|Directed by||Billy Wilder|
|Produced by||Billy Wilder|
|Screenplay by||Edwin Blum
|Based on||Stalag 17
by Donald Bevan
|Narrated by||Gil Stratton|
|Music by||Franz Waxman|
|Cinematography||Ernest Laszlo, ASC|
|Edited by||George Tomasini|
|Distributed by||Paramount Pictures|
Stalag 17 is a 1953 war film which tells the story of a group of American airmen held in a German World War II prisoner of war camp, who come to suspect that one of their number is an informant. It was adapted from a Broadway play.
Produced and directed by Billy Wilder, it starred William Holden, Don Taylor, Robert Strauss, Neville Brand, Harvey Lembeck, Peter Graves and Otto Preminger in the role of the camp's commandant. Strauss and Lembeck both appeared in the original Broadway production.
The film was adapted by Wilder and Edwin Blum from the Broadway play by Donald Bevan and Edmund Trzcinski which was based on their experiences as prisoners in Stalag 17B in Austria. (Trzcinski appears in the film as a prisoner.) The play was directed by José Ferrer and was the Broadway debut of John Ericson as Sefton. First presented at the Edwin Burke Memorial Theater of The Lambs, a theatrical club, on March 11, 1951 (staged by the authors). It began its Broadway run in May 1951 and continued for 472 performances. The character Sefton was loosely based on Joe Palazzo, a flier in Trzcinski's prisoner-of-war barracks.
The script was rewritten quite a bit by Wilder and Blum and the film was shot in chronological order (not the usual practice as that method is more expensive and time-consuming). In a featurette made later, members of the cast said that they themselves did not know the identity of the informant until the last three days of shooting.
Peter Graves recalled the film was held from release for over a year due to Paramount Pictures not believing anyone would be interested in seeing a film about prisoners of war. The 1953 release of American POWs from the Korean War led Paramount to release it on an exploitation angle.
Stalag 17 begins on "the longest night of the year" in 1944 in a Luftwaffe prisoner-of-war camp somewhere along the Danube River. The story is narrated by Clarence Harvey "Cookie" Cook (Gil Stratton). The camp holds Poles, Czechs, Russian females and, in the American compound, 640 sergeants from bomber crews, gunners, radiomen, and flight engineers.
Manfredi (Michael Moore) and Johnson (Peter Baldwin) try to escape through a tunnel, but are shot by waiting guards when they emerge outside the barbed wire fence. The other prisoners conclude that one of their own must have told the Germans. Suspicion falls on Sefton (William Holden), an enterprising cynic who barters openly with the German guards for eggs, silk stockings, blankets and other luxuries. He also runs a distillery, and organizes mouse races and various other profitable ventures. Sefton tells the men it is foolish to try to escape.
The lives of the prisoners are depicted: they receive mail, eat terrible food, wash in the latrine sinks, and collectively do their best to keep sane and defy the camp's commandant, Oberst [Colonel] von Scherbach (Otto Preminger). They use a clandestine radio, smuggled from barracks to barracks, to pick up the BBC and the war news. One German guard, Feldwebel [Staff Sergeant] Schulz (Sig Ruman), confiscates the radio in another success for the "stoolie."
"Animal" Kuzawa is infatuated with movie star Betty Grable, and becomes depressed when he learns she has married bandleader Harry James. Harry "Sugar Lips" Shapiro gets six letters at mail call and makes Animal think they are from women. When Kuzawa sees a finance company letterhead, Harry admits they repossessed his Plymouth.
Sefton bribes the guards to let him spend the day in the Russian women's barracks. The other prisoners conclude that this is his reward for having informed the Germans about the radio. When he returns, he is accused of being a spy. Later, von Scherbach takes Lieutenant James Schuyler Dunbar (Don Taylor), a temporary inmate, away. Dunbar admitted to the other prisoners that he had blown up a passing German ammunition train while he was being transported to the camp. Sefton resents Dunbar for coming from a wealthy Boston family. The men are convinced that Sefton betrayed Dunbar, and Sefton is beaten and ostracized by the other prisoners.
Sefton then decides to uncover the identity of the real spy. During a fake air raid, he remains unnoticed in the evacuated barracks and overhears the barracks security chief, Price (Peter Graves), talking with Schulz in German and divulging the means by which Dunbar destroyed the train (a matchbook with a lit cigarette tucked into the edge to create a time delay). Sefton considers what to do: if he exposes Price, the Germans will simply remove him and plant him in another camp. Killing him could expose the entire barracks to retaliatory execution.
On Christmas Day, the men find out that SS men are coming to take Dunbar to Berlin for his sabotage. They create a diversion, free Dunbar, and hide him. Nobody but Hoffy (Richard Erdman), the compound chief, knows where he is. The Germans, despite extensive efforts, are unable to find Dunbar. After von Scherbach threatens to raze the camp if necessary, the men decide one of them must get Dunbar out. Price volunteers, but then Sefton accuses him of being a spy. Sefton asks him, "When was Pearl Harbor?" Price knows the date, but Sefton quickly asks what time he heard the news. Without thinking, Price answers 6 o'clock and that he was eating dinner — the correct time in Berlin, but not in Cleveland, Ohio, his claimed hometown. Sefton then reaches into Price's jacket pocket and extracts the "mailbox" used to exchange messages with the Germans, a hollowed-out black chess queen. Now caught, Price tries to alert the Germans, but he is quickly subdued by the other men, who now forgive Sefton.
Sefton decides to take Dunbar out himself because he likes the odds and the expected reward from Dunbar's family. The men give Sefton enough time to get Dunbar out of the water tower above one of the latrines, then throw Price out into the yard as a decoy with tin cans tied to his legs. The ruse works: Price is killed in a hail of bullets, creating a diversion that allows Sefton and Dunbar to cut through the barbed wire and escape; when von Scherbach and Schulz see Price's dead body, they are shocked. Back in the barracks, the men are told to pretend to not know anything while at the same time gloating the successful escape of Sefton and Dunbar. A pleased Cookie then whistles "When Johnny Comes Marching Home".
- William Holden as J.J. Sefton
- Don Taylor as Lieutenant Dunbar
- Otto Preminger as Colonel von Scherbach
- Robert Strauss as Stanislas "Animal" Kuzawa
- Harvey Lembeck as Harry Shapiro
- Peter Graves as Price
- Sig Ruman as Sergeant Johann Sebastian Schulz
- Neville Brand as Duke
- Richard Erdman as Hoffy
- Michael Moore as Manfredi
- Peter Baldwin as Johnson
- Robinson Stone as Joey
- Robert Shawley as Blondie Peterson
- William Pierson as Marko
- Gil Stratton as Clarence Harvey "Cookie" Cook (Narrator)
- Jay Lawrence as Bagradian
- Erwin Kalser as Geneva Man
- Paul Salata as Prisoner with Beard
- Edmund Trzcinski as himself (Edmund Trzcinski "Triz" "I believe it" man)
Both Charlton Heston and Kirk Douglas were considered for the role of Sefton. Holden was reluctant to play Sefton as he thought the character was too cynical and selfish. Wilder refused to make the role more sympathetic and Holden actually refused it, but was forced to do it by Paramount.
The prison camp set was built on the John Show Ranch in Woodland Hills, on the southwestern edge of the San Fernando Valley. The shoot began in February, the rainy season in California, providing plenty of mud for the camp compound. It is now the location of a meetinghouse of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Stalag 17 was a commercial success. Produced on a budget of $1,661,530, it earned $3.3 million in US theatrical rentals and $10 million in worldwide markets. The film was well received and is considered, along with The Great Escape and The Bridge on the River Kwai (also starring Holden), among the greatest World War II Prisoner of War films. Bosley Crowther praised the film, calling it "cracker jack movie entertainment." More recently, film critic James Berardinelli stated that "among the 20th century directors, few were more versatile than Billy Wilder." The film currently has a 97% "Fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 31 reviews, and the site's consensus stating: "Stalag 17 survives the jump from stage to screen with flying colors, thanks to Billy Wilder's typically sterling direction and a darkly funny script."
Awards and nominations
Holden won the Academy Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role. His acceptance speech is one of the shortest on record ("thank you"); the TV broadcast had a strict cutoff time which forced Holden's quick remarks. The frustrated Holden personally paid for advertisements in the Hollywood trade publications to thank everyone he wanted to on Oscar night. He also remarked that he felt that either Burt Lancaster or Montgomery Clift should have won the Best Actor Oscar for From Here to Eternity instead of him. It is said that he felt he was given the award as consolation for not having prevously won it for Sunset Boulevard.
- Danger Within (1959) is a similar war film involving an informer inside a British POW camp.
- Hogan's Heroes (1965–71) is a television sitcom about a fictional Stalag 13 which also features a Sergeant Schultz and whose pilot episode also is about a German spy posing as an Allied prisoner.
- Mission: Impossible (season 2, episode 24, "Trial by Fury, 1968) is set in a Latin American prison, where the Impossible Mission Force has to prevent the murder of a political prisoner wrongly suspected of being an informant for the prison administrators, with the added twist that Graves, who played the informant Price in Stalag 17, leads the IMF team assigned to locate the real informant.
- "Stalag version" is a 1970s reggae song, named after the film, by Ansell Collins.
- Magnum, P.I. (season 3, episode 1, 1982) opens with Stalag 17 playing on the TV from a VHS Tape, as the main character, Thomas Magnum, is watching and remembering his childhood, and the enjoyment he had with the movie, only to grow up and experience his own wartime imprisonment.
- p.146 Weaver, Tom Peter Graves Interview in Earth Vs. the Sci-fi Filmmakers: 20 Interviews McFarland, 1 Jan 2005
- Capua, Michelangelo (9 October 2009). William Holden: A Biography. McFarland. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-7864-5550-8.
- Rowan, Terry. World War II Goes to the Movies & Television Guide. Lulu.com. p. 443. ISBN 978-1-105-58602-6.
- Phillips, Gene (5 February 2010). Some Like It Wilder: The Life and Controversial Films of Billy Wilder. University Press of Kentucky. p. 163. ISBN 0-8131-7367-1.
- 'The Top Box Office Hits of 1953', Variety, January 13, 1954.
- Crowther, Bosley. "Stalag 17". New York Times. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "Stalag 17". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- Holsinger, M. Paul (1999). War and American Popular Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 310. ISBN 978-0-313-29908-7.