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A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and logistical needs of its unit. It provides bi-directional flow of information between a commanding officer and subordinate military units. A staff also provides an executive function where it filters information needed by the commander or shunts unnecessary information.
- 1 Military staff functions
- 2 History
- 3 Continental staff system
- 4 British/Commonwealth staff
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Military staff functions
One of the key purposes of a military staff is to provide accurate, timely information (which includes the results of contingency planning) on which command decisions are based. A goal is being able to suggest approaches or help produce well-informed decisions that will effectively manage and conserve unit resources.
In addition to generating information, the staff also manages the flow of communication within the unit and around it. While controlled information flow toward the commander is a priority, those useful or contingent in nature are communicated to lower-level units and/or through their respective staffs. If the information is not pertinent to the unit, it is redirected to the command level which can best utilize the condition or information.
Staffs are generally the first to know of issues that affect its group. Issues that require major decisions affecting the unit's operational capability are communicated to the commanding officer. However, not all issues will be handled by the commander. Smaller matters that arise are given to a more appropriate tasker within the unit to be handled and resolved, which would otherwise be an unnecessary distraction for the Commanding Officer who already makes numerous decisions every day.
In addition, a staff aims to carefully craft any useful situations and utilize that information.
In a generic command staff, more seasoned and senior officers oversee staff sections of groups organized by the needs of the unit. Senior Enlisted Personnel task personnel in the maintenance of tactical equipment and vehicles. Senior Analysts are tasked with the finalizing of reports, and their enlisted personnel participate in the acquisition of information from subordinate staffs and units. This hierarchy places decision making and reporting under the auspices of the most experienced personnel and maximizes information flow of pertinent information sent out of the command overall, clarifying matters overall. This frees up the most senior members of the command at each level for decision making and issuing direction for further research or information gathering (perhaps requiring men to put their lives at risk to gather additional intelligence).
Operations staff officers also are tasked with battle planning both for offensive and defensive conditions, and issuing contingency plans for handling situations anticipated during the foreseeable future.
Prior to the late 18th century, there was generally no organizational support for staff functions such as military intelligence, logistics, planning or personnel. Unit commanders handled such functions for their units, with informal help from subordinates who were usually not trained for or assigned to a specific task.
The Original Staff: Austria
A great deal of mythology surrounds the origin of the modern staff system as a tool of army management. It was perfected by the Prussians, but despite the claims of many American and British authors, it does not originate in France, especially not with Napoleon and General Louis Alexandre Berthier. The claims made about Pierre-Joseph Bourcet and his staff college at Grenoble are myths.
In a great irony of history, it was the French attaché to the Austrian court, Montazet, whose memorandum was used by Count Leopold Joseph von Daun in January 1758 in a letter to the Empress Maria Theresa to press for a more important role for the Generalquartiermeister (Chief of Staff). The failures in the army, especially at the Battle of Leuthen made it clear that Austria had no “great brain” and the command needed to spread the workload to allow the Commander-in-chief the time to consider the strategic picture. The 1757 regulations had created the Grosse Feldgeneralstab and Kleine Generalstab and after changes in 1769, a permanent staff of 30 officers was established under the Director, Franz Moritz von Lacy, which would be expanded in wartime with junior officers. The Grosse staff was divided into three: First, the Intrinsecum, which handled internal administration and directing operations; secondly, external activities, including the Pioneers; thirdly, the Inspection Service, which handled the issuing of orders and prisoners of war. Alongside the General Staff was the General Adjutant, who led a group of Adjutant staff selected by the army commanders to handle the details of internal administration and collating intelligence, and answered to the Commander-in-chief. The Chief of Staff became the chief adviser to the Commander-in-chief and, in a fundamental move away from the previous administrative role, the Chief of Staff now undertook operational planning, while delegating the routine work to his senior staff officers. Staff officers were drawn from line units and would later return to them, the intention being that they would prove themselves as leaders during their time with the staff. In a battle or when the army had detached corps, a small number of staff would be allocated to the column commander as a smaller version of headquarters. The senior man, usually a Major, would be the chief of the column staff and his principal task would be to help the commander to understand what was intended.
When Karl Mack von Leiberich became chief of staff of the army under Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld in the Netherlands, he issued the Instruktionspunkte fur die gesamte Herren Generals, the last of 19 points setting out the roles of staff officers, dealing with offensive and defensive operations, while helping the Commander-in-chief. In 1796, Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen augmented these with his own Observationspunkte, writing of the Chief of Staff: “he is duty bound to consider all possibilities related to operations and not view himself as merely carrying out those instructions”. On 20 March 1801, Feldmarschalleutnant Duka became the world's first peacetime Generalquartiermeister at the head of the staff and the wartime role of the Chief of Staff was now focused on planning and operations to assist the Commander. Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen himself produced a new Dienstvorschrift on 1 September 1805, which divided the staff into three: 1) Political Correspondence; 2) the Operations Directorate, dealing with planning and intelligence; 3) the Service Directorate, dealing with administration, supply and military justice. The Archduke set out the position of a modern Chief of Staff: “The Chief of Staff stands at the side of the Commander-in-Chief and is completely at his disposal. His sphere of work connects him with no specific unit”. “The Commander-in-Chief decides what should happen and how; his chief assistant works out these decisions, so that each subordinate understands his allotted task”. With the creation of the Korps in 1809, each had a staff, whose chief was responsible for directing operations and executing the overall headquarters plan. The staff on the outbreak of war in 1809 numbered over 170. Finally in 1811, Joseph Radetzky von Radetz produced his Uber die bessere Einrichtung des Generalstabs, which prioritised the Chief of Staff’s managerial and supervisory role with the departments (Political Correspondence, Operations and Service)under their own directors, effectively merging the Adjutants and General Staff officers. In this system lay the beginnings of a formal staff corps, whose members could specialise in operations, intelligence and logistics.
The Mythological Staff: France
Despite a short lived permanent staff under St-Cyr (1783–90), the French reverted to the old system in 1790, when the Revolutionary Government abolished the staff corps. When General Louis Alexandre Berthier was appointed Chief of Staff to the French Army of Italy in 1795, his was the old administrative role, accurately described by Jomini and Vachee as "the chief clerk" and "of limited competence". His manual is merely a reporting system as a kind of office manual. Staff officers were rotated out of the line on the Austrian model, but received no training and merely became efficient in the administrative tasks, especially the rapid issuance of orders. It suited Napoleon Bonaparte from the moment he took over the army the following year and he would use Berthier's system throughout his wars. Crucially, Napoleon remained his own intelligence chief and operational planner, a workload, which ultimately, not even he could cope with.
Prussia adopted Austria's approach in the following years, especially when Gerhard von Scharnhorst, who as a Hanoverian staff officer had worked with the Austrian army in the Austrian Netherlands in the early 1790s, took charge. Initially, the Prussian Army assigned a limited number of technical expert officers to support field commanders. Before 1746, however, reforms had added management of intelligence and contingency planning to the staff's duties. Later, the practice was initiated of rotating officers from command to staff assignments and back to familiarize them with both aspects of military operations, a practice that, with the addition of enlisted personnel, continues to be used. After 1806, Prussia's military academies trained mid-level officers in specialist staff skills. In 1814, Prussia formally established by law a central military command—Prussian General Staff—and a separate staff for each division and corps. Despite some professional and political issues with the Prussian system, especially when viewed through the prism of the 20th century World Wars, their General Staff concept has been adopted by many large armies in existence today.
United States implementation
While the U.S. armed forces have adopted the staff organizational structure described below, the general staff concept has been largely rejected. This is partly due to U.S. concern that the professional members of general staffs have historically demonstrated a tendency to lose touch with the operational forces they direct, and have occasionally come to regard their judgements as equal to, if not superior to, the civilian governments they nominally serve. The German general staffs of both World Wars serve as examples of the down-side of the general staff concept in implementation. The National Security Act of 1947 instead created a Joint Staff populated by military service members who, rather than becoming career staff officers on the German general staff model, rotate into (and back out of) joint staff positions. Following the major revision of Title 10 of the United States Code by the Goldwater–Nichols Act in 1986, the Joint Staff of today works directly for the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff rather than the corporate Joint Chiefs of Staff, as they did from 1947 to 1986. Under this scheme, operational command and control of military forces are not the province of the Joint Staff, but that of combatant commanders, who report through the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff unless otherwise directed, to the Secretary of Defense.
Continental staff system
Most NATO countries have adopted the continental staff system (also known as the general staff system) in structuring their militaries' staff functions. In this system, which is based on one originally employed by the French Army in the 19th century, each staff position in a headquarters or unit is assigned a letter-prefix corresponding to the formation's element and one or more numbers specifying a role.
- 1, for manpower or personnel
- 2, for intelligence and security
- 3, for operations
- 4, for logistics
- 5, for plans
- 6, for signal (i.e., communications or IT)
- 7, for training (also the joint engineer)
- 8, for finance and contracts. Also known as resource management.
- 9, for Civil-Military Co-operation (CIMIC) or civil affairs.
Since the original continental staff system only covered branches 1 through 6, it is not uncommon to see 7 though 9 omitted or having various meanings. Common variation include merging of 3 and 5 to 3, Operations and Plans; omitting the training branch and utilizing 7 for engineering (as seen in US Military Sealift Command and Multinational Forces-Iraq (MNF-I)) and replacing 9 with a legal-branch (making CIMIC a part of another branch, i.e. 2 or 4) as seen with the UK Permanent Joint Headquarters.
Derived from the Prussian Große Generalstab (Great General Staff), traditionally these staff functions were prefixed by the simple G, which is retained in place for modern army usage. But the increasing complexity of modern armies, not to speak of the spread of the staff concept to naval and other elements, has demanded the addition of new prefixes. These element prefixes are:
- A, for air force headquarters;
- C, for combined headquarters (multiple nations) headquarters;
- F, for certain forward or deployable headquarters;
- G, for army or marines general staff sections within headquarters of organizations commanded by a general officer and having a chief of staff to coordinate the actions of the general staff, such as divisions or equivalent organizations (e.g., USMC Marine Aircraft Wing and Marine Logistics Group) and separate (i.e., non-divisional) brigade level (USMC MEB) and above;
- J, for joint (multiple services) headquarters;
- N, for navy headquarters; and
- S, for army or marines executive staff sections within headquarters of organizations commanded by a field grade officer (i.e., major through colonel) and having an executive officer to coordinate the actions of the executive staff (e.g., divisional brigades, regiments, groups, battalions, and squadrons; not used by all countries);
On some occasions the letter E can also be observed, though it is not an official term. In that case it is for element and it will be used to identify a small independent element, that is a part of a non-staff organization; i.e., an E3 is an operational element on a logistics site or an E4 is a logistics element on a forward medical support site.
Thus, the personnel officer of a naval headquarters would be referred to as N1. In reality, in large organizations each of these staff functions will require the support of its own large staff, so N1 refers both to the office and the officer in charge of it. The continental staff system can be carried down to the next level: J1.3 (or J13, sometimes the dot-separator is omitted) is thus the operations officer of the personnel office of a joint headquarters, but the exact definition of the roles at this level may vary. Below this, numbers can be attached following a hyphen, but these are usually only positional numbers assigned arbitrarily to identify individuals (G2.3-2 could be the budget officer in the operations section of the intelligence department; A1.1-1-1 might simply be a receptionist).
Manpower or personnel (1)
The manpower or personnel officer supervises personnel and administration systems. This department functions as the essential administrative liaison between the subordinate units and the headquarters, handling personnel actions coming from the bottom up (such as a request for an award to be given to a particular soldier) or from the top down (such as orders being received from the army level directing that a particular soldier be reassigned to a new unit outside the command). In army units, this person is often called the Adjutant. The S1 also works with the postal mailing office. S-1 deals with awards and ranks as well.
Intelligence, security, and information operations (2)
The intelligence section is responsible for collecting and analyzing intelligence information about the enemy to determine what the enemy is doing, or might do, to prevent the accomplishment of the unit's mission. This office may also control maps and geographical information systems and data. At the unit level, the S2 is the unit's security officer, and the S2 section manages all security clearance issues for the unit's personnel. Other duties of the S2 often include intelligence oversight and physical security.
The operations office may include plans and training. The operations office plans and coordinates operations, and all things necessary to enable the formation to operate and accomplish its mission. In most units, the operations office is the largest of the staff sections and considered the most important. All aspects of sustaining the unit's operations, planning future operations, and additionally planning and executing all unit training, fall under the responsibility of operations. The operations office is also tasked with keeping track of the weekly training schedules. In most military units (i.e., battalion, regiment, and brigade), the operations officer carries the same rank as the executive officer (XO), but would obviously rank third in the unit's chain of command while the other staff officers are one rank lower. For example, in a battalion, the S3 would hold the rank of major (like the battalion XO), while the remaining staff officers are captains or lieutenants.
The logistics office is responsible for managing the wide scope of materiel, transport, facilities, services and medical/health support:
- Design, development, acquisition, storage, distribution, maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of materiel.
- Transport of personnel and materiel.
- Acquisition or construction, maintenance, operation, and disposition of facilities.
- Acquisition or furnishing of services.
- Medical and health service support.
By NATO doctrine, the logistic staff is tasked with overseeing logistic aspects and principles, where the focus is that logistic support must be focused towards ensuring the success of the operation and prescriptions of elements such as responsibility and authority. A logistic staff may be divided into sections based on branch or geographic area. Each section may in turn also be divided into tasks and roles. The size of the logistic staff can vary greatly, depending on the environment and complexity of operations. NATO in example work with a Multinational Joint Logistic Centre, which exists outside of the force commander's staff, but runs as a separate entity/unit, with only a few logistic personnel in the commander's staff who act as liaisons.
Plans and strategy (5)
The plans and strategy office is responsible for civil military operations (CMO) strategy planning. At the unit level, the S5 is the primary adviser to the commander on the civilian-to-military and military-to-civilian impact of the mission/operation within the host nation's (HN) area of interest (AOI), area of operations (AO), or the target area of interest (TAOI). The G5 serves as the mission support office (MSO) at the division level and HHC for civil military plans and strategy.
Signal (communications and IT) (6)
The signal office directs all communications and is the point of contact for the issue of communications instructions and protocol during operations as well as for communications troubleshooting, issue, and preventative maintenance. Communications at this level is paired with digital as well as voice (radio, computer, etc.). At the unit level, S6 is also usually responsible for all electronic systems within a unit to include computers, faxes, copy machines, and phone systems.
The training branch will organize and coordinate training activity conducted by a Headquarters and also supervise and support subordinate units.
The finance branch, not to be confused with Administration from which it has split, sets the finance policy for the operation. Operationally, the Administration and Finance may be interlinked, but have separate reporting chains.
Civil-Military Co-operation or civil affairs are the activities that establish, maintain, influence, or exploit relations between the military forces, the government or non-government civilian organizations and authorities, and the civilian populace in a friendly, neutral, or hostile area of operations in order to facilitate military operations and consolidate and achieve mission objectives. See Army FM 41-10.
Up until 1984, when it began to use the continental or NATO system, the United Kingdom operated its own system, with three branches:
- G branch
- The general branch, responsible for operations, intelligence and training.
- A branch
- The administration branch, responsible for all aspects of personnel management.
- Q branch
- The quartermaster branch, responsible for logistic and equipment support.
Positions were labelled as follows:
- GSO1, General Staff Officer (Grade 1)
- The chief of staff, ranked a lieutenant colonel or colonel. He was in charge of the general staff branch, responsible for training, intelligence, planning operations and directing the battle as it progressed. Most orders from the general officer commanding (GOC) were actually written up and signed by the GSO1.
- GSO2, General Staff Officer (Grade 2)
- Ranked a major.
- GSO3, General Staff Officer (Grade 3)
- Ranked a captain.
The positions may also be styled GSO I, GSO II, GSO III.
"The British did have staff officers as far back as the Crimean War working in these three cells but staff work was looked at with great disdain in the British Army and only became acceptable after the terrible hardships of the Crimean war, brought on by disorganization" The General Staff in Britain was formed in 1905, and reorganized again in 1908. Unlike the Prussian staff system, the British Army was thought too small to support separate staff and command career streams. Officers would typically alternate between staff and command. Beevor, Inside the British Army, says instead that the terrible cleavages between staff and line units caused by the enormous losses during the trench warfare of the First World War meant that senior British officers decided that from thenceforth all officers would rotate between staff and line responsibilities, preventing the development of a separate general staff corps.
In the British system, staff are outranked by command officers. The staff cannot in theory (and largely in practice) say "no" to a subordinate unit; only the commander has that ability. The principal staff officers at any HQ were always outranked by the subordinate commanders:
- Lieutenant colonels commanding battalions or units in a brigade outrank the brigade major and the deputy assistant adjutant and quartermaster general
- Brigadiers commanding brigades in a division outrank the colonel GS and colonel AQ
- Major generals commanding divisions outrank the brigadier GS and assistant adjutant general and assistant quartermaster general at a corps HQ
This ensured a clear chain of command, and reinforced the idea that staff do not command, but exercise control on behalf of their commander. By contrast, in the American system, commanders are frequently outranked by staff officers. For example, within a battalion, the S3 is a major while company commanders are captains.
G branch (operations) plans and executes operations. The senior staff officer in brigade HQ was a brigade major (BM, rank major), who coordinated the HQ. While the BM was responsible for the entire HQ, he concentrated mainly on "G" operational matters. A deputy BM GSO III generally looked after non-operational matters. Under the BM were several GSO III (rank captain) officers:
- Operations (the senior captain)
- Liaison. The Liaison section often had several lieutenants attached from the brigade's combat units.
A branch handled all personnel matters: awards, postings, promotions, medical, chaplains, military police and so forth. There were usually one or two GSO III officers in A branch.
Q Branch handled logistics, supply, transport, clothing, maintenance. There was usually one GSO III officer, with a learner captain or lieutenant, and several advisors, all captains:
- Brigade Royal Army Service Corps Officer (BRASCO)
- Brigade Ordnance Officer (BOO)
- Brigade Electrical and Mechanical Engineer Officer (BEME)
A and Q branches might be combined under a deputy assistant adjutant and quartermaster general, rank major (DAA&QMG).
G branch was headed by the brigadier general staff (BGS, rank brigadier). The BGS was usually superior to the AAG and AQMG, despite all three having the same rank.
A branch was headed by the Assistant adjutant general (AAG, rank brigadier). He was assisted by the deputy assistant adjutant general (DAAG, rank lieutenant-colonel).
Q branch was headed by the assistant quartermaster general (AQMG rank brigadier).
The G staff for a corps might appear as below:
- Operations and staff duties:
- GSO I
- GSO II (Ops)
- GSO II (Ops)(CW)
- GSO II (SD)—Staff Duties
- 2 × GSO III (SD)
- GSO II (Air)
- GSO II (Int)
- 2 × GSO III (Int)
- GSO II (L)
- 3 × GSO III (L)
- Royal Artillery:
- GSO II (RA)
- GSO II (AA)
- GSO III (RA)
- Chief of the General Staff
- General officer
- Brigade major (BM)
- Commander, Royal Artillery (CRA)
- People's Liberation Army General Staff Department (People's Republic of China)
- German General Staff
- Hellenic National Defense General Staff (Greece)
- Hellenic Army General Staff (Greece)
- General Staff of the Israel Defense Forces
- Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office
- Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff
- Polish General Staff
- General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation
- Turkish General Staff
- General Staff of the Ukrainian Armed Forces
- Chief of the Defence Staff (United Kingdom)
- Chiefs of Staff Committee (U.K.)
- Joint Chiefs of Staff (U.S.)
- List of active duty United States four-star officers
- General officers in the United States
- Headquarters and headquarters company (U.S.)
- Stavka (Russia)
- Military Staff Committee#Organisation of the MSC (United Nations)
- United Nations#Peacekeeping and security
- Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE)
- General Staff (Vietnam People's Army) (Vietnam)
- The worst offender is probably Hittle, J.D. 'The military staff: its history and development' (1944) - note the date
- Duffy, C. 'Instrument of War' p.381
- 1769 Generalsreglement Book 1, Part 2, Chap. VIII p.145f https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=L9u_Ve3DArIC&pg=RA9-PA6&lpg=RA9-PA6&dq=reglement+fur+die+sammtliche+kaiserlich-konigliche+Infanterie&source=bl&ots=fyrm6-VXzr&sig=Az5mZTBA8G5j6UyyHyv-D9gr828&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiQ9ubbx6fOAhXkJMAKHVJTDCkQ6AEIVDAI#v=onepage&q=reglement%20fur%20die%20sammtliche%20kaiserlich-konigliche%20Infanterie&f=false
- Osterreichische Militärische Zeitschrift (Streffleur, Vienna) 1860 III, 229-233
- Regele, O.: Generalstabschefs aus vier Jahrhunderten (Vienna) 1966, p.55
- Kriegsgeschichtliche Abteilung des k.u.k. Kriegsarchivs: Befreiungskriege (Kriegsarchiv, Vienna) 1913 Vol. V 'Leipzig'
- Fremont-Barnes, G. (editor) 'Armies of the Napoleonic Wars' 2011; Kriegsarchiv Vienna, Nachlasse Wolf-Schneider, B/197, 6/IX
- Vachee, 'Napoleon at Work' (1914) p.29ff
- NATO SHAPE structure
- Department of the Army (1997). Staff organization and Operations (FM 101-5) (PDF). pp. 4–16.
- The Command and Staff System in the Information Age: Is the Continental Staff System Dead?
- MSC N7
- MNF-I J7 Directorate
- UK Permanent Joint Headquarters (PJHQ) headquarter structure
- Joint Publication 1-02 DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms
- AJP-4: Allied Joint Logistic Doctrine
- NATO Logistics Handbook Chapter 13: Multinational Logistics
- Australian Division HQ
- Bartholomees, J. Boone Buff Facings and Gilt Buttons: Staff and Headquarters Operations in the Army of Northern Virginia, 1861–1865 (University of South Carolina Press, 1998) ISBN 1-57003-220-3.
- Crosswell, D.K.R. The Chief of Staff: The Military Career of General Walter Bedell Smith (Greenwood Press, 1991) ISBN 0-313-27480-0.
- Fremont-Barnes, G. (editor) Armies of the Napoleonic Wars (2011)
- Goerlitz, Walter History of the German General Staff 1657–1945 (Praeger 1954).
- Hittle, James Donald The Military Staff: Its History and Development (Military Service Publishing, 1944)
- Jones, R. Steven J The Right Hand of Command: Use and Disuse of Personal Staffs in the American Civil War (Stackpole Books, 2000) ISBN 0-8117-1451-9.
- Koch, Oscar W. G-2: Intelligence for Patton: Intelligence for Patton (Schiffer Aviation History, 1999) ISBN 0-7643-0800-9.
- Pigman, Robyn. "All Systems Green: A Concise History of Chicken Bak Bak and the S6 Offensive" (Nelson Ltd) ISBN 978-9948150510.
- Regele, O.: Generalstabschefs aus vier Jahrhunderten (Vienna 1966)
- Watson, S.J. By Command of the Emperor: A Life of Marshal Berthier (Ken Trotman Ltd) ISBN 0-946879-46-X.
- Irvine, D.D. The French and Prussian Staff Systems Before 1870 in The Journal of the American Military Foundation Vol. 2, No. 4 (Winter, 1938), pp. 192-203 (https://www.jstor.org/stable/3038792?seq=1#fndtn-page_scan_tab_contents)
- Houghton Mifton's College Readers Companion to Military History entry for General Staff
- US Joint Chiefs of Staff- see the Joint Staff link on the left for links to J1 through J8 or click here for an organizational chart
- US Air Force regulations- see AFDD 1-2 for list of staff functions
- Staff in 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica
- "General Staff". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.
- SHAPE Staff Structure Evolution 1951–2010
- Canadian Rank and Appointment Abbreviations
- Staff Systems and the Canadian Air force
- Staff Officers