Exterior of St Mary-le-Bow
|Denomination||Church of England|
|Heritage designation||Grade I|
|Designated||4 January 1950|
|Architect(s)||Sir Christopher Wren|
|Parish||St Mary Le Bow Cheapside|
|Diocese||Diocese of London|
|Vicar(s)||Rev. George Raymond Bush|
St Mary-le-Bow / / is a historic church rebuilt after the Great Fire of 1666 by Sir Christopher Wren in the City of London on the main east–west thoroughfare, Cheapside. According to tradition a true Cockney must be born within earshot of the sound of Bow Bells (which refers to this church's bells rather than St Mary and Holy Trinity, Bow Road, in Bow, an outlying village until the 19th century).
Traditionally, distances by road from London are now measured from Charing Cross but, before the late 18th century, were measured from the London Stone in Cannon Street, or the "Standard" in Cornhill. On the road from London to Lewes, the mileage is taken from the church door of St Mary-le-Bow. To note the reference used, mileposts along the way are marked with a cast-iron depiction of a bow and four bells.
Details of the bells:
|1||5-3-21||1565.6||G||27.75"||1956||Mears & Stainbank|
|2||5-3-10||1389.5||F||29.00"||1956||Mears & Stainbank|
|3||6-1-7||1298.5||E||30.00"||1956||Mears & Stainbank|
|4||6-2-17||1170.0||D||32.00"||1956||Mears & Stainbank|
|5||7-3-27||1046.5||C||34.00"||1956||Mears & Stainbank|
|6||8-3-27||978.5||B||35.00"||1956||Mears & Stainbank|
|7||10-0-20||869.0||A||38.00"||1956||Mears & Stainbank|
|8||12-1-11||778.0||G||41.00"||1956||Mears & Stainbank|
|9||17-3-17||694.0||F||46.00"||1956||Mears & Stainbank|
|10||21-2-23||649.5||E||49.00"||1956||Mears & Stainbank|
|11||29-1-5||585.0||D||54.00"||1956||Mears & Stainbank|
|12||41-3-21||521.2||C||61.25"||1956||Mears & Stainbank|
Archaeological evidence indicates that a church existed on this site in Saxon times. A medieval version of the church had been destroyed by the London Tornado of 1091, one of the earliest recorded (and one of the most violent) tornadoes in Britain. During the later Norman period, the church known as “St Mary de Arcubus” was rebuilt and was famed for its two arches (“bows”) of stone. From at least the 13th century, the church was a peculiar of the Diocese of Canterbury and the seat of the Court of Arches, to which it gave the name. The church with its steeple had been a landmark of London. The “bow bells”, which could be heard as far away as Hackney Marshes, were once used to order a curfew in the City of London. This building burned in the Great Fire of London of 1666.
Considered the second most important church in the City of London after St Paul's Cathedral, St-Mary-le-Bow was one of the first churches to be rebuilt after the fire by Christopher Wren and his office. The current structure was built to the designs of Wren between 1671 and 1673; the 223-foot (68 m) steeple was completed in 1680. The mason-contractor was Thomas Cartwright, one of the leading London mason-contractors and carvers of his generation.
In 1914, a stone from the crypt of St Mary-le-Bow church was placed in Trinity Church, New York, in commemoration of the fact that King William III granted the vestry of Trinity Church the same privileges as St Mary-le-Bow vestry, the forerunner of lower-tier local government. Since the early 1940s, a recording of the Bow Bells made in 1926 has been used by the BBC World Service as an interval signal for the English-language broadcasts. It is still used today preceding some English-language broadcasts.
Much of the current building was destroyed by a German bomb during the Blitz on 10 May 1941, during which fire the bells crashed to the ground. Restoration under the direction of Laurence King began in 1956 (with internal fittings by Faith-Craft, part of the Society of the Faith). The bells as listed above, cast in 1956, were eventually installed to resume ringing in 1961. The church was formally reconsecrated in 1964, having achieved designation as a Grade I listed building on 4 January 1950.
St Mary-le-Bow ministers to the financial industry and livery companies of the City of London. Consequently services feature weekday morning and evening led prayers lasting just a quarter of an hour generally at 08:15 (except Tuesdays) and 17:45. There is a memorial in the church to the first Governor in Australia, Admiral Arthur Phillip, who was born in the parish. Through this connection the Rector of St Mary-le-Bow is the Chaplain of the Britain–Australia Society.
It is still home to the Court of Arches today.
The organ is a two-manual and pedal design by Kenneth Tickell and Company, with design and construction initiated in 2004. It occupies the case of the previous Rushworth and Dreaper organ (from the 1960s). The inaugural recital was given by Thomas Trotter in September 2010. The resident organist is Alan Wilson.
- Historic England. "Church of St Mary-le-Bow (Grade I) (1064696)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
- Mentioned in Pepys's diary, "Samuel Pepys - The Shorter Pepys" Latham, R. (Ed) p484: Harmondsworth, 1985 ISBN 0-14-009418-0
- Leigh's map of the Environs of London 1819 The city as was is shown in the map; it shows Bow, the village between Mile End and Stratford, in a historical form Stratford le Bow.
- The bells that made cockneys Howse, Christopher, Daily Telegraph 2007-09-22, accessed 30 October 2007
- Hissey, James J. (1910). The charm of the road. London: Macmillan. p. 58. OCLC 5071681.
- "Bow Bell Milestone 35 miles from London". The National Heritage List for England. English Heritage. 1993. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
- "Stormy weather". Daily Telegraph. 8 December 2006. Retrieved 31 October 2007.
- Catholic Encyclopaedia, 1907 edition
- Keane, D. J.; Harding, Vanessa (1987). "St. Mary le Bow". Historical gazetteer of London before the Great Fire. Online edition from "British History Online". pp. 199–212. Retrieved 16 January 2009.
- The City Churches of Sir Christopher Wren, Jeffery, P., Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd, 2007 ISBN 978-1-84725-014-8
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- Historic England. "Details from image database (199370 )". Images of England. accessed 22 January 2009
- Church's historic home in the City Byrne, Michael and Bush, G.R. Times Online 26 October 2007, accessed 30 October 2007
- A Church Near You, a Church of England website
- Howard Colvin, Biographical Dictionary of British Architects
- Michael Byrne and George R. Bush (eds), St Mary-le-Bow: A History (Privately published, 2007).
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