Stade de France

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Not to be confused with Stade Français.
Stade de France
Saint-Denis
Logo du Stade de France 2013.png
Germany vs Poland 0-0 (27103531294).jpg
Full name Stade de France
Location ZAC du Cornillon Nord
93216 Saint Denis, France
Coordinates 48°55′28″N 2°21′36″E / 48.92444°N 2.36000°E / 48.92444; 2.36000Coordinates: 48°55′28″N 2°21′36″E / 48.92444°N 2.36000°E / 48.92444; 2.36000
Public transit Saint-Denis – Porte de Paris (Paris Métro)
Stade de France – Saint-Denis (Paris RER)
Gare de La Plaine-Stade de France
Owner Consortium Stade de France
Operator Consortium Stade de France
Executive suites 172
Capacity 81,338 (football, rugby) [1] 75,000 (athletics)
Field size 105 x 70 m
Surface Desso GrassMaster
Construction
Built 2 May 1995
Opened 28 January 1998[2]
Construction cost €290 million
Architect Michel Macary
Aymeric Zublena
Michel Regembal
Claude Constantini
Tenants
France national football team
France national rugby union team
Stade Français (some games)
Racing Métro 92 (some games)

The Stade de France (French pronunciation: ​[stad də fʁɑ̃s]) is the national stadium of France, just north of Paris in the commune of Saint-Denis. Its seating capacity of 81,338 makes it the sixth-largest stadium in Europe. The stadium is used by the France national football team and French rugby union team for international competition. Originally built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, the stadium's name was recommended by Michel Platini, head of the organising committee. On 12 July 1998, France defeated Brazil 3–0 in the 1998 FIFA World Cup Final contested at the stadium.

Stade de France, listed as a Category 4 stadium by UEFA, hosted matches at the 1998 FIFA World Cup, the UEFA Champions League finals in 2000 and 2006, and the 1999 and 2007 Rugby World Cup, making it the only stadium in the world to have hosted both a Football World Cup final and a Rugby World Cup final. The facility also hosted the Race of Champions auto race in 2004, 2005, and 2006. The stadium hosted the 2003 World Championships in Athletics and since 1999 it has hosted the annual Meeting Areva athletics meet. It also hosted some matches at UEFA Euro 2016, including the final, where France lost to Portugal by 1-0 after extra-time.

Domestically, the Stade de France serves as a secondary home facility of Parisian rugby clubs Stade Français and Racing Métro 92, hosting a few of their regular-season fixtures. The stadium also hosts the main French domestic cup finals, which include the Coupe de France (both football and rugby), Coupe de la Ligue, Challenge de France, and the Coupe Gambardella, as well as the Top 14 rugby union championship match.

The stadium is also used for music concerts with Roger Waters, The Rolling Stones, Tina Turner, U2, Muse, Céline Dion, AC/DC, Beyoncé, Jay Z, Rihanna, Coldplay, One Direction, Eminem, Lady Gaga, Paul McCartney, Madonna, The Police and Mylène Farmer having performed here. The facility is owned and operated by the Consortium Stade de France.

History[edit]

Stade de France visible from central Paris behind the Sacré-Cœur

The discussion of a national stadium in France came about as a result of the country's selection to host the 1998 FIFA World Cup on 2 July 1992. As a result of the selection, the country and the France Football Federation made a commitment to construct an 80,000+ capacity all-seater stadium with every seat in the facility being covered. It was the first time in over 70 years since the construction of the Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir that a stadium in France was being constructed for a specific event. Due to the magnitude and importance of the facility, the Council of State was allowed first hand approach to how the stadium would be constructed and paid for. The Council sought for the stadium to be built as close as possible to the capital of France, Paris, and that the constructor and operator of the facility would receive significant financial contribution for a period of 30 months following the completion of the stadium. The stadium's design was handled by the team of architects composed of Michel Macary, Aymeric Zublena, Regembal Michel, and Claude Costantini who were associated with CR SCAU Architecture.

The stadium was officially ready for construction following the government's selection of manufacturers, Bouygues, Dumez, and SGE, and the signing of building permits on 30 April 1995.[3][4] With only 31 months to complete the stadium, construction commenced on 2 May 1995. The laying of the first cornerstone took place five months later on 6 September. After over a year of construction, over 800,000m ² of earthworks had been created and as much as 180,000 m³ of concrete had been poured. The installation of the roof, which cost €45 million, and the mobile platform also took more than a year to complete.

During the developmental phase, the stadium was referred to in French as the Grand Stade ("large stadium" or "great stadium"). On 4 December 1995, the Ministry of Sport launched a design competition to decide on a name for the stadium. The stadium was officially named the Stade de France after the Ministry heard a proposal from French football legend Michel Platini, who recommended the name.

The stadium was inaugurated on 28 January 1998 as it hosted a football match between France and Spain. The total cost of the stadium was approximately €290 million. The match was played in front of 78,368 spectators, which included President Jacques Chirac, with France winning the match 1–0 with Zinedine Zidane scoring the lone goal, and the first-ever in the Stade de France, in the 20th minute.[5] Six months later, France returned to the stadium and defeated Brazil in the 1998 FIFA World Cup Final to earn their first World Cup title.Stade de France has hosted group, quarter-final, semi-final and the final match of 1998 FIFA World Cup.[6] The national rugby team's first match in the facility was contested five days after its opening, on 2 February, with France earning a 24–17 win over England in front of 77,567 spectators.[7] Philippe Bernat-Salles converted the first ever try at the stadium scoring it in the 11th minute of play.[8]

On 24 May 2000, the Stade de France hosted the 2000 UEFA Champions League Final. In the match, which saw 78,759 spectators attend, Spanish club Real Madrid defeated fellow Spaniards Valencia 3–0. In 2003, the Stade de France was the primary site of the 2003 World Championships in Athletics. Three years later in 2006, the facility hosted another UEFA Champions League final with another Spanish club Barcelona defeating England's Arsenal 2–1. On 9 May 2009, the Stade de France set the national attendance record for a sporting match played in France with 80,832 showing up to watch Guingamp upset Brittany rivals Rennes 2–1 in the 2009 Coupe de France Final. On 22 May 2010, the Stade de France hosted the 2010 Heineken Cup Final.[9] On 11 February 2012, a Six Nations international rugby game between France and Ireland had to be cancelled just before kick-off due to the pitch freezing as the stadium lacks under-soil heating.[10]

On 13 November 2015, in one of a series of coordinated shootings and bombings across Paris, the Stade de France was targeted with explosions occurring outside the stadium during an international friendly between France and Germany, with French President François Hollande in attendance. The terrorist, however, was unable to enter the stadium.[11]

Architecture[edit]

Stade de France with uncovered athletics track during the 2003 World Championships

The Stade de France has a movable stand which can be retracted to uncover part of the athletics track.[12] The stadium was notably designed with the assistance of a software simulation of crowd in order to get an accurate observation of how it would look fully developed. The facility was also intended to draw interest in and develop the area of the Plaine Saint-Denis, which straddle the communes of Saint-Denis, Aubervilliers, and Saint-Ouen. The primary goal was to renovate the area by building new residential and tertiary sites.

The stadium was built without any undersoil heating as noted when Ireland were due to play France in the Six Nations Tournament rugby union match of 2012, in which the game had to be canceled.

In 2002, the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABC) awarded a prize recognizing the unique structure of the Stade de France commenting that the Stade de France exhibited "a construction of an attractive open architecture of the city, with an elegance and natural lightness".

Roof[edit]

The last part of the metallic construction of the roof, 1997

Construction of the Stade de France's roof cost over €45 million. Its elliptical shape symbolizes the universality of sport in France. Its area of six hectares and weight, 13,000 tons, is considered a technical marvel by many. It was designed to easily protect the 80,000 spectators without covering the playing field. All lighting and sound, which include 550 lights and 36 blocks of 5 speakers, are housed inside to avoid obstructing visibility. The tinted glass in the center reduces the contrast and distributes natural light. It filters out red and infrared radiation, however, it allows blue and green lights, due to their necessity involving the health of the turf.

Interior[edit]

Stands[edit]

The Stade de France is the biggest modular stadium in the world with three galleries.

The forum is a low mobile platform of 25,000 seats. It is reached by the level 1. It may fall 15 feet to reveal all of the running track and jumping pits. It then retains 22,000 seats. The movement lasts 80 hours, 40 people 20h/24h mobilized, and carried by ten distinct elements of 700 tons each.

Access to the gallery is through with 22 bridges and can be found at level 3 with a concentration of restaurants, entertainment areas, shops and central station security.

18 staircases lead viewers to the upper gallery located at Level 6.

The evacuation of 80,000 spectators on the porch out can occur in less than 15 minutes.[citation needed]

Field[edit]

Located at 11 meters below the court, the playing area measures 9,000 square meters (120 meters long and 75 meters wide) to a grassed area of 11,000 square meters. Nearly one billion seeds were sown to produce the first pitch in 1997. Today, the grass comes in rolls of 1.20 mx 8 m. Changing the pitch calls for three days of preparation and five days of installation. The change takes place several times a year, depending on the programming stage. Unlike many other stadiums, the Stade de France was built without under pitch heating, as the stadium was constructed on the site of an old gasworks,[13] and there were concerns it could cause an explosion.

Giant screens[edit]

As part of its policy of renewing its infrastructure, the Stade de France added two new big screens in September 2006. Covering an area of 196 sqm each, these screens are the largest located in a stadium in Europe.[citation needed] The new displays have a surface 58% greater than the previous screens installed in 1998. The newer giant screens are each composed of 4 423 680 LED (Light Emitting Diode) for a self-made images more fluid, faster, and more particularly bright.

Major sports matches[edit]

1998 FIFA World Cup matches[edit]

Date Time (CET) Team #1 Res. Team #2 Round Attendance
10 June 1998 17:30  Brazil 2–1  Scotland Group A (opening match) 80,000
13 June 1998 21:00  Netherlands 0–0  Belgium Group E 75,000
18 June 1998 21:00  France 4–0  Saudi Arabia Group C 80,000
23 June 1998 16:00  Italy 2–1  Austria Group B 80,000
26 June 1998 21:00  Romania 1–1  Tunisia Group G 77,000
28 June 1998 21:00  Nigeria 1–4  Denmark Round of 16 77,000
3 July 1998 16:30  Italy 0–0 (3–4 pen.)  France Quarter-final 77,000
8 July 1998 21:00  France 2–1  Croatia Semi-final 76,000
12 July 1998 21:00  Brazil 0–3  France Final 80,000

2003 FIFA Confederations Cup matches[edit]

Date Time (CET) Team #1 Res. Team #2 Round Attendance
18 June 2003 18:00  New Zealand 0–3  Japan Group A (opening match) 36,038
19 June 2003 21:00  Brazil 0–1  Cameroon Group B 46,719
21 June 2003 19:00  Cameroon 1–0  Turkey Group B 43,743
22 June 2003 21:00  France 5–0  New Zealand Group A 36,842
26 June 2003 21:00  France 3–2  Turkey Semi-final 41,195
29 June 2003 21:00  France 1–0 (a.e.t.)  Cameroon Final 51,985

2007 Rugby World Cup matches[edit]

Date Time (CET) Team #1 Result Team #2 Round Attendance
7 September 2007 20:00  France 12–17  Argentina Group D (opening match) 77,523
14 September 2007 20:00  England 0–36  South Africa Group A 79,312
21 September 2007 20:00  France 25–3  Ireland Group D 80,267
7 October 2007 20:00  Argentina 19–13  Scotland Quarter-final 76,866
13 October 2007 20:00  England 14–9  France Semi-final 80,283
14 October 2007 20:00  South Africa 37–13  Argentina Semi-final 77,055
20 October 2007 20:00  South Africa 15–6  England Final 80,430

UEFA Euro 2016 matches[edit]

Date Time (CET) Team #1 Res. Team #2 Round Attendance
10 June 2016 21:00  France 2–1  Romania Group A (opening match) 75,113
13 June 2016 18:00  Republic of Ireland 1–1  Sweden Group E 73,419
16 June 2016 21:00  Germany 0–0  Poland Group C 73,648
22 June 2016 18:00  Iceland 2–1  Austria Group F 68,714
27 June 2016 18:00  Italy 2–0  Spain Round of 16 76,165
3 July 2016 21:00  France 5–2  Iceland Quarter-final 76,833
10 July 2016 21:00  Portugal 1–0 (a.e.t.)  France Final 75,868

Concerts[edit]