Kenton in 1973
|Birth name||Stanley Newcomb Kenton|
December 15, 1911|
Wichita, Kansas, United States
|Died||August 25, 1979
Los Angeles, California, United States
|Genres||Progressive jazz, West Coast jazz, swing|
|Occupation(s)||Bandleader, pianist, composer, arranger|
|Labels||Capitol, Decca, Creative World|
|Associated acts||Maynard Ferguson, Zoot Sims, Gerry Mulligan, Anita O'Day, June Christy, Chris Connor, Art Pepper, Pete Rugolo, Eddie Safranski|
Stanley Newcomb "Stan" Kenton (December 15, 1911 – August 25, 1979) was an American jazz pianist, composer, and arranger who led an innovative, influential, and often controversial progressive jazz orchestra. In later years he was active as an educator.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Personal life
- 4 Noted band personnel
- 5 Discography
- 6 Compositions
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Stan Kenton was born in on December 15, 1911, Wichita, Kansas, and was raised first in Colorado, then in California. (He wrongly believed that his birthdate was February 19, 1912 and many sources still report this date.) He was graduated from Bell High School, in Bell, California, in 1930.
Rise to stardom
Kenton learned piano as a child, and while still a teenager toured with various bands. Kenton played in the 1930s in the dance bands of Vido Musso and Gus Arnheim, but his natural inclination was as a band leader.
In June 1941 he formed his first orchestra, which later was named after his theme song "Artistry in Rhythm". A competent pianist, influenced by Earl Hines, Kenton was much more important in the early days as an arranger and inspiration for his loyal sidemen. Although there were no major names in his first band (bassist Howard Rumsey and trumpeter Chico Alvarez come the closest), Kenton spent the summer of 1941 playing regularly before a very appreciative audience at the Rendezvous Ballroom in Balboa Beach, CA. Influenced by Jimmie Lunceford (who, like Kenton, enjoyed high-note trumpeters and thick-toned tenors), the Stan Kenton Orchestra struggled a bit after its initial success. Its Decca recordings were not big sellers and a stint as Bob Hope's backup radio band during the 1943-44 seasonwas an unhappy experience; Les Brown permanently took Kenton's place.
Kenton's first appearance in New York came in February 1942 at Roseland Ballroom, with the marquee featuring an endorsement by Fred Astaire. By late 1943 with a Capitol Records contract, a popular record in "Eager Beaver", and growing recognition, the Stan Kenton Orchestra was gradually catching on; it developed into one of the best-known West Coast ensembles of the 1940s. Its soloists during the war years included Art Pepper, briefly Stan Getz, altoist Boots Mussulli, and singer Anita O'Day. By 1945 the band had evolved quite a bit. The songwriter Joe Greene provided the lyrics for hit songs like "And Her Tears Flowed Like Wine" and "Don't Let the Sun Catch You Cryin'". Pete Rugolo became the chief arranger (extending Kenton's ideas), Bob Cooper and Vido Musso offered very different tenor styles, and June Christy was Kenton's new singer; her hits (including "Tampico" and Greene's "Across the Alley from the Alamo") made it possible for Kenton to finance his more ambitious projects. A popular recording of "Laura" was made, the theme song from the film Laura (starring actress Gene Tierney), and featured the voices of the band.
|“||Kids are going haywire over the sheer noise of this band... There is a danger of an entire generation growing up with the idea that jazz and the atom bomb are essentially the same natural phenomenon.||”|
|— Barry Ulanov, Metronome, 1948|
In the mid-1940s, Kenton's band and style became known as the "wall of sound" or "wall of brass". Calling his music "progressive jazz," Kenton sought to lead a concert orchestra as opposed to a dance band at a time when most big bands were starting to break up. By 1947 Kai Winding was greatly influencing the sound of Kenton's trombonists, the trumpet section included such screamers as Buddy Childers, Ray Wetzel, and Al Porcino, Jack Costanzo's bongos were bringing Latin rhythms into Kenton's sound, and a riotous version of "The Peanut Vendor" contrasted with the somber "Elegy for Alto". Kenton had succeeded in forming a radical and very original band that gained its own audience.
In 1949 Kenton took a year off. In 1950 he put together his most advanced band, the 39-piece Innovations in Modern Music Orchestra that included 16 strings, a woodwind section, and two French horns. Its music ranged from the unique and very dense modern classical charts of Bob Graettinger to works that somehow swung despite the weight. Such major players as Maynard Ferguson (whose high-note acrobatics set new standards), Shorty Rogers, Milt Bernhart, John Graas, Art Pepper, Bud Shank, Bob Cooper, Laurindo Almeida, Shelly Manne, and June Christy were part of this remarkable project, but from a commercial standpoint, it was really impossible. Kenton managed two tours during 1950-1951 but soon reverted to his usual 19-piece lineup.
Then quite unexpectedly, Kenton went through a swinging period. The charts of such arrangers as Gerry Mulligan, Johnny Richards, and particularly Bill Holman and Bill Russo began to dominate the repertoire. Such talented players (in addition to the ones already named) as Lee Konitz, Conte Candoli, Sal Salvador, Stan Levey, Frank Rosolino, Richie Kamuca, Zoot Sims, Sam Noto, Bill Perkins, Charlie Mariano, Mel Lewis, Pete Candoli, Lucky Thompson, Carl Fontana, Pepper Adams, and Jack Sheldon made strong contributions. The music was never predictable and could get quite bombastic, but it managed to swing while still keeping the Kenton sound.
In 1956, when the band returned from its European trip, the Critics Poll in Down Beat reflected victories by black musicians in virtually every category. The Kenton band was playing in Ontario, Canada, at the time, and Kenton dispatched a telegram which lamented "a new minority, white jazz musicians," and stated his "disgust [with the so-called] literary geniuses of jazz." Jazz critic Leonard Feather, responded in the October 3, 1956, issue with an open letter which questioned Kenton's racial views. Feather implied that Kenton's failure to win the Critics Poll was probably the real reason for the complaint, and wondered if racial prejudice was involved.
Another Kenton successful experiment was his mellophonium band of 1960-1963. Despite the difficulties in keeping the four mellophoniums (which formed their own separate section) in tune, this particular Kenton orchestra had its exciting moments; the albums Kenton's West Side Story (arrangements by Johnny Richards) and Adventures In Jazz, each won Grammy awards in 1962 and 1963 respectively. Kenton Plays Wagner (1964) was an important project, produced in concert with his interests in jazz education and encouraging big band music in high schools and colleges instructing what he called "progressive jazz." Stan knew what he had in the body of work that was The Stan Kenton Orchestra and in the remainder of his life and career, he took on the challenge of ensuring his legacy that was Progressive Jazz.
A somewhat ironic twist to his jazz roots emerged in his 1962 single "Mama Sang A Song". His last US Top 40 (#32 Billboard, #22 Music Vendor), the song was a narration, written by country singer Bill Anderson. He re-released it in the 1970s on his Creative World label.
In the early 1970s Kenton split from his long-time association with Capitol Records and formed his own label, "The Creative World of Stan Kenton". Recordings produced during the 1970s on this new label included several "live" concerts at various universities and are a testament to his devotion to education. In addition, Kenton made his charts available to college and high-school stage bands. When Kenton took to the road during the early 70's and up to his last tour, he took with him seasoned veteran musicians (John Worster, Willie Maiden, Warren Gale, Graham Ellis and others) teaming them with relatively unknown young artists to mentor America's youth and take advantage of the unchecked energy in those young players while at the same time preserving the legacy of his work as an active art form. New Kenton arrangements (including those by Hank Levy, Bill Holman, Bob Curnow, Willie Maiden and Ken Hanna) expanded the creative foundation that nurtured original musical exploration by these younger artists long after Gabe Baltazar's "graduation" in 1965. Many alumni became educators and itinerant clinicians caught up in the art of inspiring younger players (Mike Vax, John Von Ohlen, Chuck Carter, and Richard Torres). A few went on to take their musical careers to the next level (Peter Erskine, Tim Hagans) and beyond.
Jack Sandmeier, Road Manager during these years, tells the story of an unusual meeting in a hotel lobby lounge between Woody Herman and Kenton. Unusual because, since they both toured heavily (more than fifty weeks a year of one-nighters) in order to keep their respective bands working, they hardly ever met. In discussing a chronically late band member, Herman said to Kenton..."Fire his ass, there's thousands of them and only two of us."
Kenton continued leading and touring with his big band up to his final performance in August 1978.
Kenton was a salient figure on the American musical scene and made an indelible mark on the arranged type of big band jazz. Kenton's music evolved with the times throughout the 1960s and 1970s, and although he was no longer considered a contemporary innovator, he promoted jazz and jazz improvisation through his service as an educator. The "Kenton Style" continues to permeate big bands at the high school and collegiate level, and the framework he designed for the "jazz clinic" is still widely in use today.
His music has experienced a resurgence in interest, with later critical "rediscovery" of his music and many reissues of his recordings. An alumni band tours to this day, led by lead trumpeter Mike Vax, which performs not only classic Kenton arrangements, but also new music written and performed in the Kenton style.
Kenton donated his entire library to the music department of North Texas State University (now the University of North Texas), and the Stan Kenton Jazz Recital Hall is named in his honor. His arrangements are now published by Sierra Music Publications.
Kenton was born on December 15, 1911, and his birth certificate states this; but he was conceived out of wedlock, and his parents told him (and everyone else) that he was born on February 19, 1912, to obscure this fact. Kenton believed well into adulthood that February 19, 1912, was his birthday, and recorded a concert on February 19, 1973 which he released as Birthday In Britain. Because this remained a family secret, even his grave marker showed the 1912 birthdate.
Marriages and children
Stan Kenton had three marriages. His first produced a daughter, Leslie, who was a successful expert on and author of several books about health, spirituality and beauty. His second – to Ann Richards, who sang with his band and who later shot herself at age 46 – produced two children, daughter Dana and son Lance. All three marriages ended in divorce. Kenton had three grandchildren.
Kenton fractured his skull in a fall in 1977 while on tour in Reading, PA. He entered Midway Hospital on August 17, 1979 after a stroke and died on August 25, 1979. He was interred in the Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery, Los Angeles. Kenton's consumption of alcohol had grown over the years, and the Telegraph described his death as coming "after a long battle with alcoholism".
Allegations of incest
Kenton's daughter Leslie Kenton wrote a 2010 book "Love Affair" about her upbringing and her close and complicated relationship with her father. In the book, Leslie Kenton alleged that Stan Kenton initiated a sexual relationship with her beginning when she was 11 and lasting three years. In spite of this, Leslie Kenton maintained an emotionally close relationship with her father before, during, and after this time, although also suffering from traumatic effects.
Noted band personnel
- Pepper Adams
- Bob Ahern
- Sam Aleccia
- Ashley Alexander
- Laurindo Almeida
- Alfred "Chico" Alvarez
- Jim Amlotte
- John Anderson
- Buddy Arnold
- Don Bagley
- Gabe Baltazar
- Michael Bard
- Dave Barduhn
- Gary Barone
- Dee Barton
- Tim Bell
- Milt Bernhart
- Bill Briggs
- Bud Brisbois
- Ray Brown
- Bob Burgess
- Bart Caldarell
- Tony Campise
- Frank Capp
- Conte Candoli
- Pete Candoli
- Fred Carter
- Billy Catalano
- Bill Chase
- Buddy Childers
- Rich Condit
- Bob Cooper
- Jack Costanzo
- Curtis Counce
- Bob Curnow
- Vinnie Dean
- Jay Daversa
- Don Dennis
- Sam Donahue
- Peter Erskine
- Don Fagerquist
- Maynard Ferguson
- Mary Fettig
- Bob Fitzpatrick
- Dr. William "Bill" Fritz
- Carl Fontana
- Stan Getz
- Bob Gioga
- John Graas
- Bill Hanna
- John Harner
- Dennis Hayslett
- Gary Henson
- Phil Herring
- Skeets Herfurt
- Bill Holman
- Marvin "Doc" Holladay
- Clay Jenkins
- Richie Kamuca
- Red Kelly
- Jimmy Knepper
- Bobby Knight
- Lee Konitz
- Tom Lacy
- Scott LaFaro
- Jack Lake
- Keith LaMotte
- Kent Larsen
- Skip Layton
- Archie LeCoque
- Stan Levey
- Mel Lewis
- Willie Maiden
- Shelly Manne
- Charlie Mariano
- Al Mattaliano
- Jerry McKenzie
- Dick Meldonian
- Don Menza
- Greg Metcalf
- Eddie Meyers
- Frank Minear
- Vido Musso
- Boots Mussulli
- Lennie Niehaus
- Dennis Noday
- Sam Noto
- Lloyd Otto
- Don Paladino
- John Park
- Kim Park
- Art Pepper
- Bill Perkins
- Al Porcino
- Mike Price
- Douglas Purviance
- Ray Reed
- Clyde Reasinger
- Roy Reynolds
- Kim Richmond
- George Roberts
- Gene Roland
- Billy Root
- Frank Rosolino
- Shorty Rogers
- Ernie Royal
- Howard Rumsey
- Bill Russo
- Eddie Safranski
- Sal Salvador
- Carl Saunders
- Jay Saunders
- Dave Schildkraut
- Bud Shank
- Dick Shearer
- Jack Sheldon
- Kenny Shroyer
- Gene Siegel
- Zoot Sims
- Tom Slaney
- Dalton Smith
- Greg Smith
- Mike Snustead
- Ed Soph
- Lloyd Spoon
- Mike Suter
- Marvin Stamm
- Ray Starling
- Vinnie Tano
- Lucky Thompson
- Richard Torres
- Bill Trujillo
- Jeff Uusitalo
- David van Kriedt
- Bart Varsalona
- Mike Vax
- John Von Ohlen
- George Weidler
- Ray Wetzel
- Rick Weathersby
- Jiggs Whigham
- Stu Williamson
- Kai Winding
- Composers and Arrangers
- Manny Albam
- Dave Barduhn
- Dee Barton
- Ralph Carmichael
- Joe Coccia
- Bob Curnow
- Dennis Farnon
- Bob Graettinger
- Ken Hanna
- Neal Hefti
- Bill Holman
- Hank Levy
- Willie Maiden
- Franklyn Marks
- W. A. Mathieu (Bill)
- Gerry Mulligan
- Lennie Niehaus
- Chico O'Farrill
- Marty Paich
- Clyde Reasinger
- Johnny Richards
- Gene Roland
- Pete Rugolo
- Bill Russo
- Mark Taylor
- Stan Kenton and His Orchestra - McGregor No. LP201 (1941)
- The Formative Years - Decca No. 589 489-2 (1941-1942)
- Artistry in Rhythm - Capitol No. BD39 (1946)
- Encores - Capitol No. 155 (1947)
- A Presentation of Progressive Jazz - Capitol No. T172 (1947)
- Innovations in Modern Music - Capitol No. 189 (1950)
- Stan Kenton's Milestones - Capitol No. T190 (thru 1950)
- Stan Kenton Presents - Capitol No. 248 (1950)
- City of Glass - Capitol No. H353 (1951)
- New Concepts of Artistry in Rhythm - Capitol 383 (1952)
- Popular Favorites by Stan Kenton - Capitol No. 421 (1953)
- Sketches on Standards - Capitol No. 426 (1953)
- This Modern World - Capitol No. 460 (1953)
- Portraits on Standards - Capitol No. 462 (1953)
- Kenton Showcase - Capitol No. H525/526 (1954)
- Duet (with June Christy) - Capitol No. 656 (1955)
- Contemporary Concepts - Capitol No. 666 (1955)
- Kenton in Hi-Fi - Capitol No. 724 (1956)
- Cuban Fire! - Capitol No. 731 (1956)
- Kenton with Voices - Capitol No. 810 (1957)
- Rendezvous with Kenton - Capitol No. 932 (1957)
- Back to Balboa - Capitol No. 995 (1958)
- The Ballad Style of Stan Kenton - Capitol No. 1068 (1958)
- Lush Interlude - Capitol No. 1130 (1958)
- The Stage Door Swings - Capitol No. 1166 (1958)
- The Kenton Touch - Capitol No. 1276 (1958)
- Viva Kenton! - Capitol No. 1305 (1959)
- Standards in Silhouette - Capitol No. 1394 (1959)
- Two Much! (with Ann Richards) - Capitol No. 1495 (1960)
- The Romantic Approach - Capitol No. 1533 (1961)
- Kenton's West Side Story - Capitol No. 1609 (1961)
- A Merry Christmas! - Capitol No. 1621 (1961)
- Sophisticated Approach - Capitol No. 1674 (1961)
- Adventures in Standards - Creative World No. 1025 (1961 - released 1975)
- Adventures In Jazz - Capitol No. 1796 (1961)
- Adventures in Blues - Capitol No. 1985 (1961)
- Stan Kenton! Tex Ritter! (with Tex Ritter) - Capitol No. 1757 (1962)
- Mellophonium Magic - Status No. CD103 (1962)
- Mellophonium Moods - Status No. STCD106 (1962)
- Adventures in Time - Capitol No. 1844 (1962)
- Artistry in Bossa Nova - Capitol No. 1931 (1963)
- Artistry in Voices and Brass - Capitol No. 2132 (1963)
- Stan Kenton / Jean Turner (with Jean Turner) - Capitol No. 2051 (1963)
- Kenton / Wagner - Capitol No. 2217 (1964)
- Stan Kenton Conducts the Los Angeles Neophonic Orchestra - Capitol No. 2424 (1965-1966)
- Stan Kenton Plays for Today - Capitol No. 2655 (1966-1967)
- The World We Know - Capitol No. 2810
- The Jazz Compositions of Dee Barton - Capitol No. 2932 (1967)
- Hair - Capitol No. ST305 (1968)
- Finian's Rainbow - Capitol No. 2971 (1968)
- National Anthems of the World - Creative World No. 1060 (1972)
- 7.5 on the Richter Scale - Creative World No. 1070 (1973)
- Stan Kenton plays Chicago - Creative World No. 1072 (1974)
- Fire, Fury and Fun - Creative World No. 1073 (1974)
- Kenton '76 - Creative World No. 1076 (1976)
- Journey Into Capricorn - Creative World No. 1077 (1976)
- Some Women I've Known - Creative World No. 1029 (compilation)
- Stan Kenton Without His Orchestra (solo) - Creative World No. 1071
- Stan Kenton presents Gabe Baltazar - Creative World No. 3005
- Stan Kenton Live At Cornell University (1951)
- Stan Kenton Stompin' At Newport - Pablo #PACD-5312-2 (1957)
- On the Road with Stan Kenton - Artistry Records #AR-101 (Recorded Nov. 6, 1958 at the Municipal Auditorium, Sarasota, Florida)
- Kenton Live from the Las Vegas Tropicana - Capitol No. 1460 (1959)
- Road Show (with June Christy and The Four Freshmen) - Capitol #TBO1327 (1959)
- Stan Kenton at Ukiah - Status #STCD109 (1959)
- Stan Kenton In New Jersey - Status #USCD104 (1959)
- Stan Kenton And His Orchestra At Fountain Street Church Part 1 - Status #DSTS1014 (1968)
- Stan Kenton and His Orchestra At Fountain Street Church Part 2- Status #DSTS1016 (1968)
- Live at Redlands University (1970)
- Live at Brigham Young (1971)
- Stan Kenton Today - Live In London - London/Creative World #BP 44179-80 (1972)
- Live at Butler University (1973)
- Birthday in Britain - Creative World #ST 1065 (1973)
- Live in Europe (1976)
- The Lost Concert Vol. 1-2 Recorded at The Cocoanut Grove in Los Angeles, CA on March 18, 1978, posthumous release in 2002 - Jazz Heritage
- Stan Kenton's Milestones (Capitol, 1943-47 )
- Stan Kenton Classics (Capitol, 1944-47 )
- The Kenton Era (Capitol, 1940–53 )
- City of Glass and This Modern World - Capitol No. 736 (1951-1953 )
- Stan Kenton's Greatest Hits (Capitol, 1943-47 )
- Stan Kenton On AFRS - Status DSTS1019 (1944-1945)
- One Night Stand - Magic #DAWE66 (1961–1962)
- The Complete Capitol Recordings Of The Holman And Russo Charts - Mosaic MD4-136
- The Complete Capitol Recordings - Mosaic MD7-163
- The Peanut Vendor
- The Jazz Compositions Of Stan Kenton - Creative World No. ST1078 (1945–1973)
- Street of Dreams - Creative World No. 1079 (1979 vinyl; 1992 CD)
- The Innovations Orchestra (Capitol, 1950-51 )
Stan Kenton's compositions included "Artistry in Rhythm,” "Opus in Pastels,” "Artistry Jumps,” "Reed Rapture,” "Eager Beaver,” “Fantasy," "Southern Scandal,” "Harlem Folk Dance", "Painted Rhythm,” "Concerto to End All Concertos,” “Easy Go,” “Concerto for Doghouse,” “Shelly Manne,” “Balboa Bash,” “Flamenco,” and "Sunset Tower.”
Although several compositions are co-credited to Stan Kenton and Pete Rugolo, Rugolo was the primary composer, with Kenton often times merely offering verbal suggestions. Some of these titles include “Minor Riff,” “Collaboration,” "Artistry in Boogie", "Theme to the West,” and “Elegy for Alto.”
- Sparke, Michael (2011). Stan Kenton: This Is an Orchestra!. North Texas Lives of Musicians. Denton, Texas: University of North Texas Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-1574413250. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- Scott Yanow. "Stan Kenton | Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 2013-09-16.
- Spelvin, George (February 21, 1942). "Broadway Beat" (PDF). Billboard. p. 5. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- "Joseph Greene, Composer With Stan Kenton's Orchestra, Dies". Los Angeles Times. 1986-06-28. Retrieved 2015-11-13.
- Barry Ulanov in Metronome magazine, 1948, cited at John S. Wilson (August 27, 1979). "Stan Kenton, Band Leader, Dies; Was Center of Jazz Controversies". New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- Sparke 2011, p. 50.
- John S. Wilson (August 27, 1979). "Stan Kenton, Band Leader, Dies; Was Center of Jazz Controversies". New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- Will Friedwald (January 28, 2011). "A Restless Soul Revealed". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
- Interview with Jack Sandmeier, June 7, 2009
- Jack Sandmeier's unpublished memoir "Where's the Bus"
- "University of North Texas Libraries". Library.unt.edu. Retrieved 2013-09-16.
- "Stan Kenton Orchestra". Sierramusicstore.com. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
- "Stan Kenton And His Orchestra – Birthday In Britain". Discogs. Retrieved February 14, 2014. The album was recorded on February 19, which is not Kenton's birthday; at the time, he either thought it was, or was publicly maintaining that it was.
- Elizabeth Boleman-Herring (February 18, 2012). "Stan Kenton & His Daughter Leslie's 'Love Affair'". The Blog. Huffington Post. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
- Nick Duerden (February 19, 2010). "Leslie Kenton: 'I was angry, but never hated my father'". The Guardian. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
- Sparke 2011, p. 279.
- Anita Singh (January 30, 2010). "Jazz great Stan Kenton raped his daughter, she claims in new book". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- Kenton, Leslie (2010). Love Affair. Vermilion (Ebury Publishing). ISBN 978-0312659080.
- Carlo Wolff (February 20, 2011). "Stan Kenton's daughter opens door to their dark past". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
- Easton, Carol (1981). Straight Ahead: The Story of Stan Kenton. Da Capo. ISBN 978-0-306-80152-5.
- Lee, William F. (1994). Stan Kenton: Artistry in Rhythm. Los Angeles: Creative Press. ISBN 978-0-89745-993-8.
- Sparke, Michael (2011). Stan Kenton: This Is an Orchestra!. North Texas Lives of Musicians Series. University of North Texas Press. ISBN 978-1-57441-325-0.
- Colt, Freddy (2013). Stan Kenton, il Vate del Progressive Jazz. Mellophonium Broadsides, San Remo (Italy).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stan Kenton.|
- Bell High School Alumni Page for Stan Kenton
- Article on Stan Kenton's Mellophonium Band
- An Interview with Jo Lea Starling, wife of Ray Starling
- An Interview with Tony Scodwell, Stan Kenton Mellophoniumist
- The Stan Kenton Collection at the University of North Texas
- Stan Kenton's music published by Sierra Music Publications
- Terry Vosbein's All Things Kenton site - discography, radio shows, rare images and audio.
- Creative World Records (A division of GNP Crescendo Records)
- Library of Congress essay