St Mark Passion pastiche

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Cover page of manuscript source D B Mus. ms. 11471/1 for the Weimar St Mark Passion pastiche at the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (Courtesy of http://www.bach-digital.de)

The St Mark Passion pastiche were pastiches by Johann Sebastian Bach on the anonymous Hamburg St. Mark Passion formerly attributed to Reinhard Keiser, now believed to have been by Friedrich Nicolaus Bruhns.

Background[edit]

In 1754, the musician and theorist Lorenz Christoph Mizler published as an addendum in the most recent volume of his Neu eröffnete musikalische Bibliothek a series of three obituaries of recently deceased members of his Korrespondierende Sozietät der Musicalischen Wissenschaften. Amongst them was a notice penned by Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach and Johann Friedrich Agricola, both men then employed in the service of Frederick II of Prussia. Both men had been students of the subject of their article (the former being his second-eldest son, the latter starting his studies with the subject in 1741), and were therefore qualified to write his obituary. The subject of the article was Johann Sebastian Bach. As a conclusion, Emanuel Bach and Friedrich Agricola catalogued all Sebastian Bach's published and unpublished works. Amongst the latter is found the following notation:

  • "(3) Five Passions, of which one is for double chorus;".[1]

Of the aforementioned five Passions, two exist both in libretto and score forms, the St Matthew Passion (BWV 244) and the St John Passion (BWV 245). A third is only in libretto form, the St Mark Passion (BWV 247). A fourth is a manuscript copy in the hands of Johann Sebastian and Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, the St Luke Passion (BWV 246), but the authorship of the original is questionable. The identity of the fifth is still debated. Over the centuries since the obituary was written, more and more research has come to light, not only about the true extent of Bach's work, but also about his compositional style and habits. The discovery (for example) that the music for the Christmas Oratorio (BWV 248) is primarily parody music has led to a new understanding of Bach's compositional process and requirements. Further discoveries have led to the realization that Bach also at time resorted to pastiches, or adding original work to the works of others. This is about one of those cases: the pastiches on the anonymous Hamburg St. Mark Passion formerly attributed to Reinhard Keiser, now believed to have been by Friedrich Nicolaus Bruhns.

Composition[edit]

Bach held deep regard for the chief Hanseatic League cities of Hamburg and Lübeck throughout his life. In his mid and late teen years, he had opportunities to visit both cities while a student at St. Michael's Church School, Lüneburg (a period from 1700–1702). From November 1705 to February 1706, he again made the trip north from Arnstadt to Lübeck (and possibly to Hamburg as well). He again visited Hamburg in 1720 to try out for the position of Organist at the Jakobikirche, a visit during which he won the rarely afforded praise of the aged Johann Adam Reincken. It is possible that he became acquainted with a work during his earlier visits to Hamburg that would occupy a central place in his musical library for the rest of his life. The work in question was a setting of the St. Mark Passion written during the early part of the 18th century. This work (outside of Bach's own copy and his pastiches) has come down to us in two other forms: an anonymous manuscript score in Hamburg and a copied score in the county of Hohenstein, Thuringia. Since the work is anonymous, many scholars had come to believe (based on stylistic considerations) that the work was by the one-time Kapellmeister of the Hamburg Opera, Reinhard Keiser. However, based on the discovery of a libretto book dated around 1707, scholars now assign authorship of the work to Friedrich Nicolaus Bruhns, the music director of the Hamburg Cathedral from 1685 to 1718 and uncle of Nikolaus Bruhns, the favorite pupil of Dietrich Buxtehude.[2]

Weimar, 1710–1714[edit]

No evidence exists that Bach was required (in his official duties) to provide Passion music for his early posts in Weimar (1703), Arnstadt (1703–1707), Mühlhausen (1707–1708), and Weimar (1708–1717). However, he did receive requests to do so on two occasions: once on commission by Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (resulting in the so-called Weimarer Passion (BWV deest, BC D 1), and another resulting in the work in question.

The origins of the commission for this work (BWV deest, BC D 5a) are unknown. All documentary material for Bach's time in Weimar during this period (1708–1717) were destroyed in a 1774 fire that consumed the palace that Bach was employed in during this period, the Wilhelmsburg.[3] The only evidence that has come down is a set of parts used in performance now housed in the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin.

There are many questions still surrounding this work. Many scholars question whether the set of parts that we have are complete. Even the dating is questionable. Originally, scholars assigned the dating to Good Friday (14 April) 1713,[4] but is now put down to Good Friday (25 March) 1712 or even a year or two earlier.,[5] or even Good Friday (30 March) 1714[6]

In total, there are three manuscript sets that have come down to us for this work. One is in the form of a 57-page score in the hand of Wilhelm Rust which bears the title "Dr. Rust / Passion / nach dem Evangelium / St. Marcus / componirt / von ?" and on page 2 "Passion nach dem Ev. Marcus / Aus J. S. Bach's größtentheils eigenhändig geschriebenen Stimmen / in Partitur gesetzt / von / Dr. Wilhelm Rust, Cantor zu St. Thomas / in Leipzig". This is housed at the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin under the Catalogue number D B N. Mus. ms. 10624. Another has come down to us in the form of a 31-page set of parts dating from 1710–1712 in the hands of Bach, Johann Martin Schubart, and Anonymous Weimar III. The title page of this one bears the inscription "Passion Christi / secundum Marcum [korrigiert aus Matthäum] / à 5 Strom 4 Voci / di Sigre / R. Kaiser." in the hand of Christian Gottlob Meißner. Upon Bach's death, it passed into possession of Emanuel Bach, at whose death it was purchased (among other Bachiana) by Georg Pölchau, from whom it went into the possession of the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (with Catalogue number D B Mus. ms. 11471/1 and 2). A third one has come down to us in the form of a 45-page set of parts dating from 1713 in the hands of Bach, Anonymous Weimar I, Johann Heinrich Bach, Anonymous Weimar III, and Christian Gottlob Meißner. The title page of this one bears the inscription "Passion Christi / secundum Marcum [korrigiert aus Matthäum] / à 5 Strom 4 Voci / di Sigre / R. [korr. aus?] Kaiser." This set of parts came into Emanuel Bach's possession after Sebastian's death, and followed the same fate as the one above. It is housed at the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin under Catalogue number D B Mus. ms. 11471/1.

All three sources remain possibly incomplete. Whether any of the sources mentioned above represent the original form of the work is also doubtful. Even instrumentation is questionable. The oboe solo part required for some of the movements is included in the violin I part, which means that it is possible that the violin I player(s) were intended to be used for these parts as well, or that possibly the oboe parts are missing (meaning that there were one or even two oboe players intended for the work). Also noticeably missing is a figured organ part, a bassoon part, a violoncello part, and a part for viol. The lack of an organ part has been variously explained by the fact that from the middle of 1712 until, probably, 1714, the Organ of the Weimar Schloßkirche (the Himmelsburg) was being renovated.[7]

Modern editions of this work include the two Bach movements in the Neue Bach-Ausgabe volume II/9, work 7, and by Carus-Verlag.

Text and scoring for BC D 5a[edit]

The author of the libretto for this work is unknown. The work is in 32 movements:

  1. Sonata and Chorus: Jesus Christus ist um unser Missetat willen verwundet
  2. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus, Petrus): Und da sie den Lobgesang gesprochen hatten
  3. Aria (soprano, basso continuo): Will dich die Angst betreten
  4. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus): Und nahm zu sich Petrus und Jakobus und Johannes
  5. Chorale: Was mein Gott will, das g'scheh allzeit
  6. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus): Und kam und fand sie schlafend
    Recitative (Evangelist, Judas): Und alsbald, da er noch redet
  7. Aria (tenor, violins, continuo): Wenn nun der Leib wird sterben müssen
  8. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus): Die aber legten ihre Hände an ihn
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und die Jünger verließen ihn alle und flohen
    Chorus: Wir haben gehöret
    Recitative (Evangelist, Hohenpriester, Jesus): Aber ihr Zeugnis stimmet noch nicht überein
    Chorus: Weissage uns!
    Recitative (Evangelist, Magd, Petrus): Und die Knechte schlugen ihn in's Angesicht
    Chorus: Wahrlich, du bist der einer
    Recitative (Evangelist, Petrus): Er aber fing an sich zu verfluchen und zu schwören
  9. Aria (tenor, violins, continuo): Wein, ach wein jetzt um die Wette
  10. Sinfonia
  11. Recitative (Evangelist, Pilatus, Jesus): Und Bald am Morgen
  12. Aria (alto, violins, continuo): Klaget nur, ihr Kläger hier
  13. Recitative (Evangelist, Pilatus): Jesus aber antwortete nichts mehr
    Chorus: Kreuzige ihn!
    Recitative (Evangelist, Pilatus): Pilatus aber sprach zu ihnen
    Chorus: Kreuzige ihn!
  14. Chorale: O hilf Christe, Gottes Sohn
  15. Sinfonia
  16. Recitative (Evangelist): Pilatus aber gedachte
    Chorus: Gegrüßet seist du
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und schlugen ihm das Haupt mit dem Rohr
  17. Aria (bass (voice type), violins, continuo): O süßes Kreuz
  18. Recitative (Evangelist): Und sie brachten ihn an die Stätte Golgatha
  19. Aria (soprano, oboe or violin I, continuo): O Golgotha!
  20. Recitative (Evangelist): Und da sie ihn gekreuziget hatten
  21. Aria (alto, continuo): Was seh' ich hier
  22. Recitative (Evangelist): Und es war oben über ihm geschrieben
    Chorus: Pfui dich* [*Textvariante: Seht doch]
    Recitative (Evangelist): Desselbengleichen die Hohenpriester
    Chorus: Er hat anderen geholfen
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und die mit ihm gekreuzigte waren
    Arioso (Jesus): Eli, Eli, lama asabthani?
    Recitative (Evangelist): Das ist verdolmetschet
    Chorus: Siehe, er rufet den Elias.
    Recitative (Evangelist, Kriegsknecht): Da lief einer
  23. Chorale (alto, continuo): Wenn ich einmal soll scheiden
  24. Aria (soprano, tenor, violins, continuo): Seht, Menschenkinder, seht
  25. Sinfonia
  26. Recitative (Evangelist, Hauptmann): Und der Vorhang im Tempel zeriß in zwei Stück
  27. Aria (alto, violins, violas, continuo): Dein Jesus hat das Haupt geneiget
  28. Recitative (Evangelist): Und er kaufte eine Leinwand
  29. Chorale: O Traurigkeit
  30. Chorale: O selig ist
  31. Chorale: O Jesu du
  32. Chorale: Amen.[8]

The libretto has the Biblical text interspersed with free verse and chorale texts. The chorale texts are taken from "Was mein Gott will, das g'scheh allzeit" by Albert, Duke of Prussia (verse 1), "Christus, der uns selig macht" by Michael Weiße (Verse 8), "O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden" by Paul Gerhardt (verses 9 and 10), and "O Traurigkeit, o Herzeleid" by Johann Rist. Unlike Bach's later Passion works, there is no division of the work into two parts. Christian Friedrich Henrici, the man who would later provide Bach with many of his cantata and oratorio texts, would use the text for Movement 9 (slightly altered) in one of his own collections (entitled Sammlung Erbaulicher Gedanken über und auf die gewöhnlichen Sonn- u. Fest-Tage, in gebundener Schreib-Art entworffen). The two Bach additions (Movements 14 and 29) are catalogued as BWV deest serie II: 02 and 03.

The work is scored for a very small ensemble. However, not have all the parts used may be extant. It is possible that there were two oboes used in the performance; they may have also (in addition to Movement 19) been used in the Choral parts and the Sinfonias. As it is now, it is scored for:SATB soloists and choir, two violins, two violas, and basso continuo.

About orchestration, Bach wrote in 1730 a little tract entitled "Kurtzer, iedoch höchstnöthiger Entwurff einer wohlbestallten Kirchen Music; nebst einigem unvorgreiflichen Bedenkken von dem Verfall derselben." ("Short, but most Necessary Draft on a well-regulated Church Music, with some modest Thoughts on the Decline of the same"). In it, he stated both the ideal size of church choirs and orchestras and those he were dealing with at the time (in Leipzig). He suggested that an ideal choir would consist of 1–2 singers per part (or 4–8 total singers), while he was typically dealing with 12–16 per part. He also states that a well-regulated church music would be performed by:

2 or even 3 for the Violino I, 2 or 3 for the Violino II, 2 for the Viola I, 2 for the Viola II, 2 for the Violoncello, 1 for the Violone, 2, or, if the piece requires it, 3, for the Hautbois (Oboe), 1, or even 2, for the Basson (Bassoon), 3 for the Trompeten (Trumpets), and 1 for the Pauken (Timpani), for a total of 18 persons at least. [He also stated that if the piece required it, there would be 2 Flute players.][9]

So for a work such as this one, he would need three violin I, three violin II, two viola I, two viola II, two violoncelli, one violon, two oboes, two bassoons, and harpsichord (as the harmony instrument in the continuo), and two sopranos, two altos, two tenors, and two basses in the choir and the same amount as the concertino for the solo voice parts.

Leipzig 1726 (BC D 5b)[edit]

Nearly three years into his post as "Cantor (church) of the Thomasschule zu Leipzig and Directoris Chori musici in Leipzig",[10] Sebastian Bach ran into a quandary. He had begun and nearly completed a score for a St Matthew Passion, a project which he began in 1725 but put aside for a revival of his St John Passion, when he again for some unknown reason set aside the project (he would complete it and first perform his St Matthew Passion on 11 April 1727). Instead he decided to revive his Weimar pastiche. This work was performed on 19 April 1726. For this work, he changed two movements (Nos. 14 and 29 of the Weimar work) and, to fit it to the Church Ordinance for Good Friday Vespers services in Leipzig, he split it into two parts by adding a chorale. The violin I part for this work (BWV deest, BC D 5b) is missing in all his new additions (and has been reconstructed), but on the whole, the parts are more complete. This work has come down to us in the form of a vocal score and parts set dating from before 1726 in the hands of Johann Sebastian Bach, Christian Gottlob Meißner, and Johann Heinrich Bach, and is currently stored in the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin under the Catalogue number D B Mus. ms. 11471/2. The title page (like the Weimar one) reads "Passion Christi / secundum Marcum [korrigiert aus Matthäum] / à 5 Strom 4 Voci / di Sigre / R. Kaiser." The text goes as follows:

Prima Parte

  1. Sonata and Chorus: Jesus Christus ist um unser Missetat willen verwundet
  2. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus, Petrus): Und da sie den Lobgesang gesprochen hatten
  3. Aria (soprano, basso continuo): Will dich die Angst betreten
  4. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus): Und nahm zu sich Petrus und Jakobus und Johannes
  5. Chorale: Was mein Gott will, das g'scheh allzeit
  6. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus): Und kam und fand sie schlafend
    Recitative (Evangelist, Judas): Und alsbald, da er noch redet
  7. Aria (tenor, violins, continuo): Wenn nun der Leib wird sterben müssen
  8. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus): Die aber legten ihre Hände an ihn
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und die Jünger verließen ihn alle und flohen
    Chorus: Wir haben gehöret
    Recitative (Evangelist, Hohenpriester, Jesus): Aber ihr Zeugnis stimmet noch nicht überein
    Chorus: Weissage uns!
    Recitative (Evangelist, Magd, Petrus): Und die Knechte schlugen ihn in's Angesicht
    Chorus: Wahrlich, du bist der einer
    Recitative (Evangelist, Petrus): Er aber fing an sich zu verfluchen und zu schwören
  9. Aria (tenor, violins, continuo): Wein, ach wein jetzt um die Wette
    Chorale: So gehst du nun, mein Jesus, hin, Violino I vermutlich verschollen, und zu rekonstruieren

Seconda Parte

  1. Sinfonia
  2. Recitative (Evangelist, Pilatus, Jesus): Und Bald am Morgen
  3. Aria (alto, violins, continuo): Klaget nur, ihr Kläger hier
  4. Recitative (Evangelist, Pilatus): Jesus aber antwortete nichts mehr
    Chorus: Kreuzige ihn!
    Recitative (Evangelist, Pilatus): Pilatus aber sprach zu ihnen
    Chorus: Kreuzige ihn!
  5. Chorale: O hilf Christe, Gottes Sohn Sart 14a ersetzt den Satz 14 der Weimarer Fassung 1712/1713 in den Fassungen von 1726 bzw. ca. 1745–1748. Violino I vermutlich verschollen, und zu rekonstruieren
  6. Sinfonia
  7. Recitative (Evangelist): Pilatus aber gedachte
    Chorus: Gegrüßet seist du
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und schlugen ihm das Haupt mit dem Rohr
  8. Aria (bass, violins, continuo): O süßes Kreuz
  9. Recitative (Evangelist): Und sie brachten ihn an die Stätte Golgatha
  10. Aria (soprano, oboe or violin I, continuo): O Golgotha!
  11. Recitative (Evangelist): Und da sie ihn gekreuziget hatten
  12. Aria (alto, continuo): Was seh' ich hier
  13. Recitative (Evangelist): Und es war oben über ihm geschrieben
    Chorus: Pfui dich* [*Textvariante: Seht doch]
    Recitative (Evangelist): Desselbengleichen die Hohenpriester
    Chorus: Er hat anderen geholfen
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und die mit ihm gekreuzigte waren
    Arioso (Jesus): Eli, Eli, lama asabthani?
    Recitative (Evangelist): Das ist verdolmetschet
    Chorus: Siehe, er rufet den Elias.
    Recitative (Evangelist, Kriegsknecht): Da lief einer
  14. Chorale (alto, continuo): Wenn ich einmal soll scheiden
  15. Aria (soprano, violins, continuo): Seht, Menschenkinder, seht
    Aria (tenore, violins, continuo): Der Fürst der Welt erbleicht
  16. Sinfonia
  17. Recitative (Evangelist, Hauptmann): Und der Vorhang im Tempel zeriß in zwei Stück
  18. Aria (alto, violins, violas, continuo): Dein Jesus hat das Haupt geneiget
  19. Recitative (Evangelist): Und er kaufte eine Leinwand
  20. Chorale: O Traurigkeit 1726 und ca. 1745–1748 statt in Halbe in Viertel notiert.
  21. Chorale: O selig ist
  22. Chorale: O Jesu du
  23. Chorale: Amen.[11]

Like the Weimar work, this work also was scored for SATB soloists and choir, oboes I/II, violins I/II, violas I/II, and basso continuo. Like the Weimar work, the oboes were also included in the Choral and Sinfonia sections. However, the parts this time also included a figured organ part. In two of the three new additions (Movements 10 and 15), the first violin part is missing and has been reconstructed. Of the new additions (Movements 10, 15, and 30), Alfred Dürr noted that the bass line of Movement 10 mirrored exactly the bass line of the sacred song from the Musicalisches Gesangbuch G.C. Schemelli, So gehst du nun, mein Jesus, hin BWV 500 (it is included in the BWV catalogue as BWV 500a).[12][13] Movement 15 was used as a replacement of Movement 14 of BC D 5a, and is catalogued as BWV 1084 (no BC number yet) and is also marked alla breve as is its predecessor, but instead of half notes as the main beat, the quarter note gets the main beat. Movement 30 was used to replace Movement 29 of BC D 5a, and is catalogued as BWV deest serie II: 04 (similar case as far as notation to Movement 15).

Modern editions include the three Bach movements in NBA II/9, work 8 and Carus-Verlag (the new movements in the Appendix, the rest being the same as the Weimar work in the main body).

Leipzig 1747–1748 (BC D 5)[edit]

Cover page of manuscript source D B N Mus. ms. 468 Harpsichord part for the 2nd Leipzig St Mark Passion pastiche at the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (Courtesy of http://www.bach-digital.de)

Bach again revived this pastiche on either 31 April 1747 (at the St. Nicholas Church, Leipzig) or 12 April 1748 (at the St. Thomas Church, Leipzig). Of all the pastiches, this one was the most complex and involved. In many ways, it was more a true pastiche than the previous two were. In addition to his own music (two movements), Bach incorporated seven Arias from George Frideric Handel's Brockes Passion HWV 48 into the original. This work (BWV deest (Serie II: 005), BC D 5) has come down only in two forms. One is a complete harpsichord part of 10 pages dating from between 1743 and 1748 housed at the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin under Catalogue number D B N. Mus. ms. 468. This part is written in the hands of Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (notes), Johann Sebastian Bach (figures), and Wilhelm Rust (title page). Its title page reads "Marcus-Passion / angeblich von R: Keiser" and underneath this "NB enthält 6 Arien aus der Brockes'schen / Passion von Händel". After Bach's death, it came into possession of an unknown individual, from whom it entered into possession of Wilhelm Rust, whose heir Maria Rust next took possession of it. It then entered into the possession of an A. Martin in Weimar, from whence it entered into (in succession) the possessions of an A. Thiele and then B. Thiele (also in Weimar), from whence it entered into the possession of the Antiquarian Bookshop of Joseph Abraham Stargardt in Berlin, from whence it entered into the possession of the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin in 1987.

The other source material is a one-page fragment of the Bassoon I part of the Aria "Was Wunder, daß der Sonnen Pracht" from Handel's HWV 48 in the hand of Johann Sebastian Bach dating from between 1743 and 1748. This part followed pretty much the same path as the part above, however after it came into possession of B. Thiele, it next entered into possession of C. Thiele in Kiel. It is marked under catalogue number Privatbesitz C. Thiele, BWV deest (Serie II: 005).

The text for this work is as follows:

Prima Parte

  1. Sonata and Chorus: Jesus Christus ist um unser Missetaten willen verwundet
  2. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus, Petrus): Und da sie den Lobgesang gesprochen hatten
  3. Aria (soprano, continuo): Will dich die Angst betreten
  4. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus): Und nahm zu sich Petrus und Jakobus und Johannes
  5. Aria (soprano, oboe, continuo): Sünder, schaut mit Furcht und Zagen
  6. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus): Und kam und fand sie schlafend
    Recitative (Evangelist, Judas): Und alsbald, da er noch redet
  7. Aria (tenor, violins, continuo): Wenn nun der Leib wird sterben müssen
  8. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus): Die aber legten ihre Hände an ihn
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und die Jünger verließen ihn alle und flohen
    Chorus: Wir haben gehöret
    Recitative (Evangelist, Hohenpriester, Jesus): Aber ihr Zeugnis stimmet noch nicht überein
    Aria (tenor, oboes, violins, continuo): Erwäg, ergrimmte Natternbruth HWV 48/23Eingefügte Arie aus Händels Brockes-Passion
    Recitative (Evangelist): Da fingen an etliche ihn zu verspeien
    Chorus: Weissage uns!
    Recitative (Evangelist, Magd, Petrus): Und die Knechte schlugen ihn ins Angesicht
    Chorus: Wahrlich, du bist der einer
    Recitative (Evangelist, Petrus): Er aber fing an sich zu verfluchen und zu schwören
  9. Aria (tenor, violins in unison, continuo): Wein, ach wein jetzt um die Wette
    Chorale: So gehst du nun mein Jesus, hin Violino I vermutlich verschollen, und zu rekonstruieren.

Seconda Parte

  1. <li value="10"Sinfonia
  2. Recitative (Evangelist, Pilatus, Jesus): Und Bald am Morgen hielten die Hohenpriester einen Rat
  3. Aria (alto, violins, continuo): Klaget nur, ihr Kläger hier
  4. Recitative (Evangelist, Pilatus): Jesus aber antwortete nichts mehr
    Chorus: Kreuzige Ihn!
    Recitative (Evangelist, Pilatus): Pilatus aber sprach zu ihnen
    Chorus: Kreuzige Ihn!
  5. Chorale: O hilf, Christe, Gottes Sohn Satz 14a ersetzt den Satz 14 der Weimarer Fassung 1712/1713 in den Fassungen von 1726 bzw. ca. 1745–1748. Violino I vermutlich verschollen, und zu rekonstruieren
  6. Sinfonia
  7. Recitative (Evangelist): Pilatus aber gedachte dem Volk genug zu tun
    Chorus: Gegrüßet seist du
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und schlugen ihm das Haupt mit dem Rohr
  8. Aria (bass, violins, violas, continuo): O süßes Kreuz
  9. Recitative (Evangelist): Und sie brachten ihn an die Stätte Golgatha
  10. Aria and Chorus (soprano solo, choir, violins, continuo): Eilt, iht angefochtnen Seelen HWV 48/41 Eingefügte Arie aus Händels Brockes-Passion als Esatz für die Arie 19 "O Golgatha"
  11. Recitative (Evangelist): Und da sie ihn gekreuziget hatten
  12. Aria (soprano, oboes, violins, viola, continuo): Hier erstarrt mein Herz in Blut HWV 48/44 Eingefügte Arie aus Händels Brockes-Passion, als Ersatz für die Arie "Was sehe ich hier"
  13. Recitative (Evangelist): Und es war oben über ihm geschrieben
    Chorus: Pfui dich* [*Textvariante: Seht doch]
    Recitative (Evangelist): Desselbengleichen die Hohenpriester verspotteten ihn untereinander
    Chorus: Er hat anderen geholfen
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und die mit ihm gekreuzigte waren
    Aria (soprano, violins, bassoons, continuo): Was Wunder, das der Sonnen Pracht HWV 48/48 Eingefügte Arie aus Händels Brockes-Passion
    Arioso (Jesus): Eli, Eli, lama asabthani?
    Recitative (Evangelist): Das ist verdolmetschet
    Chorus: Siehe, er rufet den Elias.
    Recitative (Evangelist, Kriegsknecht): Und da lief einer
  14. Chorale (alto, continuo): Wenn ich einmal soll scheiden
  15. Aria (soprano, violins, continuo): Seht Menschenkinder, seht
    Aria (tenore, violins, continuo): Der Fürst der Welt erbleicht
  16. Sinfonia
  17. Recitative (Evangelist, Hauptmann): Und der Vorhang im Tempel zeriß in zwei Stück
    Aria (bass, violins, continuo): Wie kömmt's, daß, da der Himml weint HWV 48/52 Eingefügte Arie aus Händels Brockes-Passion
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und es waren auch Weiber da
  18. Aria (alto, violins, violas, continuo): Dein Jesus hat das Haupt geneiget
  19. Recitative (Evangelist): Und er kaufte eine Leinwand
  20. Aria (soprano, oboes, violins, continuo): Wisch ab der Tränen scharfe Lauge HWV 48/55 Eingefügte Arie aus Händels Brockes-Passion, als Ersatz für den Choral "O Traurigkeit, o Herzeleid"
  21. Chorale: O selig ist
  22. Chorale: O Jesu du
  23. Chorale: Amen.[14]

The instrumentation is for a larger ensemble: SATB soloists and choir, oboe I/II, bassoon I/II, violin I/II, viola I/II, and basso continuo.

Modern editions of this work include a facsimile reproduction in NBA II/9, work 9, a full score that could be ordered from the Kantorei St. Mauritius Hardegsen website, and a full score and keyboard reduction/vocal score that appeared in 2012 from Carus-Verlag (in conjunction with Bach-Archiv Leipzig).

Recordings[edit]

All three works have been recorded. The first work (BC D 5a) was recorded on the Edition Chrismon label (Catalogue number 2035) and features Tenor [Evangelist]: Georg Poplutz, Soprano: Jutta von Landsberg [Arias & Chorus]; Soprano: Anke Briegel; Counter-tenor: Kerry Jago; Counter-tenor: Henning Voss; Tenor: Jörn Lindemann; Tenor: Birger Radde; Bass: Markus Flaig; and Bass: Tilli Schutze (?), with Capella Sancti Georgi and Musica Alta Ripa conducted by Ralf Popken.

There is only one recording of the second work (BC D 5b) recorded on the Con Affetto label featuring Tenor [Evangelist]: Daniel-Leo Meier; Bass [Jesus]: Nicolas Fink; Boy Soprano: Simeon Haefliger (soloist from Luzerner Knabenkantorei); Counter-tenor: Urs Weibel; Tenor: Sebastian Lipp, Brian Dean, Sabine Hochstrasser (Violins); Brigitte Gasser, Brian Franklin (Viola da gamba); Monika Hasselbach (Violoncello); Kiri Ivanov (Contrabass); and Mutsumi Ueno (Organ), with the Luzerner Knabenkantorei and Instrumentalists from Collegium Musicum Luzern conducted by Eberhard Rex.

Finally, there is thus far only one recording of the final work (a live recording) featuring Yu Jost, Soprano (Maid), Dorothee Wohlgemuth, Soprano (Arias), Michael Leib, Alto (Arias, Judas, High Priest, Soldier, Centurion), Jörn Lindemann, Tenor (Arias, Evangelist), Samuel Hasselhorn, Tenor (Petrus), Benjamin Hasselhorn, Tenor (Pilatus), Falk Joost, Bass (Jesus), and Ralf Grobe, Bass (Arias), with Kantorei St. Mauritius Hardegsen and Telemannisches Collegium Michaelstein conducted by Gerhard Ropeter.

References[edit]

  1. ^ David, Hans T. and Arthur Mendel. The New Bach Reader: A Life of Johann Sebastian Bach in Letters and Documents. Rev. by Christoph Wolff. New York: W W Norton and Company, 1998. p. 304
  2. ^ Melamed, Daniel R. and Reginald R. Sanders. "Zum Text und Kontext der 'Keiser'-Markuspassion". Bach-Jahrbuch 85 (1999). pp. 35–50.
  3. ^ Wolff, Christoph. Johann Sebastian Bach: The Learned Musician. New York: W W Norton and Company, 2000. p. 134.
  4. ^ Glöckner, Andreas. "Johann Sebastian Bachs Aufführungen zeitgenösischer Passionsmusiken". Bach-Jahrbuch 63 (1977). p. 77.
  5. ^ Wolff, p. 134.
  6. ^ Oxford Composer Companion to Bach.
  7. ^ Glöckner, Andreas. "Johann Sebastian Bachs Aufführungen zeitgenösischer Passionsmusiken". Bach-Jahrbuch 63(1977). p. 77.
  8. ^ Grob, Jochem. Text-, Liedvorlagen, Bibelkonkordanzen und Besetzungsangaben zu den geistlichen Kantaten, Oratorien & Passionen Johann Sebastian Bachs. Taken 22 February 2011 from http://www.s-line.de/homepages/bachdiskographie/kaneins/geistliche_kantaten_eins_frame.html.
  9. ^ David, Hans T. and Arthur Mendel. p. 146.
  10. ^ Bach was elected to the post on 5 May and officially began his duties on 30 May 1723.
  11. ^ Grob, Jochem. Text-, Liedvorlagen, Bibelkonkordanzen und Besetzungsangaben zu den geistlichen Kantaten, Oratorien & Passionen Johann Sebastian Bachs. Taken 22 February 2011 from http://www.s-line.de/homepages/bachdiskographie/kaneins/geistliche_kantaten_eins_frame.html.
  12. ^ Alfred Dürr. Im Mittelpunkt Bach. Ausgewählte Aufsätze und Vorträge, ed. by Kollegium des Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Instituts Göttingen. Kassel 1988. pp. 1–14.
  13. ^ Dürr, Alfred. "Zu den verschollenen Passionen Bachs". Bach-Jahrbuch 35 (1949–50). pp. 81–99.
  14. ^ Grob, Jochem. Text-, Liedvorlagen, Bibelkonkordanzen und Besetzungsangaben zu den geistlichen Kantaten, Oratorien & Passionen Johann Sebastian Bachs. Taken 22 February 2011 from http://www.s-line.de/homepages/bachdiskographie/kaneins/geistliche_kantaten_eins_frame.html