Stalin's bunker

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
The official office of Stalin in the Bunker

The Stalin's Bunker (Russian: Бункер Сталина) is an air raid shelter located near Samara State University of Culture in Samara (former Kuybyshev), Russia. It is a subterranean bunker complex constructed between February and October 1942. It was the alternative Supreme High Command General Headquarters of the Soviet Armed Forces intended for Joseph Stalin during World War II. The Stalin's Bunker is located 37 metres beneath the Kuybyshev CPSU oblast Committee building (now Samara State University of Culture occupies it), 100 metres south-east of the Samara Academy Theater. The Stalin's Bunker was declassified in 1990. Now the civil defence museum occupies the former air raid shelter. The air-raid shelters for the Soviet High Command was built also in Yaroslavl, Gorky (now Nizhny Novgorod), Kazan, Ulyanovsk, Saratov and Stalingrad (now Volgograd).[1]

History[edit]

During World War II, Kuybyshev was chosen to be the alternative capital of the Soviet Union should Moscow fall to the invading Germans. In October 1941, the Communist Party and governmental organizations, diplomatic missions of foreign countries, leading cultural establishments and their staff were evacuated to the city.[2]

On 15 October 1941 the State Defense Committee produced a secret decision No 801 "On evacuation of the Soviet capital Moscow to Kuybyshev". Evacuation of Stalin was envisaged in case of emergency. 21 October 1941 the State Defense Committee produced a secret decision No 826 "On construction of the air raid shelter in Kuybyshev". The Stalin's Bunker was designed by Chief Technology Officer Yulian Ostrovsky and main architect M. Zelenin. They copied construction of Aeroport Moscow Metro station. Subway tunnelers from Moscow and Donbass miners were deployed for the construction of the bunker works. 2900 workers and 800 engineers took part in the construction. Mine-surveying work was steered by I. Drobinin. All builders were under a lifelong gag order. Soil withdrawal was carried out at night. 25,000 cubic meters of soil was recovered in 8 months. 5,000 cubic meters of concrete have been used in the construction. The Stalin's Bunker was put in the operation by government commission on 6th January 1943.[3]

Joseph Stalin's daughter Svetlana was sheltered in the bunker during the air strikes. If Stalin ever visited the bunker, it was not documented.

Description[edit]

The Stalin's Bunker can take a hit from a 2000-kilo demolition bomb easily. 23 meters of earth cover, 4 meters of concrete and layer of sand grant protection against enemy air raids. The bunker has a power station and a stand-alone system of air regeneration.[4] There are workrooms on the 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th floors. After descending the stairs into the lower section and passing through the steel door, there is a long corridor. On the right side is Stalin's accommodation. On the left side is convention hall. Several floors up, there's a series of rooms which include generator/ventilation/accumulator/elevator motor/pump rooms and the telephone switchboard.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1] Государственный Комитет Обороны Постановление № ГКО-945сс "О новых формированиях"
  2. ^ Andrew Nagorski: The Greatest Battle, 2007, pp. 165–166
  3. ^ "Бункер Сталина" (in Russian). Самарская область. Справочник туриста. Retrieved 2018-03-25.
  4. ^ "Бункер И. В. Сталина" (in Russian). Музеи России. Retrieved 2018-03-25.
  5. ^ "Схематичный разрез" (in Russian). Бункер Сталина. Retrieved 2018-03-25.

Coordinates: 53°11′48.3″N 50°5′53″E / 53.196750°N 50.09806°E / 53.196750; 50.09806