Hypericum perforatum, known as Perforate St John's-wort, Common Saint John's wort and St John's wort,[note 1] is a flowering plant of the genus Hypericum and a medicinal herb with antidepressant activity and potent anti-inflammatory properties as an arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor and COX-1 inhibitor. In common speech, the term "St John's wort" may be used to refer to any species of the genus Hypericum. Therefore, Hypericum perforatum is sometimes called "Common St John's wort" or "Perforate St John's wort" in order to differentiate it.
Studies have supported the use of St John's wort as a treatment for depression in humans. A 2008 Cochrane review of 29 clinical trials concluded that it was superior to placebo in patients with major depression, as effective as standard antidepressants and had fewer side-effects. According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) of the National Institutes of Health, it "may help some types of depression, though the evidence is not definitive," can limit the efficacy of prescription medicines, and psychosis can occur as a rare side effect. The NCCIH notes that combining St John's wort with certain prescription antidepressants can lead to a "potentially life-threatening increase of serotonin," a brain chemical targeted by antidepressants. In horses, sheep and cattle, the plant can be toxic when ingested in large quantities.
Hypericum perforatum is indigenous to Europe but has spread worldwide as an invasive species, including to temperate and subtropical regions of Turkey, Ukraine, Russia, the Middle East, India, Canada, the United States and China.
- 1 Botanical description
- 2 Ecology
- 3 Livestock
- 4 Medical uses
- 5 Side effects
- 6 Interactions
- 7 Mechanism of action
- 8 Chemistry
- 9 Research
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Hypericum perforatum is a yellow-flowering, stoloniferous or sarmentose, perennial herb indigenous to Europe. It has been introduced to many temperate areas of the world and grows wild in many meadows. The herb's common name comes from its traditional flowering and harvesting on St John's day, 24 June. The genus name Hypericum is derived from the Greek words hyper (above) and eikon (picture), in reference to the plant's traditional use in warding off evil by hanging plants over a religious icon in the house during St John's day. The species name perforatum refers to the presence of small oil glands in the leaves that look like windows, which can be seen when they are held against the light.
St John's wort is a perennial plant with extensive, creeping rhizomes. Its stems are erect, branched in the upper section, and can grow to 1 m high. It has opposing, stalkless, narrow, oblong leaves that are 12 mm long or slightly larger. The leaves are yellow-green in color, with transparent dots throughout the tissue and occasionally with a few black dots on the lower surface. Leaves exhibit obvious translucent dots when held up to the light, giving them a 'perforated' appearance, hence the plant's Latin name.
Its flowers measure up to 2.5 cm across, have five petals, and are colored bright yellow with conspicuous black dots. The flowers appear in broad cymes at the ends of the upper branches, between late spring and early to mid summer. The sepals are pointed, with glandular dots in the tissue. There are many stamens, which are united at the base into three bundles. The pollen grains are ellipsoidal.
When flower buds (not the flowers themselves) or seed pods are crushed, a reddish/purple liquid is produced.
St John's wort reproduces both vegetatively and sexually. It thrives in areas with either a winter- or summer-dominant rainfall pattern; however, distribution is restricted by temperatures too low for seed germination or seedling survival. Altitudes greater than 1500 m, rainfall less than 500 mm, and a daily mean January (in Southern hemisphere) temperature greater than 24 degrees C are considered limiting thresholds. Depending on environmental and climatic conditions, and rosette age, St John's wort will alter growth form and habit to promote survival. Summer rains are particularly effective in allowing the plant to grow vegetatively, following defoliation by insects or grazing.
Although Hypericum perforatum is grown commercially in some regions of south east Europe, it is listed as a noxious weed in more than twenty countries and has introduced populations in South and North America, India, New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa. In pastures, St John's wort acts as both a toxic and invasive weed. It replaces native plant communities and forage vegetation to the dominating extent of making productive land nonviable or becoming an invasive species in natural habitats and ecosystems. Ingestion by livestock can cause photosensitization, central nervous system depression, spontaneous abortion, and can lead to death. Effective herbicides for control of Hypericum include 2,4-D, picloram, and glyphosate. In western North America three beetles Chrysolina quadrigemina, Chrysolina hyperici and Agrilus hyperici have been introduced as biocontrol agents.
In large doses, St John's wort is poisonous to grazing livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, horses). Behavioural signs of poisoning are general restlessness and skin irritation. Restlessness is often indicated by pawing of the ground, headshaking, head rubbing, and occasional hindlimb weakness with knuckling over, panting, confusion, and depression. Mania and hyperactivity may also result, including running in circles until exhausted. Observations of thick wort infestations by Australian graziers include the appearance of circular patches giving hillsides a 'crop circle' appearance, it is presumed, from this phenomenon. Animals typically seek shade and have reduced appetite. Hypersensitivity to water has been noted, and convulsions may occur following a knock to the head. Although general aversion to water is noted, some may seek water for relief.
Severe skin irritation is physically apparent, with reddening of non-pigmented and unprotected areas. This subsequently leads to itch and rubbing, followed by further inflammation, exudation, and scab formation. Lesions and inflammation that occur are said to resemble the conditions seen in foot and mouth disease. Sheep have been observed to have face swelling, dermatitis, and wool falling off due to rubbing. Lactating animals may cease or have reduced milk production; pregnant animals may abort. Lesions on udders are often apparent. Horses may show signs of anorexia, depression (with a comatose state), dilated pupils, and injected conjunctiva.
Increased respiration and heart rate is typically observed while one of the early signs of St John's wort poisoning is an abnormal increase in body temperature. Affected animals will lose weight, or fail to gain weight; young animals are more affected than old animals. In severe cases death may occur, as a direct result of starvation, or because of secondary disease or septicaemia of lesions. Some affected animals may accidentally drown. Poor performance of suckling lambs (pigmented and non-pigmented) has been noted, suggesting a reduction in the milk production, or the transmission of a toxin in the milk.
- primary photosensitisation directly from chemicals contained in ingested plants
- secondary photosensitisation from plant-associated damage to the liver.
Araya and Ford (1981) explored changes in liver function and concluded there was no evidence of Hypericum-related effect on the excretory capacity of the liver, or any interference was minimal and temporary. However, evidence of liver damage in blood plasma has been found at high and long rates of dosage.
Photosensitisation causes skin inflammation by a mechanism involving a pigment or photodynamic compound, which when activated by a certain wavelength of light leads to oxidation reactions in vivo. This leads to lesions of tissue, particularly noticeable on and around parts of skin exposed to light. Lightly covered or poorly pigmented areas are most conspicuous. Removal of affected animals from sunlight results in reduced symptoms of poisoning.
Major depressive disorder
St John's wort is widely known as a herbal treatment for depression. In Germany, it is sometimes prescribed for mild to moderate depression, especially in children and adolescents. It is proposed that the mechanism of action of St. John's wort is due to the inhibition of reuptake of certain neurotransmitters.
An analysis of twenty-nine clinical trials with more than five thousand patients was conducted by the Cochrane Collaboration. The review concluded that extracts of St John's wort were superior to placebo in patients with major depression. St John's wort had similar efficacy to standard antidepressants. Trials from German-speaking countries displayed findings that were more favorable to St. John's wort. The rate of patient drop-outs due to adverse effects was half that of newer SSRI antidepressants and one-fourth that of older tricyclic antidepressants. The report from the Cochrane Review states:
The available evidence suggests that the Hypericum extracts tested in the included trials a) are superior to placebo in patients with major depression; b) are similarly effective as standard antidepressants; and c) have fewer side-effects than standard antidepressants. The association of country of origin and precision with effects sizes complicates the interpretation.
St John's wort is generally well tolerated, with an adverse effect profile similar to placebo. Commonly reported adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and diarrhea), dizziness, confusion, fatigue, sedation, dry mouth, restlessness, and headache. The organ systems associated with adverse drug reactions to St John's wort and fluoxetine (an SSRI) have an analogous incidence profile; most of these reactions involve the central nervous system. St John's wort also decreases the levels of estrogens, such as estradiol, by speeding up its metabolism, and should not be taken by women on contraceptive pills as it upregulates the CYP3A4 cytochrome of the P450 system in the liver.
St. John's Wort has interactions with medications such as SSRI antidepressants, warfarin, and birth control. Combining both SJW and SSRI antidepressants could lead to increased serotonin levels causing serotonin syndrome. Combining estrogen containing oral contraceptives with SJW can lead to decreased efficacy of the contraceptive and eventually unplanned pregnancies. These are just a few of the drug interactions that SJW possesses. It is also known to decrease the efficacy of HIV medications, cholesterol medications, as well as transplant medications. It should be noted, however, that traditional SSRI antidepressants such as fluvoxamine carry similar contraindications.
St John's wort has been shown to cause multiple drug interactions through induction of the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP2C9, and CYP1A2 (females only). This drug-metabolizing enzyme induction results in the increased metabolism of certain drugs, leading to decreased plasma concentration and potential clinical effect. The principal constituents thought to be responsible are hyperforin and amentoflavone.
St John's wort has also been shown to cause drug interactions through the induction of the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter. Increased P-glycoprotein expression results in decreased absorption and increased clearance of certain drugs, leading to lower plasma concentration and potential clinical efficacy.
|Antiretrovirals||Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors|
|Hormonal contraception||Combined oral contraceptives|
|Immunosuppressants||Calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine, tacrolimus|
|Antiarrhythmics||Amiodarone, flecainide, mexiletine|
|Calcium channel blockers||Verapamil, diltiazem, amlodipine|
|Statins (cholesterol-reducing medications)||Lovastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin|
|Others||Digoxin, methadone, omeprazole, phenobarbital, theophylline, warfarin, levodopa, buprenorphine, irinotecan|
|Reference: Rossi, 2005; Micromedex|
In combination with other drugs that may elevate 5-HT (serotonin) levels in the central nervous system (CNS), St John's wort may contribute to serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction.
|Antidepressants||MAOIs, TCAs, SSRIs, SNRIs, mirtazapine|
|Opioids||Tramadol, pethidine (meperidine), Levorphanol|
|CNS stimulants||Phentermine, diethylpropion, amphetamines, sibutramine, cocaine|
|Psychedelic drugs||Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), LSD, Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), MDA, 6-APB|
|Others||Selegiline, tryptophan, buspirone, lithium, linezolid, 5-HTP, dextromethorphan|
Mechanism of action
St. John's wort (SJW), similarly to other herbs, contains a whole host of different chemical constituents that may be pertinent to its therapeutic effects. Hyperforin and adhyperforin, two phloroglucinol constituents of SJW, are TRPC6 receptor agonists and, consequently, they induce noncompetitive reuptake inhibition of monoamines (specifically, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin), GABA, and glutamate when they activate this ion channel. In humans, the active ingredient hyperforin is also an inhibitor of PTGS1, arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, SLCO1B1 and an inducer of cMOAT. Hyperforin is also a anti-inflammatory compound with anti-angiogenic, antibiotic, and neurotrophic properties. Hyperforin also has an antagonistic effect on NMDA receptors, a type of glutamate receptor. Moreover, SJW is known to downregulate the β1 adrenoceptor and upregulate postsynaptic 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, both of which are a type of serotonin receptor. Other compounds may also play a role in SJW's antidepressant effects such compounds include: oligomeric procyanidines, flavonoids (quercetin), hypericin, and pseudohypericin.
Detection in body fluids
Hypericin, pseudohypericin, and hyperforin may be quantitated in plasma as confirmation of usage and to estimate the dosage. These three active substituents have plasma elimination half-lives within a range of 15–60 hours in humans. None of the three has been detected in urine specimens.
- Flavonoids (e.g. epigallocatechin, rutin, hyperoside, isoquercetin, quercitrin, quercetin, amentoflavone, biapigenin, astilbin, myricetin, miquelianin, kaempferol, luteolin)
- Phenolic acids (e.g. chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid)
- Naphthodianthrones (e.g. hypericin, pseudohypericin, protohypericin, protopseudohypericin)
- Phloroglucinols (e.g. hyperforin, adhyperforin)
- Tannins (unspecified, proanthocyanidins reported)
- Volatile oils (e.g. 2-methyloctane, nonane, 2-methyldecane, undecane, α-pinene, β-pinene, α-terpineol, geraniol, myrcene, limonene, caryophyllene, humulene)
- Saturated fatty acids (e.g. isovaleric acid (3-methylbutanoic acid), myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid)
- Alkanols (e.g. 1-tetracosanol, 1-hexacosanol)
- Vitamins & their analogues (e.g. carotenoids, choline, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid)
- Miscellaneous others (e.g. pectin, β-sitosterol, hexadecane, triacontane, kielcorin, norathyriol)
The naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin along with the phloroglucinol derivative hyperforin are thought to be among the numerous active constituents. It also contains essential oils composed mainly of sesquiterpenes.
St John's wort is being studied for effectiveness in the treatment of certain somatoform disorders. Results from the initial studies are mixed and still inconclusive; some research has found no effectiveness, other research has found a slight lightening of symptoms. Further study is needed and is being performed.
A major constituent chemical, hyperforin, may be useful for treatment of alcoholism, although dosage, safety and efficacy have not been studied. Hyperforin has also displayed antibacterial properties against Gram-positive bacteria, although dosage, safety and efficacy has not been studied. Herbal medicine has also employed lipophilic extracts from St John's wort as a topical remedy for wounds, abrasions, burns, and muscle pain. The positive effects that have been observed are generally attributed to hyperforin due to its possible antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. For this reason hyperforin may be useful in the treatment of infected wounds and inflammatory skin diseases. In response to hyperforin's incorporation into a new bath oil, a study to assess potential skin irritation was conducted which found good skin tolerance of St John's wort.
Hypericin and pseudohypericin have shown both antiviral and antibacterial activities. It is believed that these molecules bind non-specifically to viral and cellular membranes and can result in photo-oxidation of the pathogens to kill them.
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Hyperforin is found in alcoholic beverages. Hyperforin is a constituent of Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) Hyperforin is a phytochemical produced by some of the members of the plant genus Hypericum, notably Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort). The structure of hyperforin was elucidated by a research group from the Shemyakin Institute of Bio-organic Chemistry (USSR Academy of Sciences in Moscow) and published in 1975. Hyperforin is a prenylated phloroglucinol derivative. Total synthesis of hyperforin has not yet been accomplished, despite attempts by several research groups. Hyperforin has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, antibiotic and anti-depressant functions (PMID 17696442 , 21751836 , 12725578 , 12018529 )
1. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase ...Specific function: Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a role in inflammatory processes ...
2. Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 ... General function: Involved in peroxidase activity
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Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of hyperforin have been described as inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 (but not COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase at low concentrations of 0.3 µmol/L and 1.2 µmol/L, respectively , and of PGE2 production in vitro  and in vivo with superior efficiency (ED50 = 1 mg/kg) compared to indomethacin (5 mg/kg) . Hyperforin turned out to be a novel type of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor with high effectivity in vivo  and suppressed oxidative bursts in polymorphonuclear cells at 1.8 µmol/L in vitro . Inhibition of IFN-γ production, strong downregulation of CXCR3 expression on activated T cells, and downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression caused Cabrelle et al.  to test the effectivity of hyperforin in a rat model of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Hyperforin attenuated the symptoms significantly, and the authors discussed hyperforin as a putative therapeutic molecule for the treatment of autoimmune inflammatory diseases sustained by Th1 cells.
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|Wikispecies has information related to: Hypericum perforatum|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hypericum perforatum.|
- "St. John's wort: MedlinePlus Supplements". U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
- Species Profile — St. Johnswort (Hypericum perforatum), National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for St John's wort.