 5,328 21.2 +5.6
Turnout 25,077 68.8 -2.3
Unionist hold Swing +2.8
General Election 1922: St Albans[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Francis Fremantle 14,594 57.8 +12.0
Labour John William Brown 10,662 42.2 -0.2
Majority 3,932 15.6 +12.2
Turnout 25,256 71.1 +8.3
Unionist hold Swing +6.1
Fremantle

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

St Albans by-election, 1919 [8][39]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
C Unionist Francis Fremantle 9,621 45.8 N/A
Labour John William Brown 8,908 42.4 N/A
Liberal Milner Gray 2,474 11.8 N/A
Majority 713 3.4 N/A
Turnout 21,003 62.8 N/A
Unionist hold Swing N/A
C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.
General Election 1918: St Albans[8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
C Unionist Hildred Carlile Unopposed
Unionist hold
C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.
Phillimore
General Election, December 1910: St Albans[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Hildred Carlile 6,899 59.1 +1.0
Liberal Robert Charles Phillimore 4,777 40.9 -1.0
Majority 2,122 18.2 +2.0
Turnout 11,676 83.8 -6.6
Conservative hold Swing +1.0
General Election, January 1910: St Albans[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Hildred Carlile 7,323 58.1 +5.6
Liberal Henry Roscoe Beddoes 5,271 41.9 -5.6
Majority 2,052 16.2 +11.2
Turnout 12,594 90.4 +10.1
Conservative hold Swing +5.6

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

General Election 1906: St Albans[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Hildred Carlile 5,856 52.5 N/A
Liberal John Bamford Slack 5,304 47.5 N/A
Majority 552 5.0 N/A
Turnout 11,160 89.3 N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A
Slack
St Albans by-election, 1904 [7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Bamford Slack 4,757 50.7 N/A
Conservative Vicary Gibbs 4,635 49.3 N/A
Majority 132 1.4 N/A
Turnout 9,382 81.5 N/A
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing N/A
General Election 1900: St Albans[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Vicary Gibbs Unopposed
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1890s[edit]

General Election 1895: St Albans[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Vicary Gibbs Unopposed
Conservative hold
Gibbs
General Election 1892: St Albans[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Vicary Gibbs 3,417 45.1 N/A
Liberal T Morgan Harvey 2,573 34.0 N/A
Independent Conservative William Henry Bingham-Cox 1,580 20.9 N/A
Majority 844 11.1 N/A
Turnout 7,570 78.3 N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A

Elections in the 1880s[edit]

General Election 1886: St Albans[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Viscount Grimston Unopposed
Conservative hold
General Election 1885: St Albans[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Viscount Grimston 57.5 45.1 N/A
Liberal John Coles 3,037 42.5 N/A
Majority 1,071 15.0 N/A
Turnout 7,145 81.7 N/A
Conservative win (new seat)

Members of Parliament[edit]

MPs 1553–1640[edit]

Parliament First member Second member
1553 (Oct) John Maynard Thomas Johnson[40]
1554 (Apr) Thomas Wendy Oliver Starkey[40]
1554 (Nov) John Maynard Oliver Starkey[40]
1555 John Astley Robert Stepneth[40]
1558 Henry Heydon Francis Southwell[40]
1559 (Jan) Christopher Smith John Dodmer[41]
1562/3 Robert Wroth[42] Roger Carew [41]
1571 William Skipwith George Ferrers[41]
1572 (Apr) Henry Cocke Charles Smythe[41]
1584 Henry Maynard Humphrey Coningsby[41]
1586 (Oct) Henry Maynard Humphrey Coningsby[41]
1588 (Oct) Henry Maynard Humphrey Coningsby[41]
1593 Henry Maynard Humphrey Coningsby[41]
1597 (Oct) Henry Maynard Humphrey Coningsby[41]
1601 Francis Bacon, sat for Ipswich,
replaced Nov 1601 by
Henry Frowick
Adolph Carey[41]
1604 Sir Francis Bacon, sat for Ipswich
repl. by
Tobie Matthew
Adolph Carey
1610 Sir Thomas Parry Sir Henry Helmes
1614 Sir Francis Bacon, sat for Cambridge University
repl. by
Thomas Perient
Henry Finch
1620 Sir Thomas Richardson Robert Shute
1621 Sir Thomas Richardson Henry Meautys
1624 Sir Arthur Capell Sir John Luke
1625 Sir Charles Morrison, 1st Baronet Sir John Luke
1626 Sir Charles Morrison, 1st Baronet Sir Edward Goring
1628 Sir John Jennings Robert Kirkham
1629–1640 No Parliaments summoned

MPs 1640–1852[edit]

Year First member First party Second member Second party
April 1640 Richard Coningsby Sir John Jennings Parliamentarian
November 1640 Edward Wingate Parliamentarian
1642 Richard Jennings Parliamentarian
December 1648 Wingate and Jennings excluded in Pride's Purge - both seats vacant
1653 St Albans was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament
1654 Alban Cox St Albans had only one seat in the First and
Second Parliaments of the Protectorate
1656
January 1659 Richard Jennings
May 1659 Not represented in the restored Rump
April 1660 William Foxwist Richard Jennings
1661 Thomas Arris
1668 Samuel Grimston
February 1679 Sir Thomas Pope Blount John Gape
August 1679 Samuel Grimston
1685 Captain George Churchill[43] Thomas Docwra
1689 Sir Samuel Grimston
January 1701 Joshua Lomax
March 1701 John Gape
1705 Admiral Henry Killigrew
1708 John Gape Joshua Lomax
1710 William Grimston[44]
1713 William Hale[45]
1714 John Gape
1715 William Hale
1717 Joshua Lomax
1722 William Gore William Clayton
1727 The Viscount Grimston Caleb Lomax
1730 by-election Thomas Gape
1733 by-election John Merrill
1734 Sir Thomas Aston Thomas Ashby
1741 James West
1743 by-election Hans Stanley
1747 Sir Peter Thompson
1754 Hon. James Grimston[46]
1761 Viscount Nuneham
1768 (Sir) Richard Sutton[47] John Radcliffe
1780 William Charles Sloper
1783 by-election The Viscount Grimston
1784 Hon. William Grimston
1790 Hon. Richard Bingham[48] Tory John Calvert
1796 Thomas Skip Dyot Bucknall Tory
June 1800 by-election William Stephen Poyntz Whig
1802 Hon. James Grimston Tory
1807 Joseph Thompson Halsey Whig
1809 by-election Daniel Giles Whig
1812 Christopher Smith Tory
February 1818 by-election William Tierney Robarts Whig
June 1818 Lord Charles Spencer-Churchill Tory
1820 Christopher Smith Tory
1821 by-election Sir Henry Wright-Wilson Tory
1826 John Easthope Whig
1830 Viscount Grimston Tory Charles Tennant Whig
1831 Sir Francis Vincent, Bt Whig Richard Godson Whig
1832 Henry George Ward Whig
1835 Hon. Edward Harbottle Grimston Conservative
1837 George Alfred Muskett Whig
February 1841 by-election The Earl of Listowel Whig
June 1841 George Repton Conservative
1846 by-election Benjamin Bond Cabbell Conservative
1847 Alexander Raphael Whig
1850 by-election Jacob Bell Whig
1852 Constituency disfranchised for corruption

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ A borough constituency (for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer)
  2. ^ As with all constituencies, the constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.
References
  1. ^ "Electorate Figures - Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  2. ^ "Fifth Periodical Report, Volume 1" (PDF). Boundary Commission for England. 2007. p. 335. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  3. ^ "The Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 2007 (S.I. 2007/1681)". legislation.gov.uk. The National Archives. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  4. ^ Reform Act 1867
  5. ^ Unemployment claimants by constituency The Guardian
  6. ^ Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "S" (part 1)
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Craig, F. W. S. (1989) [1974]. British parliamentary election results 1885–1918 (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. p. 297. ISBN 0-900178-27-2. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Craig, F. W. S. (1983) [1969]. British parliamentary election results 1918–1949 (3rd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. p. 375. ISBN 0-900178-06-X. 
  9. ^ New M.P. For St. Albans, The Times, October 06, 1943
  10. ^ "Election Data 2015". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015. 
  11. ^ "2015 Parliamentary Election Results". St Albans City and District Council. 8 May 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015. 
  12. ^ "Election Data 2010". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015. 
  13. ^ City & District of St Albans - Statement of persons nominated
  14. ^ "UK General Election results May 2010". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  15. ^ "Election Data 2005". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  16. ^ "UK General Election results May 2005". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  17. ^ "Election Data 2001". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  18. ^ "General Election result, June 2001". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  19. ^ "Election Data 1997". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  20. ^ "General Election result, May 1997". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  21. ^ "Election Data 1992". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  22. ^ "UK General Election results April 1992". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  23. ^ "Election Data 1987". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  24. ^ "UK General Election results 1987". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  25. ^ "Election Data 1983". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  26. ^ "UK General Election results June 1983". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  27. ^ "UK General Election results May 1979". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  28. ^ a b c "'St Albans', Feb 1974 - May 1983". ElectionWeb Project. Cognitive Computing Limited. Retrieved 4 April 2016. 
  29. ^ "UK General Election results October 1974". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  30. ^ "UK General Election results February 1974". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  31. ^ "UK General Election results June 1970". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  32. ^ "UK General Election results March 1966". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  33. ^ "UK General Election results October 1964". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  34. ^ "UK General Election results October 1959". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  35. ^ "UK General Election results May 1955". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  36. ^ "UK General Election results October 1951". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  37. ^ "UK General Election results February 1950". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  38. ^ For the 1945 general election, changes are calculated relative to the 1935 general election results, not the uncontested by-election in 1943
  39. ^ Large Labour Vote At St. Albans, Seat Held By Coalition, The Times, Wednesday 24 December 1919, page 10
  40. ^ a b c d e "History of Parliament". Retrieved 2011-10-02. 
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "History of Parliament". Retrieved 2011-10-02. 
  42. ^  "Wroth, Robert". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 
  43. ^ Admiral from 1702
  44. ^ Created The Viscount Grimston (in the Peerage of Ireland), November 1719
  45. ^ On petition (in a dispute over the franchise), Hale was found not to have been duly elected
  46. ^ The 2nd Viscount Grimston (in the Peerage of Ireland) from October 1756
  47. ^ Richard Sutton was created a baronet, 1772
  48. ^ Styled Lord Bingham from October 1795, when his father was raised to an Earldom

Sources[edit]

  • Robert Beatson, A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament (London: Longman, Hurst, Res & Orme, 1807) [1]
  • D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
  • Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 (London: Thomas Hansard, 1808) [2]
  • F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (2nd edition, Aldershot: Parliamentary Research Services, 1989)
  • Henry Stooks Smith, The Parliaments of England from 1715 to 1847 (2nd edition, edited by FWS Craig - Chichester: Parliamentary Reference Publications, 1973)
  • Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "S" (part 1)

External links[edit]