From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Stalingrad)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Counterclockwise (from top right): The Motherland Calls on Mamayev Kurgan, the railway station, Planetarium, The Metrotram, Panorama of the City, Gerhardt's Mill
Counterclockwise (from top right): The Motherland Calls on Mamayev Kurgan, the railway station, Planetarium, The Metrotram, Panorama of the City, Gerhardt's Mill
Flag of Volgograd
Coat of arms of Volgograd
Anthem: none[3]
Location of Volgograd
Volgograd is located in Volgograd Oblast
Location of Volgograd
Volgograd is located in European Russia
Volgograd (European Russia)
Volgograd is located in Europe
Volgograd (Europe)
Coordinates: 48°42′31″N 44°30′53″E / 48.70861°N 44.51472°E / 48.70861; 44.51472Coordinates: 48°42′31″N 44°30′53″E / 48.70861°N 44.51472°E / 48.70861; 44.51472
Federal subjectVolgograd Oblast[2]
City status sincethe end of the
18th century[1]
 • BodyCity Duma[5]
 • Head[5]Alexander Chunakov[citation needed]
80 m (260 ft)
 • Total1,021,215
 • Estimate 
1,013,533 (−0.8%)
 • Rank12th in 2010
 • Subordinated tocity of oblast significance of Volgograd[2]
 • Capital ofVolgograd Oblast[2], city of oblast significance of Volgograd[2]
 • Urban okrugVolgograd Urban Okrug[8]
 • Capital ofVolgograd Urban Okrug[8]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[9])
Postal code(s)[10]
400000–400002, 400005–400012, 400015–400017, 400019–400023, 400026, 400029, 400031–400034, 400036, 400038–400040, 400042, 400046, 400048–400055, 400057–400059, 400062–400067, 400069, 400071–400076, 400078–400082, 400084, 400086–400089, 400093, 400094, 400096–400098, 400105, 400107, 400108, 400110–400112, 400117, 400119–400125, 400127, 400131, 400136–400138, 400700, 400880, 400890, 400899, 400921–400942, 400960–400965, 400967, 400970–400979, 400990–400993
Dialing code(s)+7 8442
OKTMO ID18701000001
City DaySecond Sunday of September[1]

Volgograd (Russian: Волгогра́д, romanizedVolgográd), formerly Tsaritsyn (Russian: Цари́цын, romanizedTsarítsyn) (1589–1925), and Stalingrad (Russian: Сталингра́д, romanizedStalingrád) (1925–1961), is the largest city and the administrative centre of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. The city lies on the western bank of the Volga, covering an area of 859.4 square kilometres (331.8 square miles), with a population of over 1 million residents.[11] Volgograd is the fifteenth-largest city in Russia, the second-largest city on the Southern Federal District, and the fourth-largest city on the Volga.

The city was founded as the fortress of Tsaritsyn in 1589. By the nineteenth century, Tsaritsyn had become an important river-port and commercial centre, leading to its population expanding rapidly.

Early in the Russian Civil War, in November 1917, Tsaritsyn came under Soviet control. It fell briefly to the White Army in mid-1919 but quickly returned to Soviet control in January 1920.

On April 10, 1925, the city was renamed Stalingrad in honor of Joseph Stalin. During World War II, the Axis forces attacked the city, leading to the Battle of Stalingrad, one of the largest and bloodiest battles in the history of warfare. On 10 November 1961, Nikita Khrushchev's administration changed the name of the city to Volgograd. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the city became the administrative centre of Volgograd Oblast.

Known locally as the "Hero City", Volgograd today is the site of The Motherland Calls, an 85-meter high statue dedicated to the heroes of the battle, which is the tallest statue in Europe, as well as the tallest statue of a woman in the world. The city has many tourist attractions, such as museums, sandy beaches, and a self-propelled floating church. Volgograd was one of the host cities of the 2018 FIFA World Cup.



Coat of Arms of Tsaritsyn (1857)
City map of Tsaritsyn (1909)
City tram on Gogolya Street in 1914
General Pyotr Wrangel in Tsaritsyn, 15 October 1919

Although the city may have originated in 1555, documented evidence of Tsaritsyn at the confluence of the Tsaritsa [ru] and Volga rivers dates from 1589.[4] Grigori Zasekin established the fortress Sary Su (the local Tatar-language name means "yellow water" or "yellow river") as part of the defenses of the unstable southern border of the Tsardom of Russia. The structure stood slightly above the mouth of the Tsaritsa River on the right bank. It soon became the nucleus of a trading settlement.

At the beginning of the 17th century, the garrison consisted of 350 to 400 people. In 1607 the fortress garrison rebelled for six months against the troops of Tsar Vasili Shuisky. In 1608 the first stone church was built in the city and was dedicated to St. John the Baptist.

In 1670 troops of Stepan Razin captured the fortress; they left after a month. In 1708 the insurgent Cossack Kondraty Bulavin (died July 1708) held the fortress. In 1717 in the Kuban pogrom [ru], raiders from the Kuban under the command of the Crimean Tatar Bakhti Gerai [ru] blockaded the town and enslaved thousands in the area. In August 1774 Yemelyan Pugachev unsuccessfully attempted to storm the city.

In 1691 Moscow established a customs-post at Tsaritsyn. In 1708 Tsaritsyn was assigned to the Kazan Governorate; in 1719[citation needed] to the Astrakhan Governorate. According to the census in 1720, the city had a population of 408 people. In 1773 the settlement was designated as a provincial and district town. From 1779 it belonged to the Saratov Viceroyalty. In 1780 the city came under the newly established Saratov Governorate.

In the nineteenth century, Tsaritsyn became an important river-port and commercial center. The population expanded rapidly, increasing from fewer than 3,000 people in 1807 to about 84,000 in 1900. The first railway reached the town in 1862. The first theatre opened in 1872, the first cinema in 1907. In 1913 Tsaritsyn got its first tram-line, and the city's first electric lights were installed in the city center.

During the Russian Civil War of 1917–1923, Tsaritsyn came under Soviet control from November 1917. In 1918 White Movement troops under Pyotr Krasnov, the Ataman of the Don Cossack Host, besieged Tsaritsyn. The Reds repulsed three assaults by the Whites. However, in June 1919 the White Armed Forces of South Russia, under the command of General Denikin, captured Tsaritsyn, and held it until January 1920. The fighting from July 1918 to January 1920 became known as the Battle for Tsaritsyn.


On April 10, 1925, the city was renamed Stalingrad, in honor of Joseph Stalin, General Secretary of the Communist Party.[12][13] This was officially to recognize the city and Stalin's role in its defense against the Whites between 1918 and 1920.[14] In 1931, the German settlement-colony Old Sarepta (founded in 1765) became a district of Stalingrad. Renamed Krasnoarmeysky Rayon (or "Red Army District"), it was the largest area of the city.

The first higher education institute was opened in 1930. A year later, the Stalingrad Industrial Pedagogical Institute, now Volgograd State Pedagogical University, was opened. Under Stalin, the city became a center of heavy industry and transshipment by rail and river.

The center of Stalingrad after liberation in 1943
Friedrich Paulus (left) and his aides Lt.-Gen. Arthur Schmidt (middle) and Col. Wilhelm Adam (right) after their surrender in Stalingrad.
The presentation of the Sword of Stalingrad at the Tehran Conference

Battle of Stalingrad[edit]

During World War II, German and Axis forces attacked the city, and in 1942 it was the site of one of the pivotal battles of the war. The Battle of Stalingrad was the deadliest single battle in the history of warfare (casualties estimates vary between 1,250,000[15] and 1,798,619[16]).

The battle began on August 23, 1942, and on the same day, the city suffered heavy aerial bombardment that reduced most of it to rubble. Martial law had already been declared in the city on July 14. By September, the fighting reached the city center. The fighting was of unprecedented intensity; the city's central railway station changed hands thirteen times, and the Mamayev Kurgan (one of the highest points of the city) was captured and recaptured eight times.

By early November, the German forces controlled 90 percent of the city and had cornered the Soviets in two narrow pockets, but they were unable to eliminate the last pockets of Soviet resistance before Soviet forces launched a huge counterattack on November 19. This resulted in the Soviet encirclement of the German Sixth Army and other Axis units. On January 31, 1943 the Sixth Army's commander, Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus, surrendered, and by February 2, with the elimination of straggling German troops, the Battle of Stalingrad was over.

In 1945 the Soviet Union awarded Stalingrad the title Hero City for its resistance. Great Britain's King George VI awarded the citizens of Stalingrad the jeweled "Sword of Stalingrad" in recognition of their bravery.

A number of cities around the world (especially those that had suffered similar wartime devastation) established sister, friendship, and twinning links (see list below) in the spirit of solidarity or reconciliation. One of the first "sister city" projects was that established during World War II between Stalingrad and Coventry in the United Kingdom; both had suffered extensive devastation from aerial bombardment.


Volga River in Volgograd
Volgograd on a 1979 map
Kazan Cathedral
Building of the Oblast Duma

On 10 November 1961, Nikita Khrushchev's administration changed the name of the city to Volgograd ("Volga City") as part of his programme of de-Stalinization following Stalin's death. This action was and remains somewhat controversial, because Stalingrad has such importance as a symbol of resistance during World War II.

During Konstantin Chernenko's brief administration in 1984, proposals were floated to revive the city's historic name for that reason. There is a strong degree of local support for a reversion, but the Russian government has not accepted such proposals.

On May 21, 2007, Roman Grebennikov of Communist Party was elected as mayor with 32.47% of the vote, a plurality. Grebennikov became Russia's youngest mayor of a federal subject administrative center at the time.

In 2010, Russian monarchists and leaders of the Orthodox organizations demanded that the city should take back its original name of Tsaritsyn, but the authorities rejected their proposal.

On January 30, 2013, the Volgograd City Council passed a measure to use the title "Hero City Stalingrad" in city statements on nine specific dates annually.[17][18][19] On the following dates the title "Hero City Stalingrad" can officially be used in celebrations:

In addition, 50,000 people signed a petition to Vladimir Putin, asking that the city's name be permanently changed to Stalingrad.[18] President Putin has replied that such a move should be preceded by a local referendum and that the Russian authorities will look into how to bring about such a referendum.[20]


In 2011, the City Duma canceled direct election of the mayor and confirmed the position of City Manager. This was short-lived, as in March 2012, Volgograd residents voted for relevant amendments to the city charter to reinstate the direct mayoral elections.[21]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

View of Voroshilovsky City District of Volgograd

Volgograd is the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast.[22] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Volgograd—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[2] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Volgograd is incorporated as Volgograd Urban Okrug.[8]


Modern Volgograd remains an important industrial city. Industries include shipbuilding, oil refining, steel and aluminum production, manufacture of heavy machinery and vehicles, and chemical production. The large Volgograd Hydroelectric Plant is a short distance to the north of Volgograd.


Volgograd is a major railway junction served by the Privolzhskaya Railway. Rail links from the Volgograd railway station include Moscow; Saratov; Astrakhan; the Donbas region of Ukraine; the Caucasus and Siberia. It stands at the east end of the Volga–Don Canal, opened in 1952 to link the two great rivers of Southern Russia. European route E40, the longest European route connecting Calais in France with Ridder in Kazakhstan, passes through Volgograd. The M6 highway between Moscow and the Caspian Sea also passes through the city. The Volgograd Bridge, under construction since 1995, was inaugurated in October 2009.[23] The city river terminal is the center for local passenger shipping along the Volga River.

The Volgograd International Airport provides air links to major Russian cities as well as Antalya, Yerevan and Aktau.

Volgograd's public transport system includes a light rail service known as the Volgograd metrotram. Local public transport is provided by buses, trolleybuses and trams.

The Volga River still is a very important communication channel.


Volgograd has a hot-summer humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfa).[24]

Climate data for Volgograd (1991–2020, extremes 1938–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.3
Average high °C (°F) −3.4
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.3
Average low °C (°F) −9.0
Record low °C (°F) −33.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 20
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 11
Average rainy days 9 7 8 12 12 12 11 8 10 11 12 11 123
Average snowy days 20 18 11 2 0.03 0 0 0 0.1 1 9 18 79
Average relative humidity (%) 88 86 81 64 57 56 53 51 61 73 86 89 70
Mean monthly sunshine hours 66.1 96.9 138.4 204.2 290.8 308.4 329.3 300.2 228.9 155.8 63.6 42.5 2,225.1
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[25]
Source 2: Weatherbase (sun only)[26]


At the time of the official 2010 Census, the ethnic makeup of the city's population whose ethnicity was known (999,785) was:[27]

Ethnicity Population Percentage
Russians 922,321 92.3%
Armenians 15,200 1.5%
Ukrainians 12,216 1.2%
Tatars 9,760 1.0%
Azerbaijanis 6,679 0.7%
Kazakhs 3,831 0.4%
Belarusians 2,639 0.3%
Koreans 2,389 0.2%
Others 24,750 2.5%


First Volgograd Synagogue

A memorial complex commemorating the battle of Stalingrad, dominated by an immense allegorical sculpture The Motherland Calls, was erected on the Mamayev Kurgan, the hill that saw some of the most intense fighting during the battle.

The Panorama Museum (Museum-reserve "The Battle of Stalingrad") sited on the Volga contains artifacts from World War II. It is located on the site of the "Penza Defense Junction" - a group of buildings along Penzenskaya Street (now - Sovetskaya Street), which was defended by the 13th Guards Division. Includes Gerhardt's Mill, the panoramic painting of the battlefield from the location of the monument on Mamayev Kurgan - the largest painting of Russia, an exposition of Soviet military equipment 1940s, a stele of the cities of heroes, numerous exhibits of weapons and decorations (include a rifle of the famous sniper Vasily Zaytsev is also on display), personal belongings of military life of generals and ordinary soldiers. Nearby is the Pavlov's House, which survived the battles.

The Musical Instrument Museum is a branch of the Volgograd regional Museum of local lore.

Volgograd hosts one of the few floating churches in the world: the floating church of Saint Vladimir of Volgograd.[28]


Higher education facilities include:


Aerial view of the Volgograd Arena in 2018
Club Sport Founded Current League League
Rotor Volgograd Football 1929 Russian Professional Football League 1st Central Stadium
Olimpia Volgograd Football 1989 Volgograd Oblast Football Championship 5th Olimpia Stadium
Kaustik Volgograd Handball 1929 Handball Super League 1st Dynamo Sports Complex
Dynamo Volgograd Handball 1929 Women's Handball Super League 1st Dynamo Sports Complex
Krasny Oktyabr Volgograd Basketball 2012 VTB United League 2nd Trade Unions Sports Palace
Spartak Volgograd Water Polo 1994 Russian Water Polo Championship 1st CVVS

Volgograd was a host city to four matches of the FIFA World Cup in 2018. A new modern stadium, Volgograd Arena, was built for this occasion on the bank of the Volga River to serve as the venue. The stadium has a seating capacity for 45,000 people, including a press box, a VIP box and seats for people with limited mobility.

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

Volgograd is twinned with:[32]



  1. ^ a b c Charter of Volgograd, Preamble
  2. ^ a b c d e Law #139-OD
  3. ^ Official website of Volgograd. Конкурс на создание гимна Волгограда будет проведен повторно (in Russian)
  4. ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. pp. 81–83. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  5. ^ a b Charter of Volgograd, Article 22
  6. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  7. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  8. ^ a b c Law #1031-OD
  9. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  10. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  11. ^ "RUSSIA: Južnyj Federal'nyj Okrug: Southern Federal District". City Population.de. August 4, 2020. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  12. ^ Lutz-Auras, Ludmilla (2012). "Auf Stalin, Sieg Und Vaterland!": Politisierung Der Kollektiven Erinnerung an Den Zweiten Weltkrieg in Russland (in German). Springer-Verlag. p. 189. ISBN 978-3658008215.
  13. ^ Mccauley, Martin (2013). Stalin and Stalinism (3 ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-1317863687. 10 April 1925: Tsaritsyn is renamed Stalingrad.
  14. ^ Brewer's Dictionary of 20th Century Phrase and Fable
  15. ^ Grant, R. G. (2005). Battle: A Visual Journey Through 5,000 Years of Combat. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-7566-1360-4.
  16. ^ Wagner, Margaret; et al. (2007). The Library of Congress World War II Companion. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-5219-5.
  17. ^ a b Decision #72/2149
  18. ^ a b "Russia revives Stalingrad city name". The Daily Telegraph. January 31, 2013. Archived from the original on February 3, 2013. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
  19. ^ "Stalingrad name to be revived for anniversaries". BBC News Online. February 1, 2013. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
  20. ^ "Putin says Russian city Volgograd can become Stalingrad again". TASS.
  21. ^ "Волгоград сдался выборам". www.gazeta.ru. 2012.
  22. ^ Europa Publications (February 26, 2004). "Southern Federal Okrug". The Territories of the Russian Federation 2004. Taylor & Francis Group. p. 174. ISBN 9781857432480. Retrieved March 4, 2017. The Oblast's administrative center is at Volgograd.
  23. ^ Иванов открыл в Волгограде самый большой мост в Европе (in Russian). Vesti. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
  24. ^ "Volgograd, Russia Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  25. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  26. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Volgograd, Russia". Weatherbase. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
  27. ^ "Национальный состав городских округов и муниципальных районов" (PDF). Итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года по Волгоградской области. Территориальный орган Федеральной службы государственной статистики по Волгоградской области. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 13, 2013. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
  28. ^ Lata, Iulian Barba; Minca, Claudio (2018). "The floating churches of Volgograd: River topologies and warped spatialities of faith". Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 43: 122–136. doi:10.1111/tran.12208. Retrieved October 8, 2021.
  29. ^ "Volgograd State Technical University – Main page". Vstu.ru. August 21, 2011. Archived from the original on September 3, 2011. Retrieved September 15, 2011.
  30. ^ Россия. "Volgograd State Medical University (VolSMU)". Volgmed.ru. Retrieved September 15, 2011.
  31. ^ . June 27, 2007 https://web.archive.org/web/20070627081652/http://www.vags.ru/. Archived from the original on June 27, 2007. Retrieved September 15, 2011. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  32. ^ "Города-побратимы". volgadmin.ru (in Russian). Volgograd. Retrieved February 1, 2020.


  • Волгоградский городской Совет народных депутатов. Постановление №20/362 от 29 июня 2005 г. «Устав города-героя Волгограда», в ред. Решения №32/1000 от 15 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений и дополнений в Устав города-героя Волгограда». Вступил в силу 10 марта 2006 г. (за исключением отдельных положений). Опубликован: "Волгоградская газета", №7, 9 марта 2006 г. (Volgograd City Council of People's Deputies. Resolution #20/362 of June 29, 2005 Charter of the Hero City of Volgograd, as amended by the Decision #32/1000 of July 15, 2015 On Amending and Supplementing the Charter of the Hero City of Volgograd. Effective as of March 10, 2006 (with the exception of certain clauses).).
  • Волгоградская областная Дума. Закон №139-ОД от 7 октября 1997 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Волгоградской области», в ред. Закона №107-ОД от 10 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Волгоградской области в связи с приведением их в соответствие с Уставом Волгоградской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №207, 1 ноября 1997 г. (Volgograd Oblast Duma. Law #139-OD of October 7, 1997 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Volgograd Oblast, as amended by the Law #107-OD of July 10, 2015 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Volgograd Oblast to Ensure Compliance with the Charter of Volgograd Oblast. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Волгоградская областная Дума. Закон №1031-ОД от 21 марта 2005 г. «О наделении города-героя Волгограда статусом городского округа и установлении его границ», в ред. Закона №2013-ОД от 22 марта 2010 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Волгоградской области от 21 марта 2005 г. №1031-ОД "О наделении города-героя Волгограда статусом городского округа и установлении его границ"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования (22 марта 2005 г.). Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №49, 22 марта 2005 г. (Volgograd Oblast Duma. Law #1031-OD of March 21, 2005 On Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Hero City of Volgograd and on Establishing Its Borders, as amended by the Law #2013-OD of March 22, 2010 On Amending the Law of Volgograd Oblast #1031-OD of March 21, 2005 "On Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Hero City of Volgograd and on Establishing Its Borders". Effective as of the day of the official publication (March 22, 2005).).
  • Волгоградская городская Дума. Решение №72/2149 от 30 января 2013 г. «Об использовании наименования "город-герой Сталинград"», в ред. Решения №9/200 от 23 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в пункт 1 Порядка использования наименования "город-герой Сталинград", определённого Решением Волгоградской городской Думы от 30.01.2013 №72/2149 "Об использовании наименования "город-герой Сталинград"». Вступил в силу со дня принятия. Опубликован: "Городские вести. Царицын – Сталинград – Волгоград", #10, 2 февраля 2013 г. (Volgograd City Duma. Decision #72/2149 of January 30, 2013 On Using the Name of the "Hero City Stalingrad", as amended by the Decision #9/200 of December 23, 2013 On Amending Item 1 of the Procedures for Usage of the Name "Hero City Stalingrad", Adopted by the January 30, 2013 Decision #72/2149 of Volgograd City Duma "On Using the Name of the "Hero City Stalingrad". Effective as of the day of adoption.).


External links[edit]