St Mark Passion (attributed to Keiser)

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Cover page of D-B Mus. ms. 11471/1, a composite manuscript containing parts Johann Sebastian Bach used for his Weimar and first Leipzig performances of the "Keiser" St Mark Passion

Jesus Christus ist um unsrer Missetat willen verwundet is a St Mark Passion which originated in the early 18th century and is most often attributed to Reinhard Keiser. It may also have been composed by his father Gottfried or by Friedrich Nicolaus Bruhns. Johann Sebastian Bach produced three performance versions of the Passion, the last of which is a pasticcio with arias from George Frideric Handel's Brockes Passion. There are two other extant 18th-century versions of the Passion, both of them independent of Bach's versions. The Passion was performed in at least three cities in the first half of the 18th century: in Hamburg in 1707 and 1711, in Weimar around 1712, and in Leipzig in 1726 and around 1747.

History[edit]

The passion was probably composed around 1705 by Gottfried Keiser,[1] by his son Reinhard,[2] or by Friedrich Nicolaus Bruhns.[3][4] The 18th-century scores of the composition don't always indicate a composer, but the name of Reinhard Keiser or "Kaiser" is found there.[1] The work can also be considered as an anonymous composition.[5] The music of this passion is known from Bach's three versions, from an anonymous manuscript score that originated in or around Hamburg, and from another anonymous manuscript score that is conserved in the county of Hohenstein, Thuringia. No libretto author for the original work is known. Also for the later arrangements text authors are largely unknown, except for the pasticcio parts by Handel based on the Brockes Passion by Barthold Heinrich Brockes.

1707–1714: Hamburg and Weimar[edit]

The oldest record of Jesus Christus ist um unsrer Missetat willen verwundet is a staging in the Cathedral (Dom) of Hamburg in 1707. Shortly before the end of the 20th century a printed libretto of that performance, and that of a repeat performance in 1711, were rediscovered.[6] These performances were directed by Friedrich Nicolaus Bruhns (also spelled: Brauns), the music director of the Hamburg Cathedral from 1685 to 1718, hence the association of the Passion setting with this composer.[7] Possibly the versions performed in Hamburg in 1707 and 1711 were adapted from an earlier lost version, maybe not even composed for Hamburg. The earliest extant copy of the music of the Passion was produced by Johann Sebastian Bach for performance in Weimar around 1712.[4] Which model was used by Bach is not known: it may have differred from the scores used in Hamburg. Bach's adjustments to the score he had before him were probably minor.

The libretto has the Biblical text interspersed with free verse and chorale texts. The chorale texts are taken from "Was mein Gott will, das g'scheh allzeit" by Albert, Duke of Prussia (verse 1), "Christus, der uns selig macht" by Michael Weiße (Verse 8), "O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden" by Paul Gerhardt (verses 9 and 10), and "O Traurigkeit, o Herzeleid" by Johann Rist. Unlike Passions for instance written for Leipzig, there is no division of the work into two parts.

Voices:[8]

  • Evangelist: tenor
  • Jesus: bass
  • Peter: tenor
  • Judas: alto
  • High priest: alto
  • Ancilla (servant): soprano
  • Pilate: tenor
  • Soldier: alto
  • Centurion: alto
  • Solo arias for soprano, for alto, for tenor and for bass
  • Choir: SATB

Orchestra:[8]

  • Strings:
    • Violins I and II
    • Violas I and II
  • Oboe (or Violin) for Aria No. 30
  • Basso continuo (cello/bass; organ/harpsichord)

1707/1711 Hamburg version[edit]

The original version of the Passion would have been composed around 1705. Its first Hamburg performance took place in the Cathedral in 1707, under the direction of Bruhns, who also concucted the Hamburg performance of 1711.[9]

Bach's Weimar version[edit]

Bach's first version, BC 5a, originated in the early 1710s in Weimar.[1][10] Whether he changed anything to the original is uncertain, but the arrangement of the "O hilf, Christe, Gottes Sohn" and "O Traurigkeit, o Herzeleid" chorales is usually attributed to him. Possibly he also composed the first "sinfonia" (No. 10 [18]), which is only found in Bach's versions.

Bach's Leipzig versions[edit]

Bach performed Jesus Christus ist um unsrer Missetat willen verwundet twice in a Good Friday service in Leipzig.

1726[edit]

Bach staged the passion in a new version, BC 5b, in 1726 in Leipzig.[11][12][13] The order of service in Leipzig requested passions in two parts: apparently for this reason Bach added the chorale "So gehst du nun, mein Jesu", BWV 500a, as a conclusion for the first part. In this version he also slightly modified the "O hilf, Christe, Gottes Sohn" and "O Traurigkeit, o Herzeleid" chorale settings.

Late 1740s[edit]

Bach combined the passion with seven arias from Handel's Brockes Passion for a new performance around 1747. Some of these arias replaced movements of the preceding version, other arias were inserted without replacing earlier material. This pasticcio version is known as BNB I/K/2.[14]

Original version compared with Bach's three versions (green background:) appears without discernable modifications in all four versions
Movement Voices Instr. Hamburg 1707 BC D 5a[8] BC D 5b[8] BNB I/K/2[15]
Sonata and Chorus choir Str Bc 1. Jesus Christus ist um unser Missetat willen verwundet → 1 → 1 → 1 (+Ob I/II)
Recitative Evangelist, Jesus, Peter Str Bc 2. Und da sie den Lobgesang gesprochen hatten → 2 → 2 → 2
Aria soprano Bc 3. Will dich die Angst betreten → 3 → 3 → 3
Recitative Evangelist, Jesus Str Bc 4. Und nahm zu sich Petrus und Jakobus und Johannes → 4 → 4 → 4
Chorale choir Str Bc 5. Was mein Gott will, das g'scheh allzeit → 5 → 5
Aria soprano Ob Bc 5. Sünder, schaut mit Furcht und Zagen, HWV 48/9
Recitative Evangelist, Jesus Str Bc 6. Und kam und fand sie schlafend → 6a [6] → 6a [6] → 6a
Recitative Evangelist, Judas Bc 7. Und alsbald, da er noch redet → 6b [7] → 6b [7] → 6b
Aria tenor Vl I/II Bc 8. Wenn nun der Leib wird sterben müssen → 7 [8] → 7 [8] → 7
Recitative Evangelist, Jesus Str Bc 9. Die aber legten ihre Hände an ihn → 8a [9] → 8a [9] → 8a
Recitative Evangelist Bc 10. Und die Jünger verließen ihn alle und flohen → 8b [10] → 8b [10] → 8b
Chorus choir Str Bc 11. Wir haben gehöret, daß er saget → 8c [11] → 8c [11] → 8c
Recitative Evangelist, High priest, Jesus Str Bc 12. Aber ihr Zeugnis stimmet noch nicht überein → 8d [12] → 8d [12] → 8d
Aria tenor Vl I/II Bc 9. Erwäg, ergrimmte Natternbruth, HWV 48/23
Recitative Evangelist Bc (12 continued) → (8d [12] continued) → (8d [12] continued) → 10a Da fingen an etliche ihn zu verspeien
Chorus choir Str Bc 13. Weissage uns! → 8e [13] → 8e [13] → 10b (+ Ob I/II)
Recitative Evangelist, Ancilla, Peter Bc 14. Und die Knechte schlugen ihn in's Angesicht → 8f [14] → 8f [14] → 10c
Chorus choir Str Bc 15. Wahrlich, du dist der' einer → 8g [15] → 8g [15] → 10d (+ Ob I/II)
Recitative Evangelist, Petrus Bc 16. Er aber fing an sich zu verfluchen und zu schwören → 8h [16] → 8h [16] → 10e
Aria tenor Vl I/II Bc 17. Wein, ach wein jetzt um die Wette → 9 [17] → 9 [17] → 11
Chorale choir Str Bc 9+. So gehst du nun, mein Jesu, BWV 500a (BDW 0571) → 12 (+Vl solo Ob I/II)
Sinfonia Vl I/II Va Bc 18. → 10 [18] → 10 [18] → 13
Recitative Evangelist, Pilate, Jesus Bc 19. Und Bald am Morgen → 11 [19] → 11 [19] → 14
Aria alto Vl I/II Bc 20. Klaget nur, ihr Kläger hier → 12 [20] → 12 [20] → 15
Recitative Evangelist, Pilate Bc 21. Jesus aber antwortete nichts mehr → 13a [21] → 13a [21] → 16a
Chorus choir Str Bc 22.1 Kreuzige ihn! → 13b [22] → 13b [22] → 16b (+Ob I/II)
Recitative Evangelist, Pilate Bc 22.2 Pilatus aber sprach zu ihnen → 13c [22] → 13c [22] → 16c
Chorus choir Str Bc 22.3 Kreuzige ihn! → 13d [22] → 13d [22] → 16d (+Ob I/II)
Chorale choir Str Bc 23. O hilf, Christe, Gottes Sohn 14. [23] O hilf, Christe, Gottes Sohn (BDW 1677) 14a. O hilf Christe, Gottes Sohn, BWV 1084 (BDW 1270) → 17 (+Vl solo Ob I/II)
Sinfonia Vl I/II Va Bc 24. → 15 [24] → 15 [24] → 18
Recitative Evangelist Bc 25. Pilatus aber gedachte → 16a [25] → 16a [25] → 19a
Chorus choir Str Bc 26. Gegrüßet seist du, der Juden König → 16b [26] → 16b [26] → 19b (+Ob I/II)
Recitative Evangelist Bc 27. Und schlugen ihm das Haupt mit dem Rohr → 16c [27] → 16c [27] → 19c
Aria bass Str Bc 28. O süßes Kreuz → 17 [28] → 17 [28] → 20
Recitative Evangelist Bc 29. Und sie brachten ihn an die Stätte Golgatha → 18 [29] → 18 [29] → 21
Aria soprano Ob or Vl Bc 30. O Golgotha! → 19 [30] → 19 [30]
Aria and Chorus soprano, choir Vl I/II Bc 22. Eilt, ihr angefochtnen Seelen HWV 48/41
Recitative Evangelist Bc 31. Und da sie ihn gekreuziget hatten → 20 [31] → 20 [31] → 23
Aria alto Bc 32. Was seh' ich hier → 21 [32] → 21 [32]
Aria soprano Str Ob I/II Bc 24. Hier erstarrt mein Herz in Blut HWV 48/44
Recitative Evangelist Bc 33. Und es war oben über ihm geschrieben → 22a [33] → 22a [33] → 25a
Chorus choir Str Bc 34. Pfui dich (or: Sieh doch), wie fein zerbrichst du] → 22b [34] → 22b [34] → 25b (+Ob I/II)
Recitative Evangelist Bc 35. Desselbengleichen die Hohenpriester → 22c [35] → 22c [35] → 25c
Chorus choir Str Bc 36. Er hat andern geholfen → 22d [36] → 22d [36] → 25d (+ Ob I/II)
Recitative Evangelist Bc 37. Und die mit ihm gekreuzigte waren → 22e [37] → 22e [37] → 25e
Aria soprano Vl I/II Bas I/II Bc 26 Was Wunder, das der Sonnen Pracht HWV 48/47
Recitative Evangelist Bc (37 continued) → (22e [37] continued) → (22e [37] continued) → 27a Und um die neunte Stunde
Arioso Jesus Str Bc 38. Eli, Eli, lama asabthani? → 22f [38] → 22f [38] → 27b
Recitative Evangelist Bc 39. Das ist verdolmetschet → 22g [39] → 22g [39] → 27c
Chorus choir Str Bc 40. Siehe, er rufet den Elias → 22h [40] → 22h [40] → 27d (+Ob I/II)
Recitative Evangelist, Soldier Bc 41. Da lief einer → 22i [41] → 22i [41] → 27e
Chorale alto Bc 42. Wann ich einmal soll scheiden → 23 [42] → 23 [42] → 28
Aria soprano Vl I/II Bc 43. Seht, Menschenkinder, seht → 24a [43] → 24a [43] → 29a (either this one or 29b)
Aria tenor Vl I/II Bc 44. Der Fürst der Welt erbleicht → 24b [44] → 24b [44] → 29b (either this one or 29a)
Sinfonia Vl I/II Bc 45. → 25 [45] → 25 [45] → 30
Recitative Evangelist, Centurion Bc 46. Und der Vorhang im Tempel zeriß in zwei Stück → 26 [46] → 26 [46] → 31
Aria bass Vl I/II Bc 32. Wie kömmt's, daß, da der Himml weint HWV 48/52
Recitative Evangelist Bc (46 continued) → (26 [46] continued) → (26 [46] continued) → 33. Und es waren auch Weiber da
Aria alto Str Bc 47. Dein Jesus hat das Haupt geneiget → 27 [47] → 27 [47] → 34
Recitative Evangelist Bc 48. Und er kaufte eine Leinwand → 28 [48] → 28 [48] → 35
Chorale choir Str Bc 49. O Traurigkeit, o Herzeleid 29a. [49] O Traurigkeit, o Herzeleid (BDW 1678) 29a. O Traurigkeit, o Herzeleid (BDW 1679)
Aria soprano Vl I/II Ob I/II Bc 36. Wisch ab der Tränen scharfe Lauge HWV 48/55
Chorus choir Str Bc 50.1 O selig, selig ist zu dieser Frist → 29b [50] → 29b [50] → 37 (+Ob I/II)
Chorale choir Str Bc 50.2 O Jesu du → 29c [50] → 29c [50] → 38 (+Ob I/II)
Chorus choir Str Bc 50.3 Amen → 29d [50] → 29d [50] → 39 (+Ob I/II

Pasticcios deriving from the original and/or Hamburg version[edit]

There are two known pasticcio versions of the passion, independent of Bach's three versions.[1]

Combined with two passion-oratorios by Reinhard Keiser[edit]

D-Gs 8|o Cod. Ms. philos. 84|e: Keiser 1 is a pasticcio based on Jesus Christus ist um unsrer Missetat willen verwundet and two Passion-Oratorios by Reinhard Keiser: his Brockes-Passion setting (1712) and his Der zum Tode verurteilte und gekreuzigte Jesus, published in Berlin in 1715.[1][16]

Hamburg 1729[edit]

D-B Mus. ms. 11471 is a manuscript representing a pasticcio version of the St. Mark passion-oratorio which originated in or around Hamburg in 1729. In this manuscript the Passion is attributed to Reinhard Keiser. Like the previous, also this pasticcio is completely independent from Bach's versions.[1]

Bach's versions[edit]

See also: Passions (Bach)

Bach held deep regard for the chief Hanseatic League cities of Hamburg and Lübeck throughout his life. In his mid and late teen years, he had opportunities to visit both cities while a student at St. Michael's Church School, Lüneburg (a period from 1700–1702). From November 1705 to February 1706, he again made the trip north from Arnstadt to Lübeck (and possibly to Hamburg as well). He again visited Hamburg in 1720 to try out for the position of Organist at the Jakobikirche, a visit during which he won the rarely afforded praise of the aged Johann Adam Reincken. It is possible that he became acquainted with a work during his earlier visits to Hamburg that would occupy a central place in his musical library for the rest of his life.

The manuscripts for the Weimar version (BC 5a) and the first Leipzig version (BC 5b) are:

  • D-B Mus. ms. 11471/1 – a 45-page set of parts in the hands of Bach, Anonymous Weimar I, Johann Heinrich Bach, Anonymous Weimar III, and Christian Gottlob Meißner. The title page of this one bears the inscription "Passion Christi / secundum Marcum [corrected from "Matthäum"] / à 5 Strom 4 Voci / di Sigre / R. [corrected from ?] Kaiser" in the hand of Meißner. This set of parts came into Emanuel Bach's possession after Sebastian's death, at whose death it was purchased (among other Bachiana) by Georg Pölchau, from whom it went into the possession of the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin. This collective manuscript consists of:
    • score parts written in Weimar (1713)
    • score parts written in Leipzig (1726)
  • D-B N. Mus. ms. 10624 – a 57-page score Wilhelm Rust derived from the previous in the 19th century. He titled this reconstructed score "Dr. Rust / Passion / nach dem Evangelium / St. Marcus / componirt / von ?" and on page 2 "Passion nach dem Ev. Marcus / Aus J. S. Bach's größtentheils eigenhändig geschriebenen Stimmen / in Partitur gesetzt / von / Dr. Wilhelm Rust, Cantor zu St. Thomas / in Leipzig". This is the main source for Bach's Weimar version of Jesus Christus ist um unser Missetat willen verwundet.[1]

These sources remain possibly incomplete. Whether any of the sources mentioned above represent the original form of the work is also doubtful. Even instrumentation is questionable. The oboe solo part required for some of the movements is included in the violin I part, which means that it is possible that the violin I player(s) were intended to be used for these parts as well, or that possibly the oboe parts are missing (meaning that there were one or even two oboe players intended for the work). Also noticeably missing is a figured organ part, a bassoon part, a violoncello part, and a part for viol. The lack of an organ part has been variously explained by the fact that from the middle of 1712 until, probably, 1714, the Organ of the Weimar Schloßkirche (the Himmelsburg) was being renovated.[17]

Bach's third version (BNB I/K/2) can be reconstructed from the above, from Handel's Brockes Passion, and:

Bach's fifth Passion?[edit]

Bach's Nekrolog (obituary) was published in 1754 by Lorenz Christoph Mizler. Its authors, Bach's son Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach and his former pupil Johann Friedrich Agricola,[18] indicated in the list of unpublished works, pp. 168–169 of the Nekrolog, that Bach would have written five Passions.[19][20] Four of these are easily identified, they were listed as Nos. 244–247 in the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis. As for the fifth Passion it is unclear which composition may have been meant by the authors of the Nekrolog. Jesus Christus ist um unsrer Missetat willen verwundet as arranged and expanded by Bach is one of the more likely candidates, along with the somewhat elusive Weimarer Passion, and Wer ist der, so von Edom kömmt, a pasticcio including a few movements by Bach (although it is unclear whether Bach actively contributed to this pasticcio – possibly it was not assembled until after the composer's death).

Weimar, 1710–1714 (BC D 5a)[edit]

No evidence exists that Bach was required (in his official duties) to provide Passion music for his early posts in Weimar (1703), Arnstadt (1703–1707), Mühlhausen (1707–1708), and Weimar (1708–1717). However, he did receive requests to do so on two occasions: once on commission by Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (resulting in the so-called Weimarer Passion (BWV deest, BC D 1), and another resulting in his first version of Jesus Christus ist um unsrer Missetat willen verwundet.

The origins of the commission for this work (BWV deest, BC D 5a) are unknown. All documentary material for Bach's time in Weimar during this period (1708–1717) were destroyed in a 1774 fire that consumed the palace that Bach was employed in during this period, the Wilhelmsburg.[21] The only evidence that has come down is a set of performance parts archived in the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (SBB).

There are many questions still surrounding this work. Many scholars question whether the set of parts that we have are complete. Even the dating is questionable. Originally, scholars assigned the dating to Good Friday (14 April) 1713,[17] but is now put down to Good Friday (25 March) 1712 or even a year or two earlier.,[21] or even Good Friday (30 March) 1714[22]

The work is in 32 movements, of which two were composed by Bach (No. 14 "O hilf, Christe, Gottes Sohn", BDW 1677 and No. 29 "O Traurigkeit, o Herzeleid", BDW 1678):[23]

  1. Sonata and Chorus: Jesus Christus ist um unser Missetat willen verwundet
  2. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus, Petrus): Und da sie den Lobgesang gesprochen hatten
  3. Aria (soprano, basso continuo): Will dich die Angst betreten
  4. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus): Und nahm zu sich Petrus und Jakobus und Johannes
  5. Chorale: Was mein Gott will, das g'scheh allzeit
  6. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus): Und kam und fand sie schlafend
    Recitative (Evangelist, Judas): Und alsbald, da er noch redet
  7. Aria (tenor, violins, continuo): Wenn nun der Leib wird sterben müssen
  8. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus): Die aber legten ihre Hände an ihn
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und die Jünger verließen ihn alle und flohen
    Chorus: Wir haben gehöret
    Recitative (Evangelist, Hohenpriester, Jesus): Aber ihr Zeugnis stimmet noch nicht überein
    Chorus: Weissage uns!
    Recitative (Evangelist, Magd, Petrus): Und die Knechte schlugen ihn in's Angesicht
    Chorus: Wahrlich, du bist der einer
    Recitative (Evangelist, Petrus): Er aber fing an sich zu verfluchen und zu schwören
  9. Aria (tenor, violins, continuo): Wein, ach wein jetzt um die Wette
  10. Sinfonia
  11. Recitative (Evangelist, Pilatus, Jesus): Und Bald am Morgen
  12. Aria (alto, violins, continuo): Klaget nur, ihr Kläger hier
  13. Recitative (Evangelist, Pilatus): Jesus aber antwortete nichts mehr
    Chorus: Kreuzige ihn!
    Recitative (Evangelist, Pilatus): Pilatus aber sprach zu ihnen
    Chorus: Kreuzige ihn!
  14. Chorale: O hilf Christe, Gottes Sohn
  15. Sinfonia
  16. Recitative (Evangelist): Pilatus aber gedachte
    Chorus: Gegrüßet seist du
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und schlugen ihm das Haupt mit dem Rohr
  17. Aria (bass (voice type), violins, continuo): O süßes Kreuz
  18. Recitative (Evangelist): Und sie brachten ihn an die Stätte Golgatha
  19. Aria (soprano, oboe or violin I, continuo): O Golgotha!
  20. Recitative (Evangelist): Und da sie ihn gekreuziget hatten
  21. Aria (alto, continuo): Was seh' ich hier
  22. Recitative (Evangelist): Und es war oben über ihm geschrieben
    Chorus: Pfui dich* [*Textvariante: Seht doch]
    Recitative (Evangelist): Desselbengleichen die Hohenpriester
    Chorus: Er hat anderen geholfen
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und die mit ihm gekreuzigte waren
    Arioso (Jesus): Eli, Eli, lama asabthani?
    Recitative (Evangelist): Das ist verdolmetschet
    Chorus: Siehe, er rufet den Elias.
    Recitative (Evangelist, Kriegsknecht): Da lief einer
  23. Chorale (alto, continuo): Wenn ich einmal soll scheiden
  24. Aria (soprano, tenor, violins, continuo): Seht, Menschenkinder, seht
  25. Sinfonia
  26. Recitative (Evangelist, Hauptmann): Und der Vorhang im Tempel zeriß in zwei Stück
  27. Aria (alto, violins, violas, continuo): Dein Jesus hat das Haupt geneiget
  28. Recitative (Evangelist): Und er kaufte eine Leinwand
  29. Chorale: O Traurigkeit
  30. Chorale: O selig ist
  31. Chorale: O Jesu du
  32. Chorale: Amen.

Christian Friedrich Henrici, the man who would later provide Bach with many of his cantata and oratorio texts, would use the text for Movement 9 (slightly altered) in one of his own collections (entitled Sammlung Erbaulicher Gedanken über und auf die gewöhnlichen Sonn- u. Fest-Tage, in gebundener Schreib-Art entworffen). The two Bach additions (Movements 14 and 29) are catalogued as BWV deest serie II: 02 and 03.

The work is scored for a very small ensemble. However, not have all the parts used may be extant. It is possible that there were two oboes used in the performance; they may have also (in addition to Movement 19) been used in the Choral parts and the Sinfonias. As it is now, it is scored for:SATB soloists and choir, two violins, two violas, and basso continuo.

About orchestration, Bach wrote in 1730 a little tract entitled "Kurtzer, iedoch höchstnöthiger Entwurff einer wohlbestallten Kirchen Music; nebst einigem unvorgreiflichen Bedenkken von dem Verfall derselben." ("Short, but most Necessary Draft on a well-regulated Church Music, with some modest Thoughts on the Decline of the same"). In it, he stated both the ideal size of church choirs and orchestras and those he were dealing with at the time (in Leipzig). He suggested that an ideal choir would consist of 1–2 singers per part (or 4–8 total singers), while he was typically dealing with 12–16 per part. He also states that a well-regulated church music would be performed by:

2 or even 3 for the Violino I, 2 or 3 for the Violino II, 2 for the Viola I, 2 for the Viola II, 2 for the Violoncello, 1 for the Violone, 2, or, if the piece requires it, 3, for the Hautbois (Oboe), 1, or even 2, for the Basson (Bassoon), 3 for the Trompeten (Trumpets), and 1 for the Pauken (Timpani), for a total of 18 persons at least. [He also stated that if the piece required it, there would be 2 Flute players.][24]

So for a work such as this one, he would need three violin I, three violin II, two viola I, two viola II, two violoncelli, one violon, two oboes, two bassoons, and harpsichord (as the harmony instrument in the continuo), and two sopranos, two altos, two tenors, and two basses in the choir and the same amount as the concertino for the solo voice parts.

Leipzig 1726 (BC D 5b)[edit]

Nearly three years into his post as "Cantor (church) of the Thomasschule zu Leipzig and Directoris Chori musici in Leipzig", Bach ran into a quandary. He had begun and nearly completed a score for a St Matthew Passion, a project which he began in 1725 but put aside for a revival of his St John Passion, when he again for some unknown reason set aside the project (he would complete it and first perform his St Matthew Passion on 11 April 1727). Instead he decided to revive his Weimar pastiche. This work was performed on 19 April 1726. For this work, he changed two movements (Nos. 14 and 29 of the Weimar work) and, to fit it to the Church Ordinance for Good Friday Vespers services in Leipzig, he split it into two parts by adding a chorale. The violin I part for this work (BWV deest, BC D 5b) is missing in all his new additions (and has been reconstructed), but on the whole, the parts are more complete. This work has come down to us in the form of a vocal score and parts set dating from before 1726 in the hands of Johann Sebastian Bach, Christian Gottlob Meißner, and Johann Heinrich Bach, and is currently stored in the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin under the Catalogue number D B Mus. ms. 11471/2. The title page (like the Weimar one) reads "Passion Christi / secundum Marcum [korrigiert aus Matthäum] / à 5 Strom 4 Voci / di Sigre / R. Kaiser."

In this version the following parts are by Bach:

  • No. 9b: "So gehst du nun, mein Jesu", BWV 500a, BDW 0571.
  • No. 14: "O hilf Christe, Gottes Sohn", BWV 1084, BDW 1270, which is a variant of the setting included in the Weimar version.
  • No. 29: "O Traurigkeit, o Herzeleid", BDW 1679, which is a variant of the setting used in the Weimar version

The sequence of movements in this version is as follows:[23]

Prima Parte

  1. Sonata and Chorus: Jesus Christus ist um unser Missetat willen verwundet
  2. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus, Petrus): Und da sie den Lobgesang gesprochen hatten
  3. Aria (soprano, basso continuo): Will dich die Angst betreten
  4. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus): Und nahm zu sich Petrus und Jakobus und Johannes
  5. Chorale: Was mein Gott will, das g'scheh allzeit
  6. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus): Und kam und fand sie schlafend
    Recitative (Evangelist, Judas): Und alsbald, da er noch redet
  7. Aria (tenor, violins, continuo): Wenn nun der Leib wird sterben müssen
  8. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus): Die aber legten ihre Hände an ihn
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und die Jünger verließen ihn alle und flohen
    Chorus: Wir haben gehöret
    Recitative (Evangelist, Hohenpriester, Jesus): Aber ihr Zeugnis stimmet noch nicht überein
    Chorus: Weissage uns!
    Recitative (Evangelist, Magd, Petrus): Und die Knechte schlugen ihn in's Angesicht
    Chorus: Wahrlich, du bist der einer
    Recitative (Evangelist, Petrus): Er aber fing an sich zu verfluchen und zu schwören
  9. Aria (tenor, violins, continuo): Wein, ach wein jetzt um die Wette
    Chorale: So gehst du nun, mein Jesus, hin, Violino I vermutlich verschollen, und zu rekonstruieren

Seconda Parte

  1. Sinfonia
  2. Recitative (Evangelist, Pilatus, Jesus): Und Bald am Morgen
  3. Aria (alto, violins, continuo): Klaget nur, ihr Kläger hier
  4. Recitative (Evangelist, Pilatus): Jesus aber antwortete nichts mehr
    Chorus: Kreuzige ihn!
    Recitative (Evangelist, Pilatus): Pilatus aber sprach zu ihnen
    Chorus: Kreuzige ihn!
  5. Chorale: O hilf Christe, Gottes Sohn Sart 14a ersetzt den Satz 14 der Weimarer Fassung 1712/1713 in den Fassungen von 1726 bzw. ca. 1745–1748. Violino I vermutlich verschollen, und zu rekonstruieren
  6. Sinfonia
  7. Recitative (Evangelist): Pilatus aber gedachte
    Chorus: Gegrüßet seist du
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und schlugen ihm das Haupt mit dem Rohr
  8. Aria (bass, violins, continuo): O süßes Kreuz
  9. Recitative (Evangelist): Und sie brachten ihn an die Stätte Golgatha
  10. Aria (soprano, oboe or violin I, continuo): O Golgotha!
  11. Recitative (Evangelist): Und da sie ihn gekreuziget hatten
  12. Aria (alto, continuo): Was seh' ich hier
  13. Recitative (Evangelist): Und es war oben über ihm geschrieben
    Chorus: Pfui dich* [*Textvariante: Seht doch]
    Recitative (Evangelist): Desselbengleichen die Hohenpriester
    Chorus: Er hat anderen geholfen
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und die mit ihm gekreuzigte waren
    Arioso (Jesus): Eli, Eli, lama asabthani?
    Recitative (Evangelist): Das ist verdolmetschet
    Chorus: Siehe, er rufet den Elias.
    Recitative (Evangelist, Kriegsknecht): Da lief einer
  14. Chorale (alto, continuo): Wenn ich einmal soll scheiden
  15. Aria (soprano, violins, continuo): Seht, Menschenkinder, seht
    Aria (tenore, violins, continuo): Der Fürst der Welt erbleicht
  16. Sinfonia
  17. Recitative (Evangelist, Hauptmann): Und der Vorhang im Tempel zeriß in zwei Stück
  18. Aria (alto, violins, violas, continuo): Dein Jesus hat das Haupt geneiget
  19. Recitative (Evangelist): Und er kaufte eine Leinwand
  20. Chorale: O Traurigkeit 1726 und ca. 1745–1748 statt in Halbe in Viertel notiert.
  21. Chorale: O selig ist
  22. Chorale: O Jesu du
  23. Chorale: Amen.

Like the Weimar work, this work also was scored for SATB soloists and choir, oboes I/II, violins I/II, violas I/II, and basso continuo. Like the Weimar work, the oboes were also included in the Choral and Sinfonia sections. However, the parts this time also included a figured organ part. In two of the three new additions (Movements 10 and 15), the first violin part is missing and has been reconstructed. Of the new additions (Movements 10, 15, and 30), Alfred Dürr noted that the bass line of Movement 10 mirrored exactly the bass line of the sacred song from the Musicalisches Gesangbuch G.C. Schemelli, So gehst du nun, mein Jesus, hin BWV 500 (it is included in the BWV catalogue as BWV 500a).[25][26] Movement 15 was used as a replacement of Movement 14 of BC D 5a, and is catalogued as BWV 1084 (no BC number yet) and is also marked alla breve as is its predecessor, but instead of half notes as the main beat, the quarter note gets the main beat. Movement 30 was used to replace Movement 29 of BC D 5a, and is catalogued as BWV deest serie II: 04 (similar case as far as notation to Movement 15).

Leipzig 1747–1748 (BNB I/K/2)[edit]

Cover page of manuscript source D B N Mus. ms. 468 Harpsichord part for the 2nd Leipzig St Mark Passion pastiche at the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (Courtesy of http://www.bach-digital.de)

Bach again revived this pastiche on either 31 April 1747 (at the St. Nicholas Church, Leipzig) or 12 April 1748 (at the St. Thomas Church, Leipzig). Of all the pastiches, this one was the most complex and involved. In many ways, it was more a true pastiche than the previous two were. In addition to his own music (two movements), Bach incorporated seven Arias from George Frideric Handel's Brockes Passion HWV 48 into the original. This work (BWV deest – Serie II: 005; BC D 5; BNB I/K/2) has come down only in two partial manuscripts. One is a complete harpsichord part of 10 pages dating from between 1743 and 1748 housed at the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin under Catalogue number D B N. Mus. ms. 468. This part is written in the hands of Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (notes), Johann Sebastian Bach (figures), and Wilhelm Rust (title page). Its title page reads "Marcus-Passion / angeblich von R: Keiser" and underneath this "NB enthält 6 Arien aus der Brockes'schen / Passion von Händel". After Bach's death, it came into possession of an unknown individual, from whom it entered into possession of Wilhelm Rust, whose heir Maria Rust next took possession of it. It then entered into the possession of an A. Martin in Weimar, from whence it entered into (in succession) the possessions of an A. Thiele and then B. Thiele (also in Weimar), from whence it entered into the possession of the Antiquarian Bookshop of Joseph Abraham Stargardt in Berlin, from whence it entered into the possession of the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin in 1987.

The other source material is a one-page fragment of the Bassoon I part of the Aria "Was Wunder, daß der Sonnen Pracht" from Handel's HWV 48 in the hand of Johann Sebastian Bach dating from between 1743 and 1748. This part followed pretty much the same path as the part above, however after it came into possession of B. Thiele, it next entered into possession of C. Thiele in Kiel. It is marked under catalogue number Privatbesitz C. Thiele, BWV deest (Serie II: 005).

The text for this work is as follows:[23]

Prima Parte

  1. Sonata and Chorus: Jesus Christus ist um unser Missetaten willen verwundet
  2. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus, Petrus): Und da sie den Lobgesang gesprochen hatten
  3. Aria (soprano, continuo): Will dich die Angst betreten
  4. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus): Und nahm zu sich Petrus und Jakobus und Johannes
  5. Aria (soprano, oboe, continuo): Sünder, schaut mit Furcht und Zagen
  6. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus): Und kam und fand sie schlafend
    Recitative (Evangelist, Judas): Und alsbald, da er noch redet
  7. Aria (tenor, violins, continuo): Wenn nun der Leib wird sterben müssen
  8. Recitative (Evangelist, Jesus): Die aber legten ihre Hände an ihn
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und die Jünger verließen ihn alle und flohen
    Chorus: Wir haben gehöret
    Recitative (Evangelist, Hohenpriester, Jesus): Aber ihr Zeugnis stimmet noch nicht überein
    Aria (tenor, oboes, violins, continuo): Erwäg, ergrimmte Natternbruth HWV 48/23Eingefügte Arie aus Händels Brockes-Passion
    Recitative (Evangelist): Da fingen an etliche ihn zu verspeien
    Chorus: Weissage uns!
    Recitative (Evangelist, Magd, Petrus): Und die Knechte schlugen ihn ins Angesicht
    Chorus: Wahrlich, du bist der einer
    Recitative (Evangelist, Petrus): Er aber fing an sich zu verfluchen und zu schwören
  9. Aria (tenor, violins in unison, continuo): Wein, ach wein jetzt um die Wette
    Chorale: So gehst du nun mein Jesus, hin Violino I vermutlich verschollen, und zu rekonstruieren.

Seconda Parte

  1. Sinfonia
  2. Recitative (Evangelist, Pilatus, Jesus): Und Bald am Morgen hielten die Hohenpriester einen Rat
  3. Aria (alto, violins, continuo): Klaget nur, ihr Kläger hier
  4. Recitative (Evangelist, Pilatus): Jesus aber antwortete nichts mehr
    Chorus: Kreuzige Ihn!
    Recitative (Evangelist, Pilatus): Pilatus aber sprach zu ihnen
    Chorus: Kreuzige Ihn!
  5. Chorale: O hilf, Christe, Gottes Sohn Satz 14a ersetzt den Satz 14 der Weimarer Fassung 1712/1713 in den Fassungen von 1726 bzw. ca. 1745–1748. Violino I vermutlich verschollen, und zu rekonstruieren
  6. Sinfonia
  7. Recitative (Evangelist): Pilatus aber gedachte dem Volk genug zu tun
    Chorus: Gegrüßet seist du
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und schlugen ihm das Haupt mit dem Rohr
  8. Aria (bass, violins, violas, continuo): O süßes Kreuz
  9. Recitative (Evangelist): Und sie brachten ihn an die Stätte Golgatha
  10. Aria and Chorus (soprano solo, choir, violins, continuo): Eilt, iht angefochtnen Seelen HWV 48/41 Eingefügte Arie aus Händels Brockes-Passion als Esatz für die Arie 19 "O Golgatha"
  11. Recitative (Evangelist): Und da sie ihn gekreuziget hatten
  12. Aria (soprano, oboes, violins, viola, continuo): Hier erstarrt mein Herz in Blut HWV 48/44 Eingefügte Arie aus Händels Brockes-Passion, als Ersatz für die Arie "Was sehe ich hier"
  13. Recitative (Evangelist): Und es war oben über ihm geschrieben
    Chorus: Pfui dich* [*Textvariante: Seht doch]
    Recitative (Evangelist): Desselbengleichen die Hohenpriester verspotteten ihn untereinander
    Chorus: Er hat anderen geholfen
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und die mit ihm gekreuzigte waren
    Aria (soprano, violins, bassoons, continuo): Was Wunder, das der Sonnen Pracht HWV 48/48 Eingefügte Arie aus Händels Brockes-Passion
    Arioso (Jesus): Eli, Eli, lama asabthani?
    Recitative (Evangelist): Das ist verdolmetschet
    Chorus: Siehe, er rufet den Elias.
    Recitative (Evangelist, Kriegsknecht): Und da lief einer
  14. Chorale (alto, continuo): Wenn ich einmal soll scheiden
  15. Aria (soprano, violins, continuo): Seht Menschenkinder, seht
    Aria (tenore, violins, continuo): Der Fürst der Welt erbleicht
  16. Sinfonia
  17. Recitative (Evangelist, Hauptmann): Und der Vorhang im Tempel zeriß in zwei Stück
    Aria (bass, violins, continuo): Wie kömmt's, daß, da der Himml weint HWV 48/52 Eingefügte Arie aus Händels Brockes-Passion
    Recitative (Evangelist): Und es waren auch Weiber da
  18. Aria (alto, violins, violas, continuo): Dein Jesus hat das Haupt geneiget
  19. Recitative (Evangelist): Und er kaufte eine Leinwand
  20. Aria (soprano, oboes, violins, continuo): Wisch ab der Tränen scharfe Lauge HWV 48/55 Eingefügte Arie aus Händels Brockes-Passion, als Ersatz für den Choral "O Traurigkeit, o Herzeleid"
  21. Chorale: O selig ist
  22. Chorale: O Jesu du
  23. Chorale: Amen.

The instrumentation is for a larger ensemble: SATB soloists and choir, oboe I/II, bassoon I/II, violin I/II, viola I/II, and basso continuo.

Reception[edit]

In the first half of the 18th century Jesus Christus ist um unsrer Missetat willen verwundet proved one of the more popular passion settings in Protestant Germany. As a Passion based on the Gospel text of one of the four evangelists, as opposed to the upcoming Passion-Oratorio genre based on a freer interpretation of Gospel texts combined from several evangelists, such as the Brockes Passion, it was exceptional in being performed in half a dozen versions and in multiple cities.

The reception of the composition by Bach is of historic importance as it shows many of the characteristics Bach would adopt in his own famous passion settings: the vox Christi treatement (with arioso, and accompagnato,...), the typical Bach Evangelist, the recitative-aria-chorale units, chorales based on Paul Gerhardt's "O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden",... — all characteristics deemed typical for Bach's oratorios and passion settings that are present in this early 18th century work. Bach's last version also shows how the composer attempted to combine an Evangelist-based passion setting with a freer Passion-Oratorio setup (which is also what he had done in his St John Passion and St Matthew Passion, both containing movements based on the Brockes Passion text). Bach's versions of this passion overarch his known passion compositions: he copied and performed the score prior to his first passion composition, the Weimarer Passion, he staged it again between the first performances of the St John and the St Matthew, and his last version of this St Mark was performed around the time he finished revising his other passion settings.

Then the work was forgotten for a long time: nothing of it was mentioned in the 19th-century Bach Gesellschaft Ausgabe, nor in the 1950 first edition of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis. For a period of around two centuries the only thing that seems to have happened to the composition are Wilhelm Rust's efforts to analyse and reconstruct the original score. The score was published in the second half of the 20th century,[27] and recorded for the first time in the early 1970s.[28] The 21st century saw the publication and performance of Bach's 1740s pasticcio version.[15] Another 21st-century development is the combination of the Gospel parts of the "Keiser" St Mark Passion with reconstructed choruses and arias of the largely lost BWV 247 St Mark Passion, into a new pasticcio.[29]

Score editions[edit]

Felix Schroeder's score edition, based on the composite manuscript of Bach's first two versions (D-B Mus. ms. 11471/1) and the 1729 Hamburg pasticcio (D-B Mus. ms. 11471), was published by Hänssler in the 1960s, attributing the work to Reinhard Keiser.[27] Another 1960s score edition was realised by Donald George Moe and published by the University of Iowa.[30]

Carus-Verlag published the BNB I/K/1 version, that is BC D 5a version of the score with the BC D 5b variants of the choral movements 9+, 14a and 29a appended, as Reinhard Keiser's work arranged by Bach, in 1997.[8] Their publication of the BNB I/K/2 pasticcio, which indicated "Kaiser", Bach and Handel as its composers, followed in 2012: this edition contained reconstructed material and a detailed introduction by its editor Christine Blanken.[15]

The Neue Bach-Ausgabe volume II/9 Latin Church Music, Passions: Works with Doubtful Authenticity, Arrangements of Music from other Composers, edited by Kirsten Beißwenger and published in 2000 by Bärenreiter, contains as well a critical commentary as score editions of the choral movements attributed to Bach, that is the choral movements "O hilf, Christe, Gottes Sohn" and "O Traurigkeit, o Herzeleid" of the BC D 5a version (section 7) and the three choral movements in the BC D 5b version (section 8). Section 9 of this score edition contains the fragments relating to the BNB I/K/2 version as available (without reconstruction of the missing parts). In this publication Reinhard Keiser is indicated as the composer of the original work.[2]

CPDL contains all choral movements of the BC D 5b version, attributing them to Reinhard Keiser.

Discography[edit]

The first recording of the work was realised in February 1971 by Jörg Ewald Dähler.[28] Another 1971 recording was directed by Alois J. Hochstrasser.[31] 1973 recordings were conducted by Gert Sell and Albrecht Haupt.[32][33] Daniel R. Melamed recommends two 1990s recordings, by Christian Brembeck and Michel Laplénie.[34][35][36]

The BC D 5a version of the work was recorded in 2008 on the Edition Chrismon label (Catalogue number 2035) and features Tenor Evangelist: Georg Poplutz, Soprano: Jutta von Landsberg [Arias & Chorus]; Soprano: Anke Briegel; Counter-tenor: Kerry Jago; Counter-tenor: Henning Voss; Tenor: Jörn Lindemann; Tenor: Birger Radde; Bass: Markus Flaig; and Bass: Tilli Schutze (?), with Capella Sancti Georgi and Musica Alta Ripa conducted by Ralf Popken. Another recording of the BC D 5a version, with the Ensemble Jacques Moderne, Gli Incogniti and violinist Amandine Beyer appeared on the label Mirare in 2015.[37]

Bach's second version (BC D 5b) was recorded in 2006 on the Con Affetto label featuring Tenor [Evangelist]: Daniel-Leo Meier; Bass [Jesus]: Nicolas Fink; Boy Soprano: Simeon Haefliger (soloist from Luzerner Knabenkantorei); Counter-tenor: Urs Weibel; Tenor: Sebastian Lipp, Brian Dean, Sabine Hochstrasser (Violins); Brigitte Gasser, Brian Franklin (Viola da gamba); Monika Hasselbach (Violoncello); Kiri Ivanov (Contrabass); and Mutsumi Ueno (Organ), with the Luzerner Knabenkantorei and Instrumentalists from Collegium Musicum Luzern conducted by Eberhard Rex.

The BNB I/K/2 pasticcio version was released as a 2008 live recording with Kantorei St. Mauritius Hardegsen and Telemannisches Collegium Michaelstein conducted by Gerhard Ropeter. The vocal soloists on this recording are Yu Jost, Soprano (Maid), Dorothee Wohlgemuth, Soprano (Arias), Michael Leib, Alto (Arias, Judas, High Priest, Soldier, Centurion), Jörn Lindemann, Tenor (Arias, Evangelist), Samuel Hasselhorn, Tenor (Petrus), Benjamin Hasselhorn, Tenor (Pilatus), Falk Joost, Bass (Jesus), and Ralf Grobe, Bass (Arias).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Bach Digital Work 1534 at www.bachdigital.de
  2. ^ a b NBA 2000 (score edition)
  3. ^ Friedrich Nicolaus Brauns: Markus-Passion at www.bach-cantatas.com
  4. ^ a b Reinmar Emans, Sven Hiemke Bach-Handbuch. Bachs Oratorien, Passionen und Motetten 2000 Page 26 "Die einzige überlieferte Kopie dieses Werkes, das nach neueren Forschungen auch dem Hamburger Kantor Friedrich Nicolaus Bruhns (Brauns) zugeschrieben wird, stammt zum größten Teil von der Hand Bachs; Bach hat das Werk ..."
  5. ^ Melamed 2005, p. 81
  6. ^ Melamed 2005, p. 169
  7. ^ Melamed, Daniel R. and Reginald R. Sanders. "Zum Text und Kontext der 'Keiser'-Markuspassion". Bach-Jahrbuch 85 (1999). pp. 35–50.
  8. ^ a b c d e Carus 1997 (score edition)
  9. ^ Melamed 2005, p. 80
  10. ^ The Life of Bach - Page 21 Peter Williams - 2003 "... left their mark on Bach, for at some point he arranged chamber sonatas by Reinken for keyboard (e.g. BWV 965 and 966, perhaps as late as 1715), copied F. N. Brauns's St Mark Passion (performing it in Weimar, as later in Leipzig?) ..."
  11. ^ Bach Digital Work 1535 at www.bachdigital.de
  12. ^ Malcolm Boyd Bach 2006- Page 153 "... F. N. Brauns St Mark Passion 11 April 1727 Thomaskirche "
  13. ^ Christoph Wolff Johann Sebastian Bach El Musico Sabio 2003, 2008 Page 317 "De ahí que prefiriese modificar su Pasión según san Juan para el año 1725, y seleccionar la Pasión según san Marcos de Friedrich Nicolaus Brauns para 1726. Bach había interpretado la obra de Brauns en Weimar, y en esta oportunidad la ...
  14. ^ Bach Digital Work 1680 at www.bachdigital.de
  15. ^ a b c Carus 2012 (score edition)
  16. ^ Reinhard Keiser. Seelige Erlösungs-Gedancken aus dem Oratorio der zum Tode verurtheilte und gecreutzigte Jesus. Hamburg: Benjamin Schillers Wittwe im Thum, 1715.
  17. ^ a b Glöckner, Andreas. "Johann Sebastian Bachs Aufführungen zeitgenösischer Passionsmusiken". Bach-Jahrbuch 63 (1977). p. 77.
  18. ^ Johann Nikolaus Forkel. Ueber Johann Sebastian Bachs Leben, Kunst und Kunstwerke. Leipzig: Hoffmeister und Kühnel. 1802. Preface
  19. ^ David, Hans T. and Arthur Mendel. The New Bach Reader: A Life of Johann Sebastian Bach in Letters and Documents. Rev. by Christoph Wolff. New York: W W Norton and Company, 1998. p. 304
  20. ^ Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach and Johann Friedrich Agricola. "Nekrolog" (full title: "VI. Denkmal dreyer verstorbenen Mitglieder der Societät der musikalischen Wissenschafften; C. Der dritte und letzte ist der im Orgelspielen Weltberühmte HochEdle Herr Johann Sebastian Bach, Königlich-Pohlnischer und Churfürstlich Sächsicher Hofcompositeur, und Musikdirector in Leipzig"), pp. 158–176 in Lorenz Christoph Mizler's Musikalische Bibliothek (de), Volume IV Part 1. Leipzig, Mizlerischer Bücherverlag, 1754. p. 168
  21. ^ a b Wolff, Christoph. Johann Sebastian Bach: The Learned Musician. New York: W W Norton and Company, 2000. p. 134.
  22. ^ Oxford Composer Companion to Bach.
  23. ^ a b c Grob, Jochem. Text-, Liedvorlagen, Bibelkonkordanzen und Besetzungsangaben zu den geistlichen Kantaten, Oratorien & Passionen Johann Sebastian Bachs. Taken 22 February 2011 from http://www.s-line.de/homepages/bachdiskographie/kaneins/geistliche_kantaten_eins_frame.html.
  24. ^ David, Hans T. and Arthur Mendel. p. 146.
  25. ^ Alfred Dürr. Im Mittelpunkt Bach. Ausgewählte Aufsätze und Vorträge, ed. by Kollegium des Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Instituts Göttingen. Kassel 1988. pp. 1–14.
  26. ^ Dürr, Alfred. "Zu den verschollenen Passionen Bachs". Bach-Jahrbuch 35 (1949–50). pp. 81–99.
  27. ^ a b Hänssler 1960s (score edition)
  28. ^ a b Jörg Ewald Dähler (conductor). Erstaufnahme: Markus Passion Reinhard Keiser (1674-1739). Claves, 1971.
  29. ^ Michaela Plattenteich. "Meisterhaft: Bachs verschollene Passion in St. Josef" in Westdeutsche Zeitung, 21 April 2014
  30. ^ Iowa 1960s (score edition)
  31. ^ Alois J. Hochstrasser, conductor. Markus-Passion: Reinhard Keiser 1674–1739. Calig (1971). OCLC 886826287
  32. ^ Gert Sell, conductor. Reinhard Keiser 1674–1739: Passion nach dem Evangelisten Markus Mixtur (1973)
  33. ^ Albrecht Haupt. Reinhard Keiser: Markus-Passion. Corona (1973). OCLC 12377905
  34. ^ Christian Brembeck, conductor. Reinhard Keiser: Markus Passion. Christophorus, 1994.
  35. ^ Michel Laplénie, conductor. Reinhard Keiser: Passion selon Saint Marc. Accord 1995.
  36. ^ Melamed 2005, p. 168
  37. ^ Joël Suhubiette, conductor; with liner notes by Gilles Cantagrel (translated by Charles Johnston). Reinhard Keiser: Markuspassion. Mirare 2015.

Sources[edit]

Score editions

Writings

External links[edit]