St John the Baptist Church, Cardiff
|St John the Baptist Church|
View from Church Street
|Architectural style||Perpendicular Gothic|
|Town or city||Cardiff|
|Construction started||c. 1460s|
St John the Baptist Church is a Grade I listed parish church in Cardiff, Wales, the only church dating to pre-Medieval times in Cardiff city centre and the only medieval building other than Cardiff Castle.
Black's Picturesque Guide through Wales (1851) described St John's as "an ancient and finely proportioned edifice, with a noble quadrangular tower, surmounted by pierced battlements and four open gothic pinnacles... It is justly admired, and forms a conspicuous feature in every view of the town." The same remains true today, with good views of the church from Church Street, Trinity Street and Working Street in the city centre.
Newman describes the pinnacled west tower as a "magnificent marker". At a height of over 40 metres the tower is in four stages, faced in grey limestone ashlar with details in buff coloured Dundry stone.
The church was built in 1180 as a chapel of ease for the larger St Mary's Church, itself founded by Benedictine monks from Tewkesbury Abbey. Originally constructed of blue Lias, a Jurassic stone with layers of fossilised shells, it was sourced from Aberthaw. The walls were then originally dressed with freestone - limestone sourced from Dundry.
St John's was sacked during a rebellion of Owain Glyndŵr in 1404. The church was rebuilt in the second half of the 15th Century and given a perpendicular tower with a peal of ten bells. Today it still has a crown of openwork battlements, reminiscent of churches in the West Country of England, and is dated c.1490 because of the similar Jasper Tower of Llandaff Cathedral which was built at this time.
In 1843, John Crichton-Stuart, 2nd Marquess of Bute paid for the construction of the Church of St. Mary the Virgin and St. Stephen the Martyr in Bute Street as a permanent replacement for St Mary's. This allowed the reconstruction of St John, with extensions to the church made in 1886–1897 using carboniferous limestone quarried from Culverhouse Cross. The churchyard wall was also rebuilt, using original Lias mixed with red sandstone in the walls, topped with coping stones of Devonian sandstones from the Forest of Dean.
St John's stained glass windows date from circa 1855, in the north chapel, with references to the Bute family. Those in the north inner aisle date to 1869, by Morris & Co, with a top row of apostles designed by William Morris himself.
The church was increased in width with outer aisles added to St John's in 1889 and 1891. The old aisle windows were re-set and all the new building was re-surfaced with Sweldon limestone.
Altar and reredos done as a memorial to Lord Kitchener
- Black's Picturesque Guide through North and South Wales and Monmouthshire, Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black, 1851, p. 341
- Newman, John (1995). The Buildings of Wales: Glamorgan. Penguin Group. pp. 187, 190–1. ISBN 0-14-071056-6.
- "Church of St. John the Baptist". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2016-02-21.
- "Cardiff city and Bay circular walk". BBC Wales. Retrieved 2012-12-30.
- "The Historical Roots of Cardiff City Parish". CardiffStJohnCityParish.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-22.
- "Bute". peterfinch.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-12-30.
- "ST JOHN'S CHURCH", The Cardiff and Methyr Guardian, p. 2, Jun 28, 1851,
We hear with great satisfaction that the tender of Messrs Thomas and Norris for repewing this church has been taken. The committee of the management met on Wednesday last, and out of three tenders that were sent in accepted that of the above respectable firm, as it was £95 less than one of the two, and £101 4s. 4d. less than the other. The whole of the work is to be completed and the church reopened for Divine Service before Christmas under heavy forfeitures.
- "Church of St John The Baptist". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 2013-03-22.
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