|Directed by||Billy Wilder|
|Produced by||Billy Wilder|
|Screenplay by||Edwin Blum|
|Based on||Stalag 17|
by Donald Bevan
|Narrated by||Gil Stratton|
|Music by||Franz Waxman|
|Cinematography||Ernest Laszlo, ASC|
|Edited by||George Tomasini|
|Distributed by||Paramount Pictures|
Stalag 17 is a 1953 comedy-drama war film which tells the story of a group of American airmen held in a German World War II prisoner of war camp, who come to suspect that one of their number is an informant. The film was adapted by Billy Wilder and Edwin Blum from the Broadway play of the same name by Donald Bevan and Edmund Trzcinski, which was based on their experiences as prisoners in Stalag 17B in Austria.
Produced and directed by Wilder, it starred William Holden in his Oscar-winning role, Don Taylor, Robert Strauss, Harvey Lembeck, Peter Graves, Neville Brand, Richard Erdman, Sig Ruman, and Otto Preminger. Strauss and Lembeck both appeared in the original Broadway production.
Stalag 17 begins on "the longest night of the year" in 1944 in a Luftwaffe prisoner-of-war camp somewhere along the Danube River. The story is narrated by Clarence Harvey "Cookie" Cook. The camp holds Poles, Czechs, Russian women and, in the American compound, 640 sergeants from bomber crews, gunners, radiomen, and flight engineers.
Two Americans, Manfredi and Johnson, try to escape through a tunnel, but are shot by waiting guards when they emerge outside the barbed wire fence. The other prisoners conclude that one of their own must have told the Germans. Suspicion falls on J. J. Sefton, an enterprising cynic who barters openly with the German guards for eggs, silk stockings, blankets and other luxuries. He also organizes mouse races and various other profitable ventures. Sefton tells the men it is foolish to try to escape.
The lives of the prisoners are depicted: they receive mail, eat terrible food, wash in the latrine sinks, and collectively do their best to keep sane and defy the camp's commandant, Oberst [Colonel] von Scherbach. They use a clandestine radio, smuggled from barracks to barracks, to pick up the BBC and the war news. One German guard, Feldwebel [Staff Sergeant] Schulz, confiscates the radio in another success for the "stoolie."
"Animal" Kuzawa is infatuated with movie star Betty Grable, and becomes depressed when he learns she has married bandleader Harry James. Harry "Sugar Lips" Shapiro gets seven letters at mail call and makes Animal think they are from women. When Kuzawa sees a finance company letterhead, Shapiro admits they repossessed his Plymouth.
Sefton bribes the guards to let him spend the day in the Russian women's barracks. The other prisoners conclude that this is his reward for having informed the Germans about the radio. When he returns, he is accused of being a spy.
Shortly thereafter, von Scherbach takes Lieutenant James Schuyler Dunbar, a temporary inmate, away. Dunbar admitted to the other prisoners that he had blown up a passing German ammunition train while he was being transported to the camp. Sefton resents Dunbar for coming from a wealthy Boston family and accused Dunbar of using his family's fortune to become an officer while Sefton washed out in Officer Candidate School. The men are convinced that Sefton betrayed Dunbar and beat him up and ostracize him. Sefton then focuses more effort on uncovering the identity of the real spy. During a fake air raid, he remains unnoticed in the evacuated barracks and overhears the barracks security chief, Frank Price, talking with Schulz in German and divulging the means by which Dunbar destroyed the train (a matchbook with a lit cigarette tucked into the edge to create a time delay). Sefton considers what to do; if he exposes Price, the Germans will simply remove him and plant him in another camp, while killing him could expose the entire barracks to retaliatory execution.
On Christmas Day, the men find out that SS men are coming to take Dunbar to Berlin for his sabotage. They create a diversion, free Dunbar, and hide him in the Water Tower. Nobody but Hoffy, the compound chief, knows where he is. The Germans, despite extensive efforts, are unable to find Dunbar. After von Scherbach threatens to raze the camp if necessary, the men decide one of them must get Dunbar out. Price volunteers, but then Sefton accuses him of being a spy. Sefton asks him, "When was Pearl Harbor?" Price knows the date, but Sefton quickly asks what time he heard the news. Without thinking, Price answers 6:00 and that he was eating dinner — the correct time in Berlin, but not in Cleveland, his claimed hometown. Sefton then reaches into Price's jacket pocket and extracts the "mailbox" used to exchange messages with the Germans: a hollowed-out black chess queen.
Sefton decides to take Dunbar out himself because he likes the odds this time and the expected reward from Dunbar's family. The men give Sefton enough time to get Dunbar out of the water tower above one of the latrines, then throw Price out into the yard with tin cans tied to his legs. The ruse works; Price is killed in a hail of bullets, creating a diversion that allows Sefton and Dunbar to cut through the barbed wire and escape. A pleased Cookie whistles "When Johnny Comes Marching Home" as things can be seen returning to normal in the barracks.
- William Holden as J.J. Sefton
- Don Taylor as Lieutenant James Dunbar
- Otto Preminger as Colonel von Scherbach
- Robert Strauss as Stanislas "Animal" Kuzawa
- Harvey Lembeck as Harry Shapiro
- Peter Graves as Frank Price
- Sig Ruman as Sergeant Johann Sebastian Schulz
- Neville Brand as Duke
- Richard Erdman as "Hoffy" Hoffman
- Michael Moore as Manfredi
- Peter Baldwin as Johnson
- Robinson Stone as Joey
- Robert Shawley as "Blondie" Peterson
- William Pierson as Marko the Mailman
- Gil Stratton as Clarence Harvey "Cookie" Cook (Narrator)
- Jay Lawrence as Bagradian
- Erwin Kalser as Geneva Man
- Edmund Trzcinski as himself/"Triz"
- Paul Salata as Prisoner with Beard (uncredited)
Original Broadway production
The film was adapted by Wilder and Edwin Blum from the Broadway play by Donald Bevan and Edmund Trzcinski which was based on their experiences as prisoners in Stalag 17B in Austria. Trzcinski appears in the film as a prisoner.
The play was directed by José Ferrer and was the Broadway debut of John Ericson as Sefton. First presented at the Edwin Burke Memorial Theater of The Lambs, a theatrical club, on March 11, 1951 (staged by the authors). It began its Broadway run in May 1951 and continued for 472 performances. The character Sefton was loosely based on Joe Palazzo, a flier in Trzcinski's prisoner-of-war barracks. The script was rewritten extensively by Wilder and Blum.
The prison camp set was built on the John Show Ranch in Woodland Hills, on the southwestern edge of the San Fernando Valley. The shoot began in February 1952, during the rainy season in California, providing plenty of mud for the camp compound. It is now the location of a meetinghouse of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Filming and release
The film was shot in chronological order, an unusual practice as that method is usually much more expensive and time-consuming. In a featurette released later, members of the cast said that they themselves did not know the identity of the informant until the last three days of shooting.
Peter Graves recalled the film was held from release for over a year due to Paramount Pictures not believing anyone would be interested in seeing a film about prisoners of war. The 1953 release of American POWs from the Korean War led Paramount to release it on an exploitation angle.
Stalag 17 was a commercial success. Produced on a budget of $1,661,530, it earned $3.3 million in US theatrical rentals and $10 million in worldwide markets. The film was well received and is considered, along with The Great Escape and The Bridge on the River Kwai (also starring Holden), among the best World War II Prisoner of War films. Bosley Crowther praised the film, calling it "cracker jack movie entertainment". More recently, film critic James Berardinelli stated that "among the 20th century directors, few were more versatile than Billy Wilder". The film currently has a 97% "Fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 31 reviews, and the site's consensus stating: "Stalag 17 survives the jump from stage to screen with flying colors, thanks to Billy Wilder's typically sterling direction and a darkly funny script."
Awards and nominations
Holden won the Academy Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role. His acceptance speech is one of the shortest on record ("thank you, thank you"); the TV broadcast had a strict cutoff time which forced Holden's quick remarks. The frustrated Holden personally paid for advertisements in the Hollywood trade publications to thank everyone he wanted to on Oscar night. He also remarked that he felt that either Burt Lancaster or Montgomery Clift should have won the Best Actor Oscar for From Here to Eternity instead of him. It is said that he felt he was given the award as consolation for not having previously won it for Sunset Boulevard.
In popular culture
- The television series Hogan's Heroes (1965 to 1971) is based on a similar Stalag.
- "Stalag 17" is a 1973 reggae riddim, composed by Ansell Collins and named after the film.
- The episode "Did You See The Sunrise?" (1982), of the television series Magnum, P.I., opens with Stalag 17 playing on the TV, as the main character, Thomas Magnum, is watching and remembering his childhood, and the enjoyment he had with the movie, only to grow up and experience his own wartime imprisonment.
- An uncredited William Holden reprised the character of a cigar-chewing POW in the 1979 war movie Escape to Athena. Since he is seen only briefly, it can be presumed that "Sefton" made another successful escape while no one was looking, probably with a small fortune in ancient Greek artifacts from the dig.
- Capua, Michelangelo (9 October 2009). William Holden: A Biography. McFarland. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-7864-5550-8.
- Rowan, Terry. World War II Goes to the Movies & Television Guide. Lulu.com. p. 443. ISBN 978-1-105-58602-6.
- Phillips, Gene (5 February 2010). Some Like It Wilder: The Life and Controversial Films of Billy Wilder. University Press of Kentucky. p. 163. ISBN 0-8131-7367-1.
- p.146 Weaver, Tom Peter Graves Interview in Earth Vs. the Sci-fi Filmmakers: 20 Interviews McFarland, 1 Jan 2005
- 'The Top Box Office Hits of 1953', Variety, January 13, 1954.
- Crowther, Bosley (July 2, 1953). "TWO NEW FILMS ARRIVE; 'Stalag 17' Emerges as Taut Film With William Holden -- Has Bow at Astor". Movies. New York Times. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- Berardinelli, James. "Stalag 17". ReelViews. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
- "Stalag 17". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on 23 December 2009. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- Holsinger, M. Paul (1999). War and American Popular Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 310. ISBN 978-0-313-29908-7.