Stade de France

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Stade de France
Stade de France logo.svg
Full nameStade de France
LocationZAC du Cornillon Nord
Saint-Denis, France
Public transitMetro-M.svg Paris Métro Line 13 Saint-Denis – Porte de Paris
RER.svg RER d Stade de France – Saint-Denis
RER.svg RER b La Plaine – Stade de France
OwnerConsortium Stade de France
OperatorConsortium Stade de France
Executive suites172
Capacity80,698 (football, rugby); 75,000 (athletics)[2]
Field size119 m × 75 m (130 yd × 82 yd)
SurfaceGrassMaster by Tarkett Sports
Built2 May 1995; 26 years ago (1995-05-02)
Opened28 January 1998; 23 years ago (1998-01-28)
Construction cost€364 million
ArchitectMichel Macary[1]
Aymeric Zublena[1]
Michel Regembal
Claude Constantini
France national football team (1998–present)
France national rugby union team (1998–present)
Stade Français (selected matches)
Racing 92 (selected matches)

The Stade de France (French pronunciation: ​[stad də fʁɑ̃s], lit.'Stadium of France') is the national stadium of France, located just north of Paris in the commune of Saint-Denis. Its seating capacity of 80,698 makes it the seventh-largest stadium in Europe. The stadium is used by the France national football team and French rugby union team for international competition. It is the largest in Europe for track and field events, seating 78,338 in that configuration. Despite that, the stadium's running track is mostly hidden under the football pitch. Originally built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, the stadium's name was recommended by Michel Platini, head of the organising committee. On 12 July 1998, France defeated Brazil 3–0 in the 1998 FIFA World Cup Final contested at the stadium. It will host the opening and closing ceremonies and the athletics events at the 2024 Summer Olympics. It will also host matches for the 2023 Rugby World Cup.

The Stade de France, listed as a Category 4 stadium by UEFA, hosted matches at the 1998 FIFA World Cup, the UEFA Champions League finals in 2000 and 2006, and the 1999 and 2007 Rugby World Cup, making it one of only two stadia in the world to have hosted both a Football World Cup final and a rugby union World Cup final (along with Nissan Stadium in Yokohama). It also hosted seven matches at UEFA Euro 2016, including the final, where France lost to Portugal 1-0 after extra-time. The facility also hosted the Race of Champions auto race in 2004, 2005, and 2006. The stadium hosted the 2003 World Championships in Athletics and from 1999 to 2016 it hosted the annual Meeting Areva athletics meet.

Domestically, the Stade de France serves as a secondary home facility of Parisian rugby clubs Stade Français and Racing Métro 92, hosting a few of their regular-season fixtures. The stadium also hosts the main French domestic cup finals, which include the Coupe de France (both football and rugby), Coupe de la Ligue, Challenge de France, and the Coupe Gambardella, as well as the Top 14 rugby union championship match.

The facility is owned and operated by the Consortium Stade de France.


The Stade de France visible from central Paris behind the Sacré-Cœur

The discussion of a national stadium in France came about as a result of the country's selection to host the 1998 FIFA World Cup on 2 July 1992. As a result of the selection, the country and the French Football Federation made a commitment to construct an 80,000+ capacity all-seater stadium with every seat in the facility being covered. It was the first time in over 70 years since the construction of the Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir that a stadium in France was being constructed for a specific event. Due to the magnitude and importance of the facility, the Council of State was allowed first hand approach to how the stadium would be constructed and paid for. The Council sought for the stadium to be built as close as possible to the capital of France, Paris, and that the constructor and operator of the facility would receive significant financial contribution for a period of 30 months following the completion of the stadium. The stadium's design was handled by the team of architects composed of Michel Macary, Aymeric Zublena, Michel Regembal, and Claude Constantini who were associated with CR SCAU Architecture.

The stadium was officially ready for construction following the government's selection of manufacturers, Bouygues, Dumez, and SGE, and the signing of building permits on 30 April 1995.[3][4] With only 31 months to complete the stadium, construction commenced on 2 May 1995. The laying of the first cornerstone took place five months later on 6 September. After over a year of construction, over 800,000m ² of earthworks had been created and as much as 180,000 m³ of concrete had been poured. The installation of the roof, which cost €45 million, and the mobile platform also took more than a year to complete.

During the developmental phase, the stadium was referred to in French as the Grand Stade ("large stadium" or "great stadium"). On 4 December 1995, the Ministry of Sport launched a design competition to decide on a name for the stadium. The stadium was officially named the Stade de France after the Ministry heard a proposal from French football legend Michel Platini, who recommended the name. The total cost of the stadium was €364 million.[5][6]

The stadium was inaugurated on 28 January 1998 as it hosted a football match between France and Spain. The match was played in front of 78,368 spectators, which included President Jacques Chirac, with France winning the match 1–0 with Zinedine Zidane scoring the lone goal, and the first-ever in the Stade de France, in the 20th minute.[7] Six months later, France returned to the stadium and defeated Brazil in the 1998 FIFA World Cup Final to earn their first World Cup title. Stade de France has hosted group, quarter-final, semi-final and the final match of 1998 FIFA World Cup.[8] The national rugby team's first match in the facility was contested five days after its opening, on 2 February, with France earning a 24–17 win over England in front of 77,567 spectators.[9] Philippe Bernat-Salles converted the first ever try at the stadium scoring it in the 11th minute of play.[10]

On 24 May 2000, the Stade de France hosted the 2000 UEFA Champions League Final. In the match, which saw 78,759 spectators attend, Spanish club Real Madrid defeated fellow Spaniards Valencia 3–0. In 2003, the Stade de France was the primary site of the 2003 World Championships in Athletics. Three years later in 2006, the facility hosted another UEFA Champions League final with another Spanish club Barcelona defeating England's Arsenal 2–1. On 9 May 2009, the Stade de France set the national attendance record for a sporting match played in France with 80,832 showing up to watch Guingamp upset Brittany rivals Rennes 2–1 in the 2009 Coupe de France Final. On 22 May 2010, the Stade de France hosted the 2010 Heineken Cup Final.[11] On 11 February 2012, a Six Nations international rugby game between France and Ireland had to be cancelled just before kick-off due to the pitch freezing as the stadium lacks under-soil heating.[12]

On 13 November 2015, in one of a series of coordinated shootings and bombings across Paris, the Stade de France was targeted with explosions occurring outside the stadium during an international friendly between France and Germany, with French President François Hollande in attendance. The terrorist, however, was unable to enter the stadium.[13] The explosion was able to be heard from inside the stadium, and many thought it was a firework going off inside the stadium. The attacker wanted to infiltrate the stadium, but was scared away when he saw security and was forced to detonate outside the park. The authorities very aware of what had occurred outside the stadium thought it would cause less panic if no one was told and the match continued. The safest place for those people was actually inside the stadium and not until after the match did many find out about what had transpired. The stadium now has training for another sort of attack, and the stadium has beefed up their security.[14] There have since been new guidelines issued, but not everyone is happy with new guidelines that the French police have issued.[15]

The opening ceremony of the 2016 European Football Championship

In 2016, the Stade de France was used as the central stadium for the 2016 Euros hosting seven matches.[16] The stadium was used for the opening ceremony of the tournament which saw French DJ David Guetta perform at the stadium. At the end of his set, Guetta invited Swedish singer Zara Larsson on stage to perform the tournament's official song "This One's for You".[17][18] Following the ceremony the stadium was used for the tournament's opening game which saw France beat Romania 2–1.[19] Across the next month, the stadium was used for six other tournament matches including the UEFA Euro 2016 Final between France and Portugal. The match followed the closing ceremony which again saw David Guetta perform.[20] Portugal defeated France in extra time by one goal to nill and lifted the tournament trophy for the first time.[21]


Stade de France with uncovered athletics track during the 2003 World Championships

The Stade de France has a movable stand which can be retracted to uncover part of the athletics track.[22] The stadium was notably designed with the assistance of a software simulation of crowd in order to get an accurate observation of how it would look fully developed. The facility was also intended to draw interest in and develop the area of the Plaine Saint-Denis, which straddle the communes of Saint-Denis, Aubervilliers, and Saint-Ouen. The primary goal was to renovate the area by building new residential and tertiary sites.

The stadium was built without any undersoil heating as noted when Ireland were due to play France in the Six Nations Tournament rugby union match of 2012, in which the game had to be canceled.

In 2002, the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABC) awarded a prize recognizing the unique structure of the Stade de France commenting that the Stade de France exhibited "a construction of an attractive open architecture of the city, with an elegance and natural lightness".


The last part of the metallic construction of the roof, 1997

Construction of the Stade de France's roof cost over €45 million. Its elliptical shape symbolizes the universality of sport in France. Its area of six hectares and weight, 13,000 tons, is considered a technical marvel by many. It was designed to easily protect the 80,000 spectators without covering the playing field. All lighting and sound, which include 550 lights and 36 blocks of 5 speakers, are housed inside to avoid obstructing visibility. The tinted glass in the center reduces the contrast and distributes natural light. It filters out red and infrared radiation, however, it allows blue and green lights, due to their necessity involving the health of the turf.


Visitors changing rooms


The Stade de France is the biggest modular stadium in the world with three galleries.

The forum is a low mobile platform of 25,000 seats. It is reached by the level 1. It may fall 15 feet to reveal all of the running track and jumping pits. It then retains 22,000 seats. The movement lasts 80 hours, 40 people 20h/24h mobilized, and carried by ten distinct elements of 700 tons each.

Access to the gallery is through with 22 bridges and can be found at level 3 with a concentration of restaurants, entertainment areas, shops and central station security.

18 staircases lead viewers to the upper gallery located at Level 6.

The evacuation of 80,000 spectators on the porch out can occur in less than 15 minutes.[citation needed]


Located at 11 meters below the court, the playing area measures 9,000 square meters (120 meters long and 75 meters wide) to a grassed area of 11,000 square meters. Nearly one billion seeds were sown to produce the first pitch in 1997. Today, the grass comes in rolls of 1.20 m x 8 m. Changing the pitch calls for three days of preparation and five days of installation. The change takes place several times a year, depending on the programming stage. Unlike many other stadiums, the Stade de France was built without under pitch heating, as the stadium was constructed on the site of an old gasworks,[23] and there were concerns[by whom?] it could cause an explosion.

Giant screens[edit]

As part of its policy of renewing its infrastructure, the Stade de France added two new big screens in September 2006. The new displays have a surface 58% greater than the previous screens installed in 1998. The newer giant screens are each composed of 4 423 680 LED (Light Emitting Diode) for a self-made images more fluid, faster, and more particularly bright.

Major sports matches[edit]

Sporting events held at the Stade de France include matches (preliminary contests as well as finals) of the 1998 FIFA World Cup, 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup, 2007 Rugby World Cup and UEFA Euro 2016. The 2023 Rugby World Cup, including the final, is also planned for the venue.


The stadium is also used for music concerts. The Rolling Stones, Tina Turner, U2, Metallica, Guns N' Roses, Muse, Rihanna, AC/DC, Justin Timberlake, Céline Dion, Bruno Mars, The Black Eyed Peas, Beyoncé, Jay Z, Coldplay, Red Hot Chili Peppers, One Direction, Eminem, Lady Gaga, Paul McCartney, Roger Waters, Prince, Madonna, The Police, BTS and Depeche Mode have performed here.

List of concerts
Year Date Performer Opening act Tour / event Attendance Additional notes
1998 25 July The Rolling Stones Jean-Louis Aubert Bridges to Babylon Tour 76,716 First concert at the stadium
1999 19 June Céline Dion Dany Brillant Let's Talk About Love World Tour 162,903 The concerts were filmed for the singer's concert film Au cœur du stade and recorded for the live album with the same name.
20 June
2000 5 July Tina Turner Joe Cocker Twenty Four Seven Tour 75,000
2001 22 June AC/DC The Offspring, Pure Rubbish Stiff Upper Lip World Tour
2002 21 September Various French rap artists Kery James Psy 4 de la Rime, Ärsenik, Fonky Family, Kool Shen, Joeystarr, B.O.S.S., Oxmo Puccino Urban Peace
2003 24 May Bruce Springsteen The Rising Tour
9 July The Rolling Stones Stereophonics Licks Tour 75,517
2004 24 June Paul McCartney 2004 Summer Tour
2005 9 July U2 Starsailor, Snow Patrol Vertigo Tour 160,349
10 July Snow Patrol, The Music
2006 28 July The Rolling Stones Razorlight A Bigger Bang 62,761
2007 16 June Starsailor
22 June George Michael 25 Live 63,583
29 September The Police Fiction Plane The Police Reunion Tour 157,906
30 September
2008 17 May Émile et Images Lio, Jean-Pierre Mader, Rose Laurens, Sabrina Salerno, Desireless, Jeanne Mas, Partenaire Particulier, Début de Soirée, Vivien Savage, Cookie Dingler, Jean Schultheis, Philippe Cataldo, Richard Sanderson, Murray Head, Opus, Léopold Nord & Vous, Kazino, Raft RFM Party 80
5 July David Guetta Tiësto, Carl Cox, Joachim Garraud, Martin Solveig Unighted 2008
29 August André Rieu
20 September Madonna Bob Sinclar Sticky & Sweet Tour 138,163
21 September
4 October Rohff Kenza Farah, Sinik, Booba, Soprano, Psy4 de la Rime, TFL, Léa Castel, Kery James, Rim'K, Mala, Tunisiano, Sefyu Urban Peace 2
2009 16 May Kassav'
12 June AC/DC The Answer, Café Bertrand Black Ice World Tour 74,549
27 June Depeche Mode M83 Tour of the Universe 65,005 The concert was recorded for the group's live albums project Recording the Universe.
4 July David Guetta Armin van Buuren, Sven Vath, Axwell, Steve Angello, Cathy Guetta Unighted Energized
11 July U2 Kaiser Chiefs U2 360° Tour 186,544 The performance of I'll Go Crazy If I Don't Go Crazy Tonight from the concert was recorded for the group's live album From the Ground Up: Edge's Picks from U2360°.
12 July The performance of Angel of Harlem from the concert was recorded for the group's live album From The Ground Up: Edge's Picks from U2360°.
11 September Mylène Farmer Mylène Farmer en tournée 163,457 The concerts were filmed and recorded for the singer's concert film and live album N°5 on Tour.
12 September
2010 11 June Muse Editors, The Big Pink, I Am Arrows The Resistance Tour
12 June Kasabian, White Lies, DeVotchKa
18 June AC/DC Slash, Killing Machine Black Ice World Tour 76,375
26 June Indochine Meteor Tour The concert was filmed and recorded for the group's concert film and live album Putain de stade.
18 September U2 Interpol U2 360° Tour 96,540 The performance of Moment of Surrender from the concert was recorded for the group's live EP Wide Awake in Europe.
2011 11 June Manu Dibango, Petit Pays, Fally Ipupa, Jessy Matador, Passi, Werrason, Patience Dabany, Sekouba Bambino, Mory Kanté, Alpha Blondy, Magic System, Meiway, Mokobé, Oumou Sangaré, Negro pou la vi, Coumba Gawlo, Baaba Maal Nuit Africaine
22 June The Black Eyed Peas David Guetta The Beginning
24 June Natalia Kills
25 June
30 June Prince Welcome 2
2012 12 May Metallica Gojira, The Kills 2012 European Black Album Tour 72,975 Noise record (Gojira).[24]
30 June Red Hot Chili Peppers The Vaccines I'm With You World Tour The concert was recorded for the group's live albums project Red Hot Chili Peppers Official Bootlegs.
14 July Madonna Martin Solveig, MDNA Tour 62,195
2 September Coldplay Marina and the Diamonds, Charli XCX Mylo Xyloto Tour 77,813 Part of the concert was filmed and recorded for the group's concert film and live album Coldplay Live 2012. Rihanna appeared onstage for two songs.
22 September Lady Gaga Lady Starlight, Rerelolewa Oyedele Born This Way Ball 76,000
2013 8 June Rihanna David Guetta, WE ARE GTA Diamonds World Tour 78,841 At that time, Rihanna became the youngest act ever to headline the stadium.
15 June Depeche Mode Douglas McCarthy The Delta Machine Tour 67,103
21 June Muse Paramore, fun. The 2nd Law World Tour 150,936
22 June Biffy Clyro, Dizzie Rascal, Polly Money
29 June Bruce Springsteen Wrecking Ball World Tour 61,867
22 August Eminem Kendrick Lamar, Earlwolf, Earl Sweatshirt, Tyler, The Creator, Slaughterhouse 71,542
21 September Roger Waters The Wall Live 69,119
28 September Sexion d'Assaut IAM, Orelsan, Psy 4 de la Rime, La Fouine, Youssoupha Urban Peace 3
2014 26 April Justin Timberlake The 20/20 Experience World Tour 57,286
13 June The Rolling Stones 14 On Fire 76,495
20 June One Direction McBusted Where We Are Tour 114,172
21 June
27 June Indochine Black City Tour Two concerts were filmed and recorded for the group's concert film and live album Black City Concerts.
28 June
12 September Beyoncé and Jay Z On the Run Tour 147,012 The concerts were aired by HBO. Nicki Minaj appeared on stage for one song.
13 September
2015 23 May AC/DC Rock or Bust World Tour 150,000
26 May
11 June Paul McCartney Out There
2016 21 July Beyoncé Chloe x Halle, Ingrid The Formation World Tour 75,106
30 July Rihanna Big Sean, DJ Mustard Anti World Tour
2017 1 July Depeche Mode Algiers Global Spirit Tour 58,199
7 July Guns N' Roses Biffy Clyro Not in This Lifetime... Tour 60,438
15 July Coldplay A Head Full of Dreams Tour 235,611
16 July
18 July
25 July U2 Noel Gallagher's High Flying Birds The Joshua Tree Tour 2017 154,486
26 July
15 September Les Insus Dernier Appel
16 September
2018 30 June Bruno Mars DNCE, DJ Rashida 24K Magic World Tour
6 July Ed Sheeran Anne Marie, Jamie Lawson ÷ Tour 153,065
7 July
14 July Beyoncé and Jay Z On the Run II Tour 111,615
15 July The 2018 FIFA World Cup Final was broadcast live before the start of the concert.
12 May Metallica Ghost
WorldWired Tour 74,889
7 June BTS BTS World Tour Love Yourself: Speak Yourself 107,328
8 June
29 June Rockin' 1000
5 July Muse Simulation Theory World Tour 131,321
6 July
29 November Maître Gims Fuego Tour 72,000
2020 4 July Rockin' 1000
24 July Lady Gaga The Chromatica Ball
2022 8 July[25] Red Hot Chili Peppers Anderson .Paak & the Free Nationals
2022 Global Stadium Tour
9 July

Noise record[edit]

On 12 May 2012, the French heavy metal band Gojira performed at the stadium as the opening act for Metallica during their European Black Album Tour.[24] Gojira's concert was measured at 120 decibels in the corridors backstage,[24] which broke the record for the loudest sound ever recorded at the Stade de France.[26]

On 11 April 2015, the crowd noise produced by the 80,000 people at the Stade de France during the 2015 Coupe de la Ligue Final reached 109 decibels, which set the world record for the noisiest stadium recorded during a final match of a football tournament.[27]


The Stade de France has no regular tenant other than the French national football and rugby teams. Repeated attempts to persuade a professional football or rugby team to move there have failed so far. Upon the construction of the stadium, Paris Saint-Germain declined to move there, choosing to remain at the Parc des Princes under pressure from its then-owner (pay-TV network Canal Plus) and the Paris city government.

However, the Paris rugby club Stade Français have now established themselves as a semi-regular tenant. They began by scheduling their Top 14 home fixture on 15 October 2005 against Toulouse at Stade de France. Stade Français's president, Max Guazzini, publicly said that the club would have to sell 25,000 to 30,000 tickets to break even. Three weeks before the match, 61,000 tickets had been sold, setting a French record for tickets sold to a league match for any sport, including football. The final attendance was 79,454, smashing the national attendance record for a league match in any sport by more than 20,000. Five minutes before the end of the Toulouse match, Guazzini announced to the crowd that Stade Français's scheduled home fixture against Biarritz in March 2006 would also be held at Stade de France.[28] The Stade-Biarritz match broke the attendance record from earlier in the season, with 79,604 present.

Guazzini then booked the Stade de France for the same two league fixtures in 2006–07. The Biarritz match on 16 October 2006 drew 79,619, making this the third consecutive Stade Français fixture at the Stade de France to set an all-time French attendance record. The record was broken yet again at a match against Toulouse on 27 January 2007, with 79,741 filling the stands. Stade Français went on to schedule three home matches at Stade de France in the 2007–08 season. For the 2008–09 season, they booked Stade de France for three home league matches and a Heineken Cup pool match. The number of Stade Français home matches at Stade de France increased again for 2009–10, with five Top 14 fixtures already announced for the stadium.

Even with the lack of a regular league tenant, the stadium's revenue increased greatly in 2007, as it was used extensively during the 2007 Rugby World Cup in France, where it hosted numerous pool matches, a quarterfinal match, both of the semi finals and the final.

The Lille OSC football team played all its "home" games in European competition during the 2005–06 season, both in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Cup, at the Stade de France because its own stadium was then under renovation, and the only nearer alternative on French soil, Stade Félix-Bollaert, was not available as that ground's occupant, Lille's local rival Lens, was also participating in the UEFA Cup. The Stade de France has hosted the Champions League final on two occasions: 2000 (Real Madrid 3 Valencia 0), and 2006 (Barcelona 2 Arsenal 1).

Future developments[edit]

France's governing body for rugby union, the French Rugby Federation (FFR), announced in November 2010 that it would not renew its deal to use Stade de France for international rugby matches when it expires in 2013. FFR also stated that it planned to build a new stadium of its own in the Paris region.[29]

Reportedly, the FFR had become increasingly frustrated with several aspects of the deal. According to rugby journalist Ian Moriarty, "The deal with the Stade de France has been a disaster for the FFR financially over the years, forcing France's powerbrokers to look across the English channel at the RFU's Twickenham cash cow with ever increasing envy."[30] Reports vary widely as to how much the FFR must spend to rent out the stadium, but estimates range from €3 million[30] to €5 million[31] per match. Although the Stade de France and Twickenham are roughly the same size, the rental expense means that the FFR reportedly makes about one-third as much from a Stade de France sellout as does the RFU from a sellout at Twickenham.[31] In addition, the national rugby team does not enjoy primacy at the Stade de France; the national football team and major concerts take priority. FFR had to move two of its 2010–11 home Tests to Montpellier and Nantes due to fixture clashes with the national football team.[30] Also, former FFR president Serge Blanco claimed that the 2009 Top 14 final had to be moved from May to June because of a conflict with a Johnny Hallyday rock concert.[29]

In June 2012, FFR announced that it had selected the site for its new ground, tentatively known as Grand Stade FFR.[32] The 82,000-seat stadium, featuring a retractable roof and slide-out pitch, was to be built on a former horse racing track in Évry, about 25 km (16 mi) south of Paris. The new stadium, estimated to cost €600 million, was originally scheduled to open in 2017,[30] but completion was later pushed back to the 2021/2022 time frame.[33] FFR officially abandoned the stadium project in December 2016.[34]


Although located at the crossroads of auto-routes A1 and A86, it is not advisable to go there by car unless one has reserved parking. The stadium was built with a very limited number of parking spaces, which is why public transportation is considered the primary means of getting to the stadium. River shuttles are provided by the Canal Saint-Denis.

As part of the Grand Paris Express project and 2024 Olympic and Paralympic Games, a new station at Saint-Denis Pleyel is under construction, connected by a bridge to the Stade de France–Saint-Denis station. Initially served by Line 14 in time for the Games, the station will eventually serve 4 different Métro lines.[35][36]

Public transport stations serving Stade de France
Station Line
La Plaine – Stade de France RER B
Stade de France – Saint-Denis RER D
Saint-Denis – Porte de Paris Paris Métro Line 13 and Tramway Line 8
La Plaine – Stade de France RATP 139, 153, 173, 239, 253
Saint-Denis – Porte de Paris RATP 153, 154, 168, 170, 239, 253, 254, 255, 256, 268
Delaunay-Rimet RATP 239, 253


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  9. ^ France 24 – 17 England Archived 19 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine
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  11. ^ "Toulouse outmuscle Biarritz to win uninspiring Heineken Cup final". The Guardian. 23 May 2010.
  12. ^ "Six Nations: France v Ireland match called off at last minute". BBC Sport.
  13. ^, Tanveer Mann for. "BREAKING: Two explosions heard in Stade de France during France v Germany game". Metro. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
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  15. ^ "Euro 2016 Terror Test-Run Didn't Go Exactly to Plan". NBC News. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
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  19. ^ "France 2-1 Romania". 10 June 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
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  25. ^ "2022 GLOBAL STADIUM TOUR UPCOMING DATES". Retrieved 19 October 2021.
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  27. ^ "Le Stade de France bat un record du monde de décibels" [Stade de France breaks a world decibel record]. Le Figaro (in French). Paris. 11 April 2015. Archived from the original on 16 January 2021. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
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  36. ^ "GARE SAINT-DENIS PLEYEL - LE CŒUR DU GRAND PARIS EXPRESS" (PDF). Société du Grand Paris (in French). July 2018.

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(formal opening and cultural closing ceremonies)
Los Angeles

Coordinates: 48°55′27.977″N 2°21′36.374″E / 48.92443806°N 2.36010389°E / 48.92443806; 2.36010389